Water-based composition for abrasive slurry, preparation methods and use thereof

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to liquid compositions used to prepare abrasive slurries for loose abrasive mechanical processing. The composition contains 40-50 vol % polyethylene glycol and 50-60 vol. % water. The composition can contain a viscosity modifier which provides viscosity ranging from 40 to 100 cP, and a viscosity activator selected from triethanolamine and aminoborate. The invention also discloses a method of preparing a liquid composition for use in back-and-forth cutting with a wire saw. The liquid composition is obtained by mixing components of the composition. Abrasive particles selected from silicon carbide, diamond and boron carbide are uniformly dispersed inside the composition. A working slurry with concentration of the solid phase equal to 20-28% of the volume of the composition is obtained. Water is added to the working slurry in order to change viscosity to the one required for cutting.

EFFECT: invention enables to obtain low-viscosity abrasive slurries which prevent settling down of the solid phase and reduce destruction of plates when cutting with a wire saw.

20 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg, 3 ex

 

The scope of the invention

The present invention generally relates to liquid compositions, water-based, which are used for the formation of abrasive slurries. Liquid compositions are water-based are used for the formation of sludge for machining free abrasive and, in particular, slimes for the wire saw.

Background of invention

Wire saws are widely used for cutting silicon wafer for solar cells and electronic devices. They are also used for cutting of various materials based on semiconductor compounds, including sapphire, GaAs, InP, SiC, optical materials, such as quartz glass and crystal, as well as hard and brittle materials such as ceramics.

Wire saw generally includes a set of wires under tensile stress. Wire move simultaneously upon receipt of the abrasive slurry between the wire and workpiece. Item passes through the wire as under the influence of the sludge is abrasion details on many parts. This method allows a large number of plates of a certain thickness, flatness, and smoothness of surface.

During cutting with a wire saw, wire cuts, mostly it is used for delivery of the abrasive slurry, which is carries out cutting. This process is called "machining free abrasive". Other examples of mechanical processing free abrasive include ultrasonic treatment, hydro-mechanical cutting and sandblasting

The slurry is a suspension of abrasive particles in the liquid composition, also sometimes referred to as "grease", "Explorer" or "medium". As the abrasives used materials such as silicon carbide (SiC), diamond and boron carbide (4C). Used anhydrous slurry, wherein the liquid composition is mainly contained mineral oil, in which the abrasive particles were dispersed in a 1:1 ratio by weight. Also used water-soluble sludge, characterized in that the liquid composition mainly contains water-soluble glycols (e.g. polyethylene glycol (PEG), ethylene glycol and polyoxyethyleneglycol), which were dispersed abrasive particles.

Despite the fact that the mineral oil provides good lubricating and cutting characteristics, it has insufficient cooling capacity. In addition to clean cut parts from mineral oils require organic solvents and special cleaning substances, such as mineral oil is not soluble in water. Because of the low coolant is capable of being the STI, restrictions on removal of waste and the difficulties associated with cleaning, necessary substitutes for mineral oil.

Although glycols, such as PEG, have some advantages over mineral oil, these materials are costly and create difficulties with scope and methods of an existing waste diversion. In addition, the glycols have a high viscosity, which increases the resistance forces on the plate. Such high power resistance can lead to the destruction of cut blanks during fine cutting.

Thus, it is highly desirable to develop an improved liquid composition for use in forming abrasive slurries, in particular sludge for the wire saw.

The invention

This invention provides a liquid composition for use in the formation of sludge for machining free abrasive. The abrasive particles can be dispersed in the liquid compositions in such a way as to ensure the possibility of their use in the working composition of the sludge in the machining processes with loose abrasive. Under used herein, the terms "working composition slurry" or "worker abrasive sludge" shall mean any composition of the sludge, which contains abrasive particles dispersed HV the three liquid compositions characterized in that the abrasive particles are present in such concentrations that are appropriate for a given machining process free abrasive. Liquid compositions of the present invention provide excellent lubrication and mechanical/cutting properties. The concentration of the components can be adjusted depending on the desired application, in order to minimize the destruction of the product during machining. Liquid compositions, in addition, are more profitable, have a high heat output and provide a more simple and less restrictive conditions for the removal of waste after cutting.

In one aspect, the invention mainly relates to a liquid composition for the formation of sludge for machining free abrasive comprising a glycol and water, wherein the composition comprises at least 10 vol.% water.

