Heating system of domestic building

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: system includes basin located in the underground storeroom of the building, in which there is water-ice-water system, heat pump located so that it can cool the air in air layer located above upper water layer and warm the air in the heated room. Besides, system includes water pump installed so that it can pump water from lower layer to upper layer, and fan installed with possibility of air suction through exhaust pipe from the above air layer to atmosphere outside the building; at that, the above air layer is interconnected with atmosphere.

EFFECT: providing heat energy to stand-alone building owing to operation of heat pump and heat generated during phase water-ice transition.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of heat and can be used for auxiliary heating of buildings private use (detached houses, detached houses).

Many years of attempts to create so-called "solar home" for the zone of temperate climate still cannot be considered successful. The reason is geographical features of the zone of temperate climate. In the winter months, when the living space of the building needs heating, have a minimum duration of day length and the minimum intensity of solar radiation.

Traditional solar heating systems with receivers of solar radiation that is installed, usually on the roof, not capable in the winter to provide acceptable temperature dwellings. Attempts to create a storage system storing summer heat, also cannot be considered a success given the extreme bulkiness and high cost of such systems.

In recent years significantly increased the number of systems that use for heating and cooling buildings low-grade heat of the earth by means of heat pumps.

As a source of low-grade thermal energy can be used underground water or water of a nearby pond.

The advantage of this system is the possibility of the ity of obtaining large quantities of heat at relatively low cost electricity. However, wells require maintenance. In addition, the use of such systems may not work in all areas. Disadvantages of the system are its high cost and technical complexity.

Known heating system, in which as a heat source for heat pump use warm water stored in the tank.

The disadvantage of this system is the low heat capacity of the water tank, so as to accumulate heat use only the heating process and cooling water.

Known heating system in which heat store in latent heat thermal storage. The principle of heat storage is that the material accumulates a significant amount of thermal energy at the transition from solid to liquid (melting period) and releases the stored heat during solidification. In the process of phase transformation of a substance, its temperature does not change, but stands out so-called latent heat of the phase transition, the number of which is large enough. For example, to change the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1°C is required to 4.2 kJ. However, to melt 1 kg of ice requires 334 kJ.

For existing heating systems the temperature of melting ice is too small for the accumulation of useful heat, and therefore, as a working body using eutectic salts having more than the highest melting point.

At present practice to use 2 types of substances for latent heat thermal storage: calcium chloride and calcium sulphate (Glauber's salt).

Calcium chloride has a melting point of 29°C, thermal effect of phase transformation from solid to liquid state is 175,85 kJ/kg of Glauber's salt melts at a temperature of 32.2°C and the melting process accumulates 244 kJ/kg the Use of such salts leads to a significant decrease in thermal storage compartments.

The disadvantages of these heating systems is their complexity and high cost, as well as the need for heating systems.

Also known (RU, patent 2162990) Autonomous heating system for buildings personal use, containing halogenerator installation with flow regulator fluid, a turbine shaft connected to a generator, pump and radiators, United hydraulically.

The disadvantage of the Autonomous system should recognize its relatively high cost and fairly expensive operation.

Known ("the foundations of modern energy. Lectures managers of energy companies", in 2 parts, under the General editorship Ametistov EV, M, edition MEI, 2002, part 1 "Modern technology", AddRule, Mao, CEO, pp.96-98) heating combined heat and power (CHP), sod is Rasa steam installation, turbine shaft connected to a generator, heater, two pumps, radiators, United hydraulically, the entrance of steam unit is connected to the inlet of the turbine, the outlet of the turbine is connected to the input of the heater, the output of which is connected via the first pump to the input of a steam-generating device, the output of the radiators is connected via a second pump with the inlet of the heat exchanger of the heater.

Known heating plant has more power steam plant, made in the form of a steam boiler high pressure (>2 bar) and high temperature (>120°C) and a traditional turbine back-pressure at the output of 2 bar and a temperature of the exhaust steam of 120°C. Exhaust steam is used for heating a large number of urban homes.

Such heating combined heat and power may not be used for buildings personal use (cottages), since these are necessary to ensure the safe operation of the vapor to be used with a low pressure less than 2 bar and a temperature of less than 120°C.

