Construction method of midget hydroelectric power plants
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: construction method of midget hydroelectric power plants involves erection of hydraulic units converting the river flow energy to electric one. Hydraulic units are erected in the form of solid units representing hydraulic rams in which there created are pressure oscillations induced with hydraulic impacts, and linear electric generators the movable magnetic cores of which are connected by means of rigid stocks to valve pistons of hydraulic rams for conversion of water pressure oscillations in them to oscillations of magnetic cores of electric generators. Hydraulic units, namely hydraulic rams, are placed according to river water level, thus creating artificial threshold-water drain providing additional water pressure before hydraulic units.
EFFECT: reducing capital investments at construction of electric power station without causing ecological damage.
The invention relates to hydropower, and in particular to methods of use of water resources in lowland rivers to generate electricity.
There is a method of use of water resources in lowland rivers, including the construction on rivers cascade dam water, which is characterized by the fact that in order to reduce environmental violations in the river basin by reducing the space of the abandoned areas of river flow limit in the plan by building on the banks on both sides of the river longitudinal dams adjacent the downstream ends of the dams side saddle their faces, and parallel to the dam on the other side of the river perform the channel, the mouth of which match with the river between the downstream faces of the dam and the upper ends of the longitudinal dams, and the mouth of the river tributaries connect with channels, and adjacent to the channels squares produce the cultivation of land, see A.S. USSR 1645359, E02B 9/00.
This method requires large capital investments and long construction period, as provides for the construction of a cascade of dams.
There is a method of construction of hydropower plants in lowland rivers, including accommodation on the banks along the river together hydroelectric power stations, interconnected by conduits and valves, which is characterized by the fact that h is about to reduce environmental damage hydroelectric perform dam and supply pools downstream, located on the shore, with turbines of hydropower installed below the bottom of the river at the location of the hydroelectric power plants at a depth of 8 m, and the water pipes are laid along the bottom of the river and perform the siphon (see RF patent 2002888, E02B 9/00).
By the greatest number of similar features and achieved when using the result of this technical solution chosen for the prototype of the present invention.
The disadvantages of the prototype, which does not allow us to achieve our goals, is the complexity of the structural embodiment gidroagregata unit due to the need to use massive turbines to convert mechanical energy of the flow of water into electricity, the need for burial turbines at an average speed of 8 m below the river bottom, and the need to use long siphon pipeline laying them on the bottom of the reservoir and coastal basins downstream, which makes this method of capital-intensive and costly.
The present invention is the purpose and task of creating a simple and a capital-intensive method of construction for the generation of hydroelectric power with minimal environmental damage to areas adjacent to the river areas.
According to the invention the above aim is achieved due to the fact that the method of construction of small HYDR the power plants, including the construction of the units, which convert the energy flow of the river in electrical, characterized by the fact that the units are being constructed in the form of a single solid block, representing hydrotherapy, in which the pressure fluctuations caused by pressure surges, and line generators, movable magnetic cores are connected by rigid rods with pistons-valves hydrocarbon to convert pressure fluctuations of water in them in the fluctuations of magnetic cores generators, placed units, in particular hydrotherapy, the water level in the river, thereby creating an artificial threshold-Weir, providing additional water pressure before generating units.
In addition, the claimed technical solution has optional features that characterize its special cases, namely:
the units operate as separate cylindrical modules, choose the number of modules depending on the power flow of the river, have units, in particular hydrotherapy, below the water level in the cross river parallel to each other and its flow;
- generating units, in particular hydrotherapy, placed on the water level in the river below the freezing depth of water surface to ensure year-round operation of the units;
line e is generatory modular hydroelectric power plants at full submersion under the water level in the river waterproof perform.
In the proposed technical solution is achieved the ability to generate electricity without overlapping the rivers by dams, without penetration of the units under the bottom of the river and without the construction of long siphon piping, bypass channels and coastal basins downstream.
The method of converting mechanical energy of the flow of water from kinetic to potential and Vice versa in the devices, which are called hydrocarbone known (see "Hydraulics". ECI, Dowstream, Vmelilo, Lavacolla. M: Energy, 1973, s-217).
Also known linear electric generator that converts the mechanical energy of the reciprocating oscillatory motion of the magnetic core in an electric the same frequency (see the Patents of the Russian Federation No. 2209324, No. 2304341, H02K 35/02).