Variants according to this aspect of the invention may include the following characteristics. The composition may include from about 15 vol.% up to 80 vol.% polyethylene glycol (PEG) and from about 20 vol.% up to 85% vol. water. In some embodiments, the composition includes from about 20 vol.% up to 75% vol. PEG, from about 25 vol.% up to 70% vol. PEG, from about 30% vol. up to 65% PEG, from about 35% vol. up to 60% vol. PEG, or from about 40 vol.% up to 55% vol. The PEG. In some embodiments, the composition which I include from about 25 vol.% up to 80 vol.% water from about 30 vol.% up to 75% vol. water, from about 40 vol.% up to 70% vol. water, or from about 50 vol.% up to 60% vol. water. Water can be deionized. The composition can also include one or more viscosity modifier. The viscosity modifier can be selected from commonly used viscosity modifier, such as synthetic clay, natural clay, Carbopols®, carboxymethylcellulose, ethylcellulose, gelatin, hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, methylcellulose, polyvinylalcohol and xanthan gum. The viscosity modifier may be introduced in such a way as to provide a composition having a viscosity in the range from about 5 centipoise to 100 centipoise. In some embodiments, the composition contains up to about 10 vol.% one or more viscosity modifier, and in some embodiments from about 0.1 vol.% up to 10% vol. one or more viscosity modifiers. The composition can also include one or more activators. In some embodiments, the composition comprises up to about 5 vol.% one or more activators, and in some embodiments from about 0.2 vol.% up to 5% vol. one or more activators. The activator may be selected from commonly used activators, such as triethanolamine and aminoborane. The composition can also include one or more corrosion inhibitors. Corrosion inhibitors can be selected which are of the commonly used corrosion inhibitors, such as triethanolamine, and salts of carboxylic acids. In some embodiments, the composition comprises from about 0.1 vol.% up to 5% vol. one or more corrosion inhibitors.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a method of producing a liquid composition suitable for formation of sludge for machining free abrasive, the method involves mixing of glycol and water so that the composition contains at least 10 vol.% water.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a method of using a liquid composition comprising a polyethylene glycol and at least 10 vol.% water, in the processing of a wire saw. The method includes providing a liquid composition, a uniform dispersion of abrasive particles within the liquid composition for the formation of the working slurry, and applying the operating sludge in the processing of the wire saw.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a liquid composition suitable for use in reciprocating cutting with a wire saw, comprising a polyethylene glycol and at least 10 vol.% water.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a method of providing a liquid composition suitable for use in reciprocating cutting with a wire saw, and includes obtaining a liquid composition containing polietilenglikoli at least 10% water, uniform dispersion of the abrasive particles within the liquid composition for the formation of the working slurry, and injecting water to change the viscosity of the working slurry to the required for the reciprocating cutting.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a method of heat dissipation during the machining process, which consists in applying the operating sludge in the machining process, the working slurry includes polyethylene glycol, at least 10 vol.% water and abrasive particles uniformly dispersed in the polyethylene glycol and water, and differs in that it is the dissipation of heat by evaporation of at least part of the water, and the replenishment of the working fluid water during the machining process for further heat dissipation.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a liquid composition, which is used for sludge for machining free abrasive, and includes polyethylene glycol and water, and is characterized by the fact that water is present in the liquid composition in such amount, at which the viscosity of the working slurry formed dispergirovannykh abrasive particles inside the liquid composition is reduced by at least 1.5 times.

Variants according to this aspect of the invention may include the following characteristics. The water may be constituted in order to contribute in the liquid composition in such amount when the viscosity of the working slurry formed dispergirovannykh abrasive particles inside the liquid composition is reduced at least 2-fold, at least 2.5 fold, at least 3 fold, at least 4 fold, at least 4.5 times, at least 5 times, at least 5.5 times, at least 6 times, at least 6.5 times, at least 7 times, at least 7.5 times, at least 8 times, at least 8.5 times, at least 9 times, at least 9.5 times or even 10 times.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a liquid composition, which is used for sludge for machining free abrasive, the composition comprises a glycol and water, and differs in that the viscosity of the working slurry formed dispergirovannykh abrasive particles inside the liquid composition at a solids content%, reduced by the introduction of water in such quantity at which the viscosity of the working slurry becomes 1.5 times smaller than the viscosity of the composition of the sludge, including PEG and abrasive particles when the content of the solid phase With a%.

Variants according to this aspect of the invention may include the following characteristics. Abrasive particles in the working slurry can have the same grain size as the abrasive particles in the composition of the sludge, including PE and abrasive particles. Abrasive particles in the working slurry may have a grain size smaller than the abrasive particles in the composition of the sludge, including PEG and abrasive particles. Abrasive particles in the working slurry may have a grain size larger than the abrasive particles in the composition of the sludge, including PEG and abrasive particles. The viscosity of the working slurry can be at least 2 times less than at least 2.5 times less, at least 3 times less, at least 3.5 times less, at least 4 times less, at least 4.5 times less, at least 5 times less, at least 5.5 times less, at least 6 times less, at least 6.5 times less, at least 7 times less, at least 7.5 times less at least 8 times less, at least 9-fold less, at least 9.5 times less, or even 10 times less than the composition of the slurry, including at least 60 volume percent of polyethylene glycol and abrasive particles in the solids content of 20 volume percent.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a liquid composition, which is used for sludge for machining free abrasive, and includes polyethylene glycol and water, and is characterized by the fact that the water contained in the liquid composition in such amount, in which during the machining temperature, R is the working of the sludge, educated dispergirovannykh particles inside the liquid composition is reduced by at least 2°C.