Known (RU, patent 2320891) Autonomous life support system (SOOT) at low latitudes, containing a system of Autonomous power, including wind installation for electricity generation associated with the consumers of electric power is energy; automatic control system (ACS) SOOTS, battery electric energy associated with wind installation and consumers of electric energy, a Converter of electrical energy, hot water storage associated with consumers, a heat pump with an external capacitor and an external evaporator, a circulation pump, temperature sensors air and water, and the system of Autonomous power supply further includes a photovoltaic panel is electrically associated with the specified accumulator of electrical energy, and SHED further comprises a system for treatment of domestic wastewater and equipped with climate-control, including the supply fan installed in the outdoor air duct, the heat exchanger for heat exchange between incoming the outer and removed from the exhaust air, the cooling circuit of the air supplied, hladokombinatov, and the external evaporator specified heat pump and one heat exchanger cooling circuit is placed inside hadactually, and the second heat exchanger specified cooling circuit is placed inside the duct is supplied into the room air; water, including fresh water storage associated with consumers, water, natural water, fitted with injection pump and heater prirodnogo, solar desalination plant and an electric distiller connected to the water supply in parallel after the heater, with the specified solar desalination plant and the specified distiller communicated with the specified drive fresh water, and natural water heater made as part of the condenser of the heat pump; hot water supply system, including the heating circuit with the heater, made as part of the condenser of the heat pump which is connected with a hot water storage, in turn communicating with the storage of fresh water through the pumping station.

A disadvantage of the known installation should recognize its high cost and technical complexity.

Known (RU, patent 2324119) Autonomous system of heating and hot water for buildings private spaces containing steam installation, a turbine shaft connected to a generator, heater, two pumps, radiators, United hydraulically, exit steam unit is connected to the inlet of the turbine, the outlet of the turbine is connected to the input of the heater, the output of which is connected to the input of the first pump, and the output from the steam-generating unit, the output of the radiator is connected via a second pump with the inlet of the heat exchanger of the heater, and steam the situation is made of hot-water boiler for room heating, not less than two tanks installed in series and passed through a heat exchanger, the inlet of which is connected to the output of the boiler, the output connection of the first pump with a steam install completed with each of the tanks steam plant through the float valves installed in each of the tanks, turbine made in the form of a cylindrical rotor with an internal axial cavity with uniformly spaced around the circumference of the through-slits and the inlet to the inner surface of the rotor at least two stationary channels and the housing outlet for the working fluid, covering the cylindrical rotor, the output of the steam unit is made as a separate pipelines, each of which connected with the corresponding stationary channel, and connecting the output of the steam plant to the entrance of the turbine is made by the connection of each individual pipeline turbine with a separate throttle valve, and an Autonomous system is equipped with a boiler with a heat exchanger, the output of which is connected to the input of the radiators, and the entrance - exit of the heat exchanger of the heater, the third pump, the inlet of which is connected to the output of the heat exchanger, passes through capacity steam unit, and the output to the input of the boiler.

Water from the battery and heating the program enters the heat exchanger of the heater, where water is heated by condensation of the exhaust steam, at the same time the heated water passes through the second heat exchanger boiler providing heating and hot water. Water flows from the heat exchanger the steam install, passing through successively installed capacity hot water boiler, providing a closed loop.

Run steam plant with at least two serially fitted tanks with connection of each tank with different temperature and pressure of saturated steam by the steam lines with the corresponding stationary channels and the through slots of the turbine increases the efficiency of conversion of thermal energy received from the hot water boiler in the mechanical energy of the turbine, respectively, the output of the turbine will increase when switching from one tank to the at least two containers, providing a low-loss conversion of thermal energy into mechanical energy of the turbine.

An Autonomous system can be equipped with an additional heat exchanger, the inlet and outlet of which is connected through valves respectively with the inlet and outlet of the radiator, which provides greater power obtained from the turbine and generator and a greater efficiency of conversion of thermal energy and electrical energy by water cooling to a lower temperature in the secondary heat exchanger.

The specified Autonomous system can be used as the nearest equivalent.