The method of construction of small hydropower plants implemented as follows. Hydroelectric power plants are being constructed in the form of a single solid block, representing hydrotherapy, in which the pressure fluctuations caused by pressure surges, and line generators, movable magnetic cores are connected by rigid rods with pistons-valves hydrocarbon to convert pressure fluctuations of water in them in the fluctuations of magnetic cores generators, put the units in castnet hydrotherapy, the water level in the river, thereby creating an artificial threshold-Weir, providing additional water pressure before generating units. The units operate as separate cylindrical modules, choose the number of modules depending on the power flow of the river, have units, in particular hydrotherapy, below the water level in the cross river parallel to each other and its over. Units, in particular hydrotherapy, placed on the water level in the river below the freezing depth of water surface to ensure year-round operation of generating units. Linear generators modular hydroelectric power plants at full submersion under the water level in the river waterproof perform.
The use of the claimed technical solution compared with all known means of similar purpose enables the generation of hydropower in lowland rivers without special construction of the cascade of dams, bypass channels, coastal basins downstream, burial generating units under the bottom of the reservoir and facilities long siphon pipelines with minimal environmental damage to areas adjacent to rivers areas.
1. The method of construction of small hydropower plants, including the construction of the units, which convert the energy of the flow, R is CI in electric, characterized in that the units are being constructed in the form of a single solid block, representing hydrotherapy, in which the pressure fluctuations caused by pressure surges, and line generators, movable magnetic cores are connected by rigid rods with pistons-valves hydrocarbon to convert pressure fluctuations of water in them in the fluctuations of magnetic cores generators, placed units, in particular hydrotherapy, the water level in the river, thereby creating an artificial threshold-Weir, providing additional water pressure before generating units.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the units operate as separate cylindrical modules, choose the number of modules depending on the power flow of the river, have units, in particular hydrotherapy, in cross river parallel to each other and over.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the generating units, in particular hydrotherapy, placed on the water level in the river below the freezing depth of water surface to ensure year-round operation of generating units.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the linear generators of the modular hydroelectric power plants with full immersion in the river waterproof perform.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering structures for production of power and simultaneous protection of coast against storms. Wave energetic complex comprises hinged landing stage with landing apron joined to its with the help of hinged cantilever and pendulum hinge, and linear generator joined to landing stage by means of hinged cantilever. Stem that transmits mechanical oscillations to magnetic core of linear generator is fixed to base of hinged cantilever moving along landing apron in case of landing stage exposure to waves. Linear generator is arranged along axis of stem movement, marked with angle of landing apron inclination.
EFFECT: improved technical properties of complex as a result of increased efficiency of its operation.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: damless hydraulic power station for local electric power supply consists of pressure water conduit with water intake in the river and gate valve, intermediate tank, smoothing sleeve, active Pelton turbine with water conduit and possibility of power adjusting. Between the input of pressure water conduit and input to turbine water conduit there installed is smoothing sleeve of hydrodynamic type. It is designed as an intermediate tank and has input water intake confuser with curved surface, central cylindrical area and diffuser with curved surface flowing into each other. At diffuser output there is stabilising pipeline the cross-section of which is equal to diffuser output diametre.
EFFECT: there is performed the effective conversion of incoming water flow ensured by dynamic force and increase of active Pelton turbine efficiency.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device includes several cylindrical shell supports arranged on sea shelves, system of supply and drain pipelines, hydraulic generators. Cylindrical shell supports are installed in a row with clearance for water passage along line perpendicular to direction of tidal and ebb currents. Cavity of cylindrical shell support is divided along vertical line into several tiers, for instance into 2 and more, to locate pipelines and hydraulic generators. Supply pipeline passes perpendicularly along diagonal line, and drain pipeline - along diagonal line parallel to line of installation of cylindrical shell supports. At the same time ends of these pipelines communicate with sea, and hydraulic generators are arranged on drain pipelines.
EFFECT: reduced cost of generated electric energy, less operational problems and higher efficiency due to application of full tide and ebb cycle.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering, specifically, to power generating plants. Underwater hydraulic power plant comprises water conduit to speed up captured water flow, tape of hingedly joined plates with transverse hingedly joined plates-vanes and covering two pairs of gear wheels, multiplier connected to axis of one wheelset, and with its outlet axis it is connected to axis of electric generator anchor placed into waterproof vessel, plate-gate that closes path of water flow along gap between tape that moves in reverse direction and wall of water conduit.