Variants according to this aspect of the invention may include the following characteristics. The working temperature of the sludge formed dispergirovannykh abrasive particles inside the liquid composition can be lowered by at least 3°C, at least 4°C by at least 5°C., of at least 6°C, at least 7°C, at least 8°C., at least 9°C., at least 10°, at least 11°C, for at least 12°C., at least 13°C, and even at 14°C.

In another aspect, the invention generally relates to a liquid composition, which is used for sludge for machining free abrasive, and includes polyethylene glycol and water, and is characterized by the fact that during the machining process, the temperature of the working slurry formed dispergirovannykh abrasive particles, when the solids content%inside the liquid composition is reduced by adding water so that the temperature of the working slurry is at least 2°C. less than the composition of the sludge, including PEG and abrasive particles when the content of the solid phase With a%.

Variants according to this aspect of the invention may include the following characteristics. Abrasion the e particles in the working slurry can have the same grain size, as the abrasive particles in the composition of the sludge, including PEG and abrasive particles. Abrasive particles in the working slurry may have a grain size smaller than the abrasive particles in the composition of the sludge, which includes PEG and abrasive particles. Abrasive particles in the working slurry may have a grain size larger than the abrasive particles in the composition of the sludge, which includes PEG and abrasive particles. During machining, the working temperature of the slurry is less than at at least 3°C, at least 4°C by at least 5°C., of at least 6°C, at least 7°C, at least 8°C., at least 9°C., at least 10°, at least 11°C, for at least 12°C, of at least 13°C and even at 14°With than the temperature of the composition of the sludge, which includes at least 60 volume percent of polyethylene glycol and abrasive particles in the solids content of 20 volume percent.

It should be understood that the volume percent of which are mentioned here on the specific composition, based on the total volume of the composition. Also, the viscosity values mentioned here are defined at 25°C. the viscosity Measurement was carried out using a Brookfield viscometer spindle (for example, #2 or #4) at 60 Rev/min

Other aspects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from SL is blowing descriptions, which, together with the attached drawings illustrate principles of the invention as an example only.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 illustrates the viscosity profiles of samples of Example 2 that follow.

Figure 2 illustrates the temperature profiles of samples of Example 3 that follow.

Detailed description of the invention

Liquid compositions of the present invention are suitable for use in various machining processes free abrasive, including processing a wire saw, ultrasonic treatment, hydro-mechanical cutting and sandblasting. Such methods can be used for cutting and machining of various materials, such as sapphire, GaAs, InP, and SiC, optical materials, such as quartz glass and crystal, hard and brittle materials such as ceramics. Subsequent disclosure of the invention should be interpreted more as an illustration than as a limitation. For example, despite the fact that can be provided with certain combinations of materials and concentrations, such combinations of materials and concentrations are intended for cutting with a wire saw and can be modified for other types of machining free abrasive and cutting and mechanical clicks the processing of various materials.

In terms of the interest of the various components of the present invention, unless otherwise indicated, all percentages refer to volume percent based on the total volume of the concentrated composition of the sludge.

Liquid compositions of the present invention include one or more water soluble glycols. Any commonly used water-soluble glycols suitable for use in slurries for machining free abrasive, may be suitable for implementing the present invention in practice. These glycols include, but are not limited to, polyethylene glycol (PEG), ethylene glycol and polyoxyethyleneglycol. In one embodiment, the glycol is PEG.

Water-soluble glycol is primarily contained in the liquid compositions in amounts from about 15 vol.% up to 80 vol.% in relation to the total volume of the liquid composition. In some embodiments, the liquid compositions contain from about 20 vol.% up to 75% vol. glycol, in some embodiments from about 25% by up to 70 vol.%, in some embodiments, from about 30% by up to 65%, in some embodiments, from 35% vol. up to 60 vol.%, in some embodiments, from about 40 vol.% up to 55%vol.

The liquid composition also includes water. In some embodiments, deionized water is used, which has a very low electrical conductivity. I believe that the use of deionized water is sposob is to facilitate maintaining the conductivity of the slurry is low, such that it will not interfere with control systems break wire, which are used in most wire saws.