A disadvantage of the known installation should recognize its high cost and technical complexity.

The technical problem solved by the present invention is to develop a heating system that allows you to get heat for home heating due to the energy released during freezing the water.

The technical result is obtained as a result of implementation of the invention is the provision of heat to the separately standing building by operation of the heat pump due to the heat released during the phase transition of water-ice.

To achieve the technical result of the proposed use is designed heating system of a house. Designed heating system of the dwelling house contains located in the basement of the pool where the water-ice-water, the heat pump is located with the possibility of cooling air in the air layer, located above the upper layer of water and heating the air in a heated room, water pump, installed with the possibility of pumping water from the lower layer to upper layer, a fan mounted with the possibility of suction of air through the exhaust pipe from the specified air layer in the atmosphere outside the house, this shows the air layer is additionally communicated with the atmosphere.

The developed system is based on the use of heat pump operation.

Household heat pump, as a household refrigerator, Cabinet contains the evaporator, compressor, condenser and throttling device. Freon find this to be able to simmer even in sub-zero temperatures. Therefore, even when very cold water driven pump through the channels of the evaporator, the liquid freon still evaporates. Next, the steam is drawn into the compressor where it is compressed. While its temperature is greatly increased (up to 90-100°C). Then the hot and compressed refrigerant is directed into the heat exchanger of the condenser, cooled by water or air. On cold surfaces, steam condenses into a liquid, and its heat is transferred to the cooling medium. Water is used in the heating system or hot water and freon, now again the liquid is routed to a throttling valve, through which, it loses pressure and temperature, and then again returns to the evaporator. The cycle is completed and will be repeated automatically until the compressor is running. The described scheme of work refers to the units of the so-called vapor compression cycle. In addition to these machines, there are also pumps absorption, thermoelectric, ejector. In the household mainly use the vapor compression machine.

In far the Shem of the invention will be considered with the use of graphical material. In the drawing, the following notation: pool 1, the lower water layer 2, the upper water layer 3, the heat pump 4, the water pump 5, a fan 6, an exhaust pipe 7, the supply hole 8, the layer of ice 9.

The device operates as follows. Heat pump 4 sucks the air from the air layer with a temperature of about 0°C above the pool 1, transfers the heat collected air in a heated room and returns cooled to subzero temperatures (-5°C) air to surface of the upper water layer 3. Upon contact of water and air with a temperature of -5°C water freezes, and the air warms up to -1÷0°C. the Loss of water in the upper layer 3 is filled in the pump 5 from the lower water layer 2. At positive temperature outdoor air enters the fan 6, which delivers air to the exhaust pipe 7. Due to the contact of warm air melts ice 9, and is replenishing the water in the pool 1. The inflow of warm air goes through the air intake opening 8.

For an average strip of Russia to actually build a house with an annual heat consumption of about 50 kWh/m2(insulation - mineral wool, window - glazing), i.e. for the home area of 100 m2for heating, you need 5000 kWh of thermal energy per year.

The specific heat of the phase transition of water-ice:

λ=334 kJ/kg = 0.093 kW×HR/kg

In the year of the water table:

M=5000:0.093=53760 kg

3

For a building the size of 10×10 m average depth of the pool, which is located under the building, will be one meter.

1. In the warm season ice must melt due to the influx of warm air. When the temperature difference between the outside air and ice Δt=10°C, duty cycle D=1 m3/s (G=1.3 kg/s)heat capacity of air=1 kJ/kg×hail ice mass M=53760 kg melt at the time

τ=(M×λ)/(C×G×Δt)=53760×334/(1×1.3×10)=1381218 sec = 16 days

The power of the fan when this performance is 0.2 kW.

The heating system of a dwelling house, characterized in that it contains located in the basement of the pool where the water-ice-water, the heat pump is located with the possibility of cooling air in the air layer, located above the upper layer of water and heating the air in a heated room, water pump, installed with the possibility of pumping water from the lower layer to upper layer, a fan mounted with the possibility of suction of air through the exhaust pipe from the specified air layer in the atmosphere outside the house, with specified air layer is additionally communicated with the atmosphere.



 

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