EFFECT: design of hydraulic power plant makes it possible to improve efficiency factor.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to land management, land use and to power engineering. Method is provided to commercialise unused and unfit sections of Earth surface, due to reasons of natural origin or anthropogenic activity. A list of such territories is provided. Method provides for arrangement of power generating unit on pile footing at such sections. Power generating unit is formed by driving piles into ground over the level of maximum water lift, snowdrifts and other local obstacles, on which horizontal platform is erected, being an open turbine room for electric machine installed in its centre, rotor of which is provided with air drive made of radial carriers, with traction motors in horizontal plane, to support carriers during downtime, a circular race is arranged also on piles. Produced electric energy is used at site or transmitted.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to commercialise absolutely unpromising sections of Earth surface, of colossal area, from polar circle to equator, practically with year-round efficient return.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to non-traditional power engineering. In accordance with proposed method, power plant is not "related" to either riverbed or hydraulic unit, but is erected separately, mostly in area of energy consumption. For this purpose on foundation plate of only one electric machine a structure is erected from vertical power columns, which are arranged along contour of cylinder and then connected in a certain interval along vertical line in horizontal planes by means of power trusses, where electric machines are installed (electric generators), and are equipped with air drives, traction motors of which are energised from autonomous current source.
EFFECT: development of method for construction of power plants with application of electric machines with explicit poles.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydropower engineering. Device comprises water intake from river, steep canal or discharge pipeline, spiral or circular tray, which sends flow to turbine and generator connected to turbine. Speeded flow entering from inlet nozzle acquires shape of circular tray of hydraulic ring type, and near inlet of flow into circular flow, at the bottom, there is a threshold installed, and bottom of circular tray is arranged below level of inlet nozzle by height of threshold, besides on external board of circular tray, where monorails are installed, upstream inlet nozzle, there is a segment surface drain arranged, equipped with horizontal control valve along arc of external board, under the drain there is a reservoir placed to collect drained water, and it changes into drain nozzle along body tangent, and in the centre of tray hydraulic ring body there is a pylon installed to fix axis of hydroturbine or electric current generator rotor.
EFFECT: invention simplifies design of HPP and increases electric energy yield.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: device for generating supplementary hydropower includes hydraulic power station in the water zone of afterbay of which there installed are islands made in the form of many-staged concrete pedestals located in two and more rows; at that, pedestals of the second and subsequent rows are located in gaps between pedestals of preceding rows. On steps of pedestals there installed are wave electric stations combined into common power system and the floats of which float on waves.
EFFECT: providing the possibility of continuous operation of wave electric stations within a year.
SUBSTANCE: water-intake facility consists of shore well, pump station, self-flowing line, head, aerator of flow generator and fish-retention net. Head and aerator-flow generator are placed in satellite water reservoir joined to lake by means of water-intake channel, besides aerator-flow generator is arranged near shore of satellite water reservoir in the section between head and channel so that water arrives to its for aeration from lake, being mixed with water of satellite water reservoir, and oxygen-saturated water of aerator-flow generator is sent to head.
EFFECT: reduced energy inputs for aeration of water in the area of head.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: discharge water conduit of hydraulic accumulating electric station (HAES) includes input head, transition section, water conduit, anchor support, knee of discharge water conduit and flow-guiding element. Discharge water conduit is equipped with support gasket, utility gallery, connecting pipeline, nozzle with stop valves, fixing longitudinal and transverse sealing tapes. Flow-guiding element is arranged in the form of elastic shell, besides support gasket is arranged between water conduit and anchor support, utility gallery is installed in body of anchor support, connecting pipeline is mounted into body of anchor support and is arranged so that its part passes directly through utility gallery. Nozzle with stop valves is installed on connecting pipeline in utility gallery, flow-guiding element is arranged on inner side of water conduit in the area of its knee, fixing longitudinal and transverse sealing tapes are also installed inside water conduit directly at the edges of flow-guiding element and in its middle part. Flow-guiding element is fixed in water conduit so that its longitudinal edges are arranged in middle part of opposite side inner surfaces of water conduit parallel to axis of water conduit and fixed to its wall with the help of fixing longitudinal sealing tapes and pins, and transverse edges of flow-guiding element are arranged on opposite sides of knee: one - from upper side of knee, the other one - on lower side of knee, both - on lower inner surface of water conduit in plane perpendicular to axis of water conduit, and fixed to its wall with the help of fixing upper and lower transverse sealing tapes by means of pins. Directly on knee flow-guiding element is also fixed to wall of water conduit with the help of fixing medium transverse sealing tape by means of pins, which provides for formation of upper and lower cavities between flow-guiding element and inner surface of water conduit. Upper end of connecting pipeline is connected to upper cavity formed by flow-guiding element and inner surface of water conduit, and lower end of connecting pipeline is connected to lower cavity.