The introduction of water in the liquid composition changes the viscosity of the liquid compositions and, consequently, the amount of water contained in the liquid compositions are chosen to provide the desired viscosity. In some embodiments, water is added to the liquid composition in a quantity which provides a liquid composition, the viscosity required for cutting thin wafers using a wire saw. In some embodiments, the water contained in the liquid compositions in an amount which effectively reduces or minimizes the possible destruction of the plate during cutting of thin plates, such as less than 250 microns.

In particular, the commonly used water-soluble composition of the sludge, which mainly contain water-soluble glycol (such as PEG), have a high viscosity, which increase the resistance forces on the plate. Liquid compositions of the invention provide a lower viscosity compared to commonly used with water-soluble glycols. The sludge formed by the liquid compositions of the invention have a lower viscosity compared with the commonly used PEG cuttings, provided that the same content of the abrasive particles and the same concentric and solid phase in commonly used PEG sludge and liquid compositions of the invention. In addition, the slurries formed using the liquid compositions of the invention have a lower viscosity even when the sludge formed using the liquid compositions of the invention contain abrasive particles with a finer grain size than the abrasive particles that are contained in commonly used sludge.

In some embodiments, the sludge formed using the liquid compositions of the invention have a viscosity that is at least 1.5 times smaller, and in some embodiments up to about 10 times smaller than the viscosity of the commonly used sludge using the same type of abrasive particles with the same solids content, and provided that the grain size of abrasive particles dispersed within the liquid compositions of the invention, greater than, equal to, or less than the grain size of abrasive particles dispersed within commonly used sludge. For example, commonly used slimes have a viscosity, mostly within about 200-300 centipoise. The slurries of the invention may have such a low viscosity as 30 CP or less, 40 centipoise or less, 50 centipoise or less, 60 centipoise or less, 70 centipoise or less, 80 centipoise or less, 90 centipoise or less, 120 centipoise or less, or 150 centipoise or less. The slurries of the invention may have Wescott 30 to 150 centipoise centipoise, or from 30 centipoise to 100 centipoise.

In addition, when performing machining by loose abrasive slurries formed with liquid compositions of the invention can provide a lower viscosity than the commonly used sludge. This low viscosity is provided, without causing precipitation of a solid phase.

The introduction of water into the liquid composition may, in addition, to facilitate the dissipation of heat during machining. In some embodiments, water is introduced into the liquid composition in an amount which effectively promotes the dissipation of heat during cutting with a wire saw. As the wire saw cuts the part, the evaporation of water from the cutting zone, which leads to dissipation and reduce thermal stresses on the part. Because of water evaporation, it may again be replenished as needed. By reducing thermal stresses on the working part and the cut side, the deformation of the cut parts and destruction during cutting will be reduced.

For example, despite the fact that commonly used sludge provide weak at best adequate heat dissipation during the machining liquid composition of the invention, in the case of their use in education working slimes provide increased heat dissipation. In some var is the ants, when the machining process is usually used sludges and slurries prepared using the liquid compositions of the invention are applied in the same conditions, slurries prepared using the liquid compositions of the invention provide temperature during processing, which is at least 2°C below, and up to 14°C lower than normally used slurries formed with PEG. For example, when used in the machining process is usually used slimes slimes, usually served in a process at room temperature (22°C). During processing, the temperature is usually used sludge can reach 36°C. In some processing is applied to the cooler to absorb heat from the system, and during this process the temperature is usually used sludge may in some cases be maintained in the range of from about 28°to 30°C. However, the temperature is usually applied sludge, even in the case of the coolant during the machining process can sometimes reach 36°C. Thus, the processing temperature is usually applied slurry can be increased to 14°C. In the machining process, in which the sludge is formed using the liquid compositions the invention, when applying sludge in the process at room temperature (22°C) temperature tailing which can be maintained in the range of about 5°C from room temperature, in some embodiments in the range of 4°C, and in some embodiments within 3°C, in some embodiments in the range of 2°C, and in some embodiments within about 1°C. In certain cases, the temperature of the sludge formed using the liquid composition of the invention, stored at room temperature (22°C) during the whole process.

According to the present invention, the liquid compositions contain from about 20 vol.% up to 85% vol. water. In some embodiments, the liquid compositions contain from about 25 vol.% up to 80 vol.% water, in some embodiments from about 30 vol.% up to 75% vol. water, in some embodiments from about 40 vol.% up to 70% vol. water, and in some embodiments from about 50 vol.% up to 60% vol. water.

Liquid compositions can also include one or more viscosity modifiers. Can be any commonly used viscosity modifier used in abrasive slurries, such as synthetic clay, natural clay, silica, Carbopols® (also known as carbomer, and having the chemical formula C3H4O2), carboxymethylcellulose, ethylcellulose, gelatin, hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, and xanthan gum. One example of a synthetic clay, convenient for practical use true image is the group of is Laponite®, a synthetic layered silicate (hydrated silicate of sodium lithium magnesium). The viscosity modifier may be introduced in such quantities that the desire to change the viscosity of the liquid compositions.

After the introduction of one or more viscosity modifier is contained in the liquid compositions in amounts up to about 10 vol.%. In some embodiments, the liquid compositions contain up to about 5 vol.% one or more viscosity modifier, and in some embodiments up to about 1 vol.%. In some embodiments, the liquid compositions contain from about 0.1 vol.% up to 10% vol. one or more viscosity modifier, in some embodiments from about 0.2 vol.% up to 5 vol.%, in some embodiments, from about 0.3 vol.% up to 4 vol.%, and in some embodiments from about 0.3 vol.% up to 2%vol.

Liquid compositions can also include one or more activators. Can be any commonly used activators that are used in abrasive slurries, for example, such aminobolic and triethanolamine. The activators are generally used in combination with the viscosity modifier, but can be entered with or without adding the viscosity modifier. The activator is usually introduced in an amount which promotes the viscosity modifier to set the matrix grid in the liquid. This matrix grid will increase the yield strength libwww dynamic viscosity of the liquid. Many activators, such as triethanolamine, provide additional benefits, such as slowing down the corrosion process, and can be used in quantities exceeding the quantity needed for activation of the viscosity modifier. For example, in some embodiments, is added to about 5 vol.% one or more activators. These multi-functional activators can be used without a modifier viscosity if necessary additional benefits.

Liquid compositions can also include one or more fungicides. Can be any of the commonly used fungicides, which are used in slurries for machining free abrasive. Fungicides usually are introduced in a quantity effective to minimize or control the growth of fungi. For example, in some embodiments, is entered about 2 vol.% one or more fungicides.

To control the growth of bacteria liquid compositions can also contain one or more biocides. Some biocides, in addition, can control the growth of fungi. These biocides can be selected from any commonly used biocides used in slurries for machining free abrasive, such as Bioban™ P-148, Grotan®, Kathon®, omadine metal or glutaraldehyde. Bioban™ R-148 is supplied by Dow Chemical Company and contains two active is gradient 4-(2-nitrobutyl)-morpholine and 4,4'-(2-ethyl-2-nitratomethyl)dimorpholino. Grotan® is 2-[3,5-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-1-yl]ethanol, and has the chemical formula C9H21N3O3. Kathon® is a 2-octyl the thiazole-3-one, and has the chemical formula C11H19NOS. Biocides may be incorporated in compositions of the invention in an amount which is effective to minimize or control the growth of bacteria and, in some cases, biocides, in addition, can minimize or control the growth of fungi. In some embodiments, to control the growth of bacteria and fungus growth is used a mixture of biocides.

After the introduction, one or more biocides contained in the liquid composition in amounts up to about 2 vol.%. In some embodiments, the liquid compositions contain from about 0.05 vol.% up to 2% vol. one or more biocides, in some embodiments from about 0.06% vol. up to 1.5 vol.%, in some embodiments, from about 0.07% up to 1 vol.%, in some embodiments, from about 0.08% by up to 0.5%vol.

To retard corrosion of the processing equipment components for machining free abrasive (e.g., wires and wire saws), liquid compositions can also contain one or more corrosion inhibitors. Corrosion inhibitors can include any commonly used corrosion inhibitors, which are used in slurries for machining free abrasive, such the AK triethanolamine, aminoborane, triazole, silicates or salts of carboxylic acids. Corrosion inhibitors can be included in the concentrated composition of the slurry in amounts that effectively inhibit corrosion.

After the introduction of one or more corrosion inhibitors contained in the liquid compositions in amounts up to about 5 vol.%. In some embodiments, the liquid compositions contain from about 0.1 vol.% up to 5% vol. one or more corrosion inhibitors, in some embodiments from about 0.2 vol.% up to 4 vol.%, in some embodiments, from about 0.3 vol.% up to 3 vol.%, in some embodiments, from about 0.4 vol.% up to 2% vol. in some embodiments, from about 0.5 vol.% up to 1%vol.

In one embodiment, the liquid composition comprises from about 20 vol.% up to 85% vol. water, from about 15 vol.% up to 80 vol.% PEG and, optionally, one or more of the following components: viscosity modifiers, activators, fungicides, biocides and corrosion inhibitors. For example, in one embodiment, the liquid composition comprises from about 20 vol.% up to 85% vol. water, from about 15 vol.% up to 80 vol.% PEG, from about 0.1 vol.% up to 10% vol. the viscosity modifier, from about 0.2 vol.% up to 5% vol. activator, from about 0.1 vol.% up to 2% vol. fungicide, from about 0.05 vol.% up to 2% vol. biocide, and up to 5% vol. corrosion inhibitor. In the embodiment, the liquid composition comprises about 53% vol. water, approximately 44.5% vol. PEG, about 0.4 vol.% synthetic clay, about 1. vol.% activator, approximately 0.4% fungicide, about 0.1 vol.% biocide and about 0.5 vol.% corrosion inhibitor.