EFFECT: reduced losses of flow energy in discharge water conduit, reduced material intensity, labour intensives of water conduit elements manufacturing and its cost, increased reliability of discharge water conduit operation.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly fish passes in water-intake structures.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying water stream free of young fish in waterway; forming hydraulic screen near water-intake influence area to separate above area from main stream of water-intake structure; forming whirlpool area near water-intake shore edge. Water stream is formed upstream water-intake structure. Water for users is taken from whirlpool area formed by inner water spray boundary and shore edge. Facility includes water-intake structure arranged at shore line, water-intake pipes connected with pump, stream former and means for water stream creation in waterway. Means for water stream creation is made as channel operating in non-pressure regime and having outlet part arranged upstream water inlet. Marks formed on channel bottom and waterway bottom coincide one with another. Stream former is located downstream water intake and directed in downstream direction.
EFFECT: creating of hydraulic conditions to protect young fish from ingress in water-intake structure.
14 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed for preventing getting of young fish into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield made in form of hollow guides arranged in tiers across water channels in depth with displacement of each upper tier towards diversion channel. It contains also perforated air duct located on bottom of water channel directly before said shield and train-and-fish trough arranged in upper part of channel in parallel with air duct and connected with outlet and device to let out young fish arranged in height of fish retaining shield. Guides of U-shaped are installed at angle to current of intake channel, their planes are perforated and open end part is pointed to bottom of water channel. Young fish let out device is made in form of perforated shields installed side guides for vertical displacement by drive in height of fish retaining shield relative to additional guides made from side of bank edges of intake channel. Perforation holes of shields and u-shaped guides do not coincide in light.
EFFECT: possibility of retaining and bringing young fish out of limits of influence of diversion facility.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed to protect young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield installed in channel and made in form of perforated pipelines arranged in horizontal tiers along entire depth of channel and connected with source of working medium, perforated air duct placed on bottom of channel directly before shield and trash-and-fish trough arranged in upper part of shield parallel to perforated pipeline and air duct which is connected with fish outlet. Perforated pipelines are furnished with ejectors and fish gathering troughs. Ejectors are connected with pressure line of pump and are placed inside perforated pipelines and in communication with fish gathering troughs through perforation holes made in horizontal plane along both sides of pipelines, fish gathering troughs being rigidly fastened opposite to perforation holes. Inner space of fish gathering troughs is provided with longitudinal horizontal partitions dividing the troughs into separate fish intake parts. Surfaces of fish gathering troughs pointed to surface and to bottom of water channel are made perforated. Cross partitions found inside separate fish intake parts form fish intake channels. Initial part of fish outlet is made with fish intake pocket over entire depth of water channel. End face parts of perforated pipelines pointed to side of fish outlet communicate with inner space of pocket.
EFFECT: provision of retaining and removing of young fish over entire depth of water channel.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed to protect young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield installed in water channel in tiers in depth of water channel with displacement of each higher tier to side of water intake channel, perforated air duct made in form of guides installed across water channel before shield on bottom of water channel, and trash-and-fish trough connected with fish outlet and arranged in upper part of shield parallel to air duct. Guides are made in form of flat plates rigidly installed at angle to flow in intake channel. Each plate is provided with horizontal axle in its upper part on which additional plate is secured from side of water intake channel for turning. Lower end face end of additional plate is provided with radial baffle whose surface has perforation holes. End face part of additional plates is provided with sector stopper from side of fish outlet, horizontal axles of plates being connected with drive. Additional plates can be perforated.
EFFECT: provision of retaining and bringing young fish out of the limits of influence of diversion facility.
3 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering; fish protective facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed to draw off young fish from zone of influence of water diversion front. Method comes to ejecting young fish into intake part of ejecting plant from section of pond with higher concentration of young fish, creating active ejecting working stream in mixing chamber by entraining volume of water containing young fish into stream created by central ejecting hydraulic jet and further conveyance of water-fish mixture along pressure conduit into fish outlet. At the last stage of conveyance young fish is transported into fish outlet under no pressure conditions by forming hydraulic jet angle to trough of fish outlet, young fish being dropped on surface of fish outlet stream. Invention provides effective conditions for drawing off young fish into fish outlet and reduces damage to young fish. If working ejecting stream is preliminarily saturated with atmospheric air, its outer borders are saturated with air in form of finest microbubbles which form boundary layer ("air cushion") at contact with which young fish do not suffer from discomfort and easily take up hydrodynamic pressure built in mixing chamber. Moreover, provision of boundary layer saturated with microbubbles of air makes it possible to considerably reduce value of friction coupling of two streams, main getting from working nozzle and ejecting, containing young fish.