The present invention also includes the method of preparation of liquid compositions suitable for use in the formation of abrasive slurries. The methods include mixing one or more water soluble glycols with water to obtain a liquid composition. In accordance with these methods, from about 15 vol.% up to 80 vol.% one or more water-soluble glycol is mixed with from about 20 vol.% up to 85% vol. water for the formation of the liquid composition. In certain embodiments the water-soluble glycol is PEG.

In some embodiments, the methods also include the introduction of one or more viscosity modifier in the glycol or water. In accordance with the methods of the invention is introduced up to about 5 vol.% one or more viscosity modifier.

In some embodiments, the methods also include the introduction of one or more activators in the glycol or water. The activators can be entered with or without adding the viscosity modifier. In some embodiments, is introduced to about 3 vol.% one or more activators. In some embodiments, the activators are introduced in an amount which allows the viscosity modifier to set the desired viscosity, and the methods of the invention include the introduction of one or b is more activators in combination with one or more viscosity modifier. One or more activators may be administered in an amount which allows the viscosity modifier to form a matrix grid in the liquid, which increases the yield strength or the General dynamic viscosity of the liquid.

In some embodiments, the methods also include the introduction of one or more fungicides in the glycol or water. Fungicides can be entered with or without adding viscosity modifiers, and/or activators. Fungicides are usually introduced in an amount which is effective to minimize or control the growth of fungi. For example, in some embodiments, is entered about 2 vol.% one or more fungicides.

In some embodiments, the methods also include the introduction of one or more biocides in the glycol or water. Biocides can be entered with or without adding viscosity modifiers, activators and/or fungicides. Biocides mainly introduced in an amount which is effective to minimize and to control the growth of bacteria. Some biocides are effective in minimizing and controlling the growth of fungi and, therefore, in such conditions, one or more biocides may be injected in order to effectively minimize and control the growth of fungus and bacteria growth without the necessity of introducing one or more fungicides for the mini is Itachi and control fungus growth. In some embodiments, is entered about 2 vol.% one or more biocides.

In some embodiments, the methods also include the introduction of one or more corrosion inhibitors in glycol and water. Corrosion inhibitors can be administered with or without adding viscosity modifiers, activators, fungicides and/or biocides. Corrosion inhibitors mainly introduced in amounts effective to retard corrosion. For example, in some embodiments, is introduced to about 5 vol.% one or more corrosion inhibitors.

Educated thus the liquid composition can then be shipped to the buyer. When the consumer wishes to use a liquid composition for machining process free abrasive, the user simply enters and disperses the abrasive particles within the liquid compositions for the preparation of working abrasive slurry. The consumer using a simple calculation can determine the number of abrasive particles should be introduced into the liquid composition according to the required solids in the finished slurry. Basically, the required concentration of solid phase in the working compositions for wire saws are in the range of about 20-28%, based on the total volume of the working composition for the wire saw. Thus, you can easily determine what amount of abrasive which particles should be injected into the liquid composition, to get the desired work sludge. Any commonly used abrasive particles can be introduced and dispersed within the liquid compositions of the invention, including, but not limited to, silicon carbide (SiC), diamond and boron carbide (4C). Thus, the liquid compositions of the invention can be used to form abrasive slurry compositions, with any required solids content and specific properties, by introducing the proper amount and type of abrasive particles.

Liquid compositions of the present invention have a higher water content than the commonly used liquid composition. This high water content provides a number of advantages. Decreases the amount of glycol required to provide the composition with the desired viscosity, because instead of some glycols for this purpose can be used an additional amount of water. Glycols are expensive material and, thus, reducing the amount of glycol present in the liquid compositions, reduces costs. Reducing the amount of glycol in the liquid compositions, in addition, reduces the problems associated with waste glycol. For example, it is often desirable to remove at least part of the glycols used in the compositions of the sludge to disposal of the used slurry is subject to the restrictions on the dumping of waste. Because the compositions of the invention contain less amount of glycols, the removal or purification stage is reduced and may be eliminated completely. In addition, the water perfectly dissipates heat and, thus, the use of high water content in the liquid compositions of the invention provides increased heat dissipation. The increased dissipation improves the cutting characteristics of the sludge by providing better part geometry and the geometry of the workpiece, as well as reducing strain. And, in addition, glycols tend to increase the resistance forces on a workpiece during machining, which can lead to the destruction process and cut parts. By providing liquid compositions with plenty of water and a smaller amount of glycols decreases the viscosity of the liquid compositions and the resistance forces on the plates, reducing the fracture process and the cut parts.

In addition, it was found that the reduced viscosity provided by the introduction of water in accordance with the present invention can contribute to the reciprocating motion of the wire. Currently, for example, in valiondose requires a unidirectional motion of the wire due to the high viscosity of existing in the present is the time of liquid compositions. By reducing the viscosity of liquid compositions in accordance with the present invention, it becomes possible reciprocating cutting, which reduces the wear of the wire.

Below is an illustration of the present invention the following examples, which should not be construed as any limitation. The content of all opposed to materials (including literature references, patents, published patent applications), provided in this application is given in the form of links. In practice, the present invention will be used, unless otherwise indicated, conventional techniques that are within the competence of the specialist in this field of technology. Such technologies are fully disclosed in the literature.

Example 1

A liquid composition was prepared by mixing at 51.67% water, 47.11% PEG 0.26% Laponite, 1.1% vol. aminoborane, 0.1 vol.% Bioban P-1487 and 0.54% triethanolamine. The resulting solution was mixed with JIS1200 silicon carbide to obtain a slurry having a solids concentration of 24%. The slurry had the following characteristics:

Density: 1.569 g/ml

Viscosity: 48.1 CP, measured with the Brookfield viscometer spindle #2 at 60 rpm

Conductivity: 50.2 ľs

pH 9.05

The slurry was used to cut 125 mm × 125 mm polycrystalline ingot into wafers with a thickness of 250 μm Provo is full-time with a saw.

Example 2

Three commonly used slurry of silicon carbide (hereinafter "commonly used sludge") were formed, as shown in Table 1. The slurries were formed with polyethylene glycol (PEG200) at a concentration of solid phase 22 vol.%. Each of the slurries contained grains of silicon carbide of different sizes (JIS 800, JIS 1200, JIS 1500).

The fourth composition of the slurry of silicon carbide was formed by the introduction of silicon carbide in the composition of the sludge water-based, as described in Example 1 (hereinafter "the slurry of the invention"). Silicon carbide, which has a grain size JIS 1200 was added to the composition of the sludge water-based for the formation of the composition of the working of the sludge, which contains 22% vol. solid phase.

The viscosity of the slurry was measured using a viscometer, #2 spindle at 60 rpm Obtained viscosity values indicated in the Table.

Comparative characteristics of viscosity is usually applied sludge and sludge formed by the use of cuttings water-based
Viscosity is usually applied sludge with PEG200 at 22% vol. solid phase
The grain size of silicon carbideViscosity, centipoise
JIS 800 284
JIS 1200307
JIS 1500336
The viscosity of the working slurry formed by using the composition of the slurry is water-based with 22% vol. solid phase:
The grain size of silicon carbideViscosity, centipoise
JIS 120071

Convincingly demonstrated that the viscosity of the slurry of the invention was much lower than the viscosity is usually applied sludge. In particular, the viscosity of the slurry of the invention was at least four times smaller than the viscosity of the commonly used sludge that used PEG200 at the same solids content. Even with such low levels of viscosity, the slurry of the invention was able to prevent the precipitation of the solid phase.

The composition of the sludge indicated in Table 1, having a grain size of silicon carbide JIS 800 was used for cutting wire saw for cutting silicon ingots, and was measured viscosity profile during operation. Work the sludge formed from the composition of the sludge water-based in accordance with the present invention (table, the grain size of silicon carbide JIS 1200), also used what was isovolta in operation cutting with a wire saw, and viscosity profile was measured during surgery. The viscosity profiles for the two slurries are indicated on Figure 1.

The slurry of the invention and is generally used sludge had the same solids content. The slurry of the invention has convincingly demonstrated a much lower viscosity compared with the commonly used sludge. Low viscosity, which have slurries of the invention does not cause precipitation of the solid phase. It is assumed that the lower viscosity reduces the thin plates by reducing the resistance on the wire.

Example 3: Calculation of operating temperatures

Two of the sludge indicated in Example 2 (i.e. the slurry of the invention with a content of water and commonly used sludge with a high content of PEG), and referred to in Figure 1, were then used for cutting square silicon ingots 125 mm wafers solar cells using ETCH CT Wiresaw.

It was shown that the slurries of the invention dissipate more heat than the commonly used sludge. The results are shown in Figure 2. Both cuttings were obtained at room temperature before cutting and tested under the same operating conditions cutting. Throughout the process with the same cutting mode (e.g., wire feed speed and cutting speed) slurry of the invention operated at a temperature of 3-4°C lower than that normally used by the lamas. In addition, while commonly used sludge during the cutting process has reached the peak temperature at least 5°C, the slurry of the invention remained within 2°C during the cutting process. This lowered the temperature profile provided by the slurry of the invention can reduce the heat load on the wafer, which leads to a lower deformation of the plates, and the decrease in the rate of fracture or cracking for thin plates.

Despite the fact that it presents a description of some of the variants of the present invention, for the person skilled in the art it will be obvious that other variations and/or modifications, combinations, and substitutions of the present invention, all of which fall in the scope of the disclosed invention.

1. Liquid composition to obtain a slurry for machining free abrasive containing from 40 to 50% vol. of polyethylene glycol and 50 to 60 vol.% water.

2. The composition according to claim 1, wherein the water is deionized.

3. The composition according to claim 1, additionally containing one or more viscosity modifier.

4. The composition according to claim 3, wherein the viscosity modifier selected from synthetic clay, natural clay, Carbopols®, carboxymethylcellulose, ethyl cellulose, gelatin, hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, methyl cellulose, polyvinyl is the first alcohol and xanthan gum.

5. The composition according to claim 3, wherein the viscosity modifier is administered in such a way as to provide a composition having a viscosity in the range of from about 5 to 100 CP.

6. The composition according to claim 3, characterized in that it contains up to 10% vol. one or more viscosity modifier.

7. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that it further comprises one or more activators viscosity.

8. The composition according to claim 7, characterized in that the activator is selected from triethanolamine and aminoborane.

9. The composition according to claim 7, characterized in that it contains up to 5% vol. one or more activators viscosity.

10. The composition according to claim 1, additionally containing one or more corrosion inhibitors.

11. The composition according to claim 10, characterized in that the corrosion inhibitors are selected from triethanolamine and salts of carboxylic acids.

12. Method of preparation of liquid compositions for use in obtaining a slurry for machining free abrasive comprising mixing polyethylene glycol with 50 to 60 vol.% water, a viscosity modifier and activator viscosity so that the composition had a viscosity from 40 to 100 SP.

13. The method using the liquid composition according to claim 1 in processing a wire saw, comprising:
preparation of a liquid composition according to claim 1,
uniform dispersion of abrasive particles selected, in which lastnosti, silicon carbide, diamond and boron carbide in a liquid composition with getting a working slurry with a solids concentration 20-28% by volume of the composition; and
the submission of a work of sludge in the processing of the wire saw.

14. The liquid composition according to claim 1, suitable for use in reciprocating cutting with a wire saw.

15. Method of preparation of liquid compositions suitable for use in reciprocating cutting with a wire saw, comprising:
preparation of a liquid composition according to claim 1,
uniform dispersion of abrasive particles selected, in particular, silicon carbide, diamond and boron carbide, inside a liquid composition with getting a working slurry with a solids concentration 20-28% by volume of the composition; and
the change in viscosity of the working slurry to the required for the reciprocating cutting by adding water.

16. Method of heat dissipation during the machining process, including:
the submission of a work of sludge in the process of machining, the working slurry contains a liquid composition according to claim 1 and the abrasive particles are selected, in particular, silicon carbide, diamond and boron carbide are uniformly dispersed in the polyethylene glycol and water;
in this part of the water evaporates for heat dissipation; and
replenishment of the working fluid of water during the process fur the practical processing for further heat dissipation.

17. Liquid composition for use in obtaining a slurry for machining free abrasive comprising a liquid composition according to claim 1 and dispersed in water abrasive particles selected, in particular, silicon carbide, diamond and boron carbide, when the solids content of 20 vol.%
when the viscosity of the working liquid sludge composition is reduced by the introduction of water so that the viscosity of the working slurry becomes at least 2 times smaller than the viscosity of the composition of the sludge, including polyethylene glycol and abrasive particles in the solids content of 20 vol.%.

18. Liquid composition for use in obtaining a slurry for machining free abrasive comprising a liquid composition according to claim 1 and dispersed in water abrasive particles selected, in particular, silicon carbide, diamond and boron carbide
while water is present in the liquid composition in such amount which, in the process of machining the working temperature of the sludge in the liquid composition is reduced by at least 2°C.

19. Liquid composition for p, characterized in that the temperature is at least 8°C.

20. Liquid composition for use in obtaining a slurry for machining free abrasive comprising a liquid composition according to claim 1 and dispersed in the water of abrasively, selected, in particular, silicon carbide, diamond and boron carbide, when the solids content of 20 vol.%
in the process of machining the working temperature of the sludge in the liquid composition is reduced by the introduction of water so that the temperature of the working slurry becomes, at least 2°C. less than the temperature of the composition of the sludge, including polyethylene glycol and abrasive particles, the solids content of 20 vol.%.



 

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5 tbl, 8 ex

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Coated abrasives // 2372371

FIELD: chemistry.

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7 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

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1 tbl

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2 dwg

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