EFFECT: provision of good conditions for letting out young fish into fish outlet, reduced damage of young fish.
7 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices protecting young fish and preventing their getting into diversion facility. Proposed fish protective facility includes filtering water-separating dam made in form of vertical water-separating wall arranged along water intake channel and separating inlet part of channel from water conduit, device for preliminary drawing off young fish made in form of vertical rod installed for rotation by drive arranged before water-separating wall from its end face part pointed opposite to water flow. Rod is displaced relative to water-separating wall towards water intake channel. Device for preliminary drawing off young fish is furnished with additional means to increase fish draw-off effect, said means being made in from of flat round disks rigidly secured in height of rod coaxially with rod. Disks are installed parallel to each other forming slot water intake channels. End face part of water-separating wall adjoining the rod is provided with slots located opposite to planes of arrangement of disks. Disks are installed for free passing relative to slots. Invention provides higher efficiency of drawing off young fish out limits of zone of influence of diversion facility owing to provision of disks considerably increasing area of contact with surrounding medium and creating powerful circulation flow providing diversion of young fish and trash entrained by water behind outer surface of dam.
EFFECT: provision of effective conditions for drawing off young fish out of limits of zone of influence of diversion facility.
15 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fish protective facilities used in diversion facilities. Proposed fish protective facility includes vertical gauze shield installed in inlet part of water intake channel at angle to its longitudinal axis, fish outlet arranged in place of mating of shield with side of channel, and device for creating whirlpool current for washing the shield containing jet guide member and made in form of chambers adjoining outer surface of shield and forming water intake holes over entire depth of water intake channel. Chambers are made cylindrical being formed by surface of shield and jet guide member and are placed in communication through water intake holes formed by edges of shield of adjacent chambers and edges of jet guide members at place of their butt joining. Each chamber is provided with independent fish outlet made in form of vertical perforated pipe arranged coaxially to chamber and communicating by independent fish duct with fish outlet. Inlet part of water intake channel is made with tangential inlet, edge of left side of channel, shield and tangential inlet are arranged in one plane.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of washing of gauze shield and drawing off young fish and trash.
24 cl, 18 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic and hydropower engineering, particularly for building water-retaining structures to provide power supply to small settlements and farms.
SUBSTANCE: method involves assembling flexible apron assembly consisted of flexible floor apron and flexible downstream apron in watercourse; securing thereof to watercourse bottom by anchors. Water outlet assembly including hydroelectric generator arranged inside it is secured to floor apron and downstream apron by rigid ties. Connected to water outlet assembly by ties are water retaining shell and rope system secured to anchor poles located on watercourse bank.
EFFECT: reduced time of structure assembling and costs for electric power generation.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly fish-passing devices included in water intake structures.
SUBSTANCE: method is based on young fish's tendency to follow moving objects. Method involves forming water permeable screen including flexible elastic members and extending for the full stream depth; providing means for flexible members displacement and installation in working position; providing preliminary young fish concentration in previously created artificial water-plants and transferring young fish into fish-passing channel. Water permeable screen is formed of flexible elastic members on level of stream carrying young fish with maximal concentration. Screen is created in horizontal plane, wherein flexible elastic members are reciprocated from one bank to another along with directing young fish concentrated inside screen in fish-passing channel. Flexible elastic members imitate natural water flora, which is native fish habitat.
EFFECT: provision of controllable water intake during change in vertical young fish descent dynamics.
27 cl, 21 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device designed to prevent young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed fish protective device includes suction branch pipe lowered under water level, water permeable shield, device to bring young fish off made in from of hydraulic wash-away device with slot arranged coaxially with suction branch pipe out of the limits of suction hole, feed pipeline connected with pressure line of pump and made inside suction branch pipe coaxially with the latter, and ring conical partition made coaxially to suction branch pipe and rigidly secured on outer surface of suction branch pipe. Hydraulic wash-away device is formed by two cup-like deflectors with concave side pointed to suction hole and installed one over the other to form ring slot directed along water permeable shield. Lower deflector is provided with central outlet hole whose diameter is smaller than diameter of jet forming nozzle arranged coaxially to hydraulic wash-away device and rigidly connected with end part of feed pipeline. Ring conical partition is installed with its larger base to side of suction branch pipe, its smaller base being arranged in plane of suction hole.
EFFECT: simplified design of fish [protective device, provision of effective bringing young fish of limits of influence of suction branch pipe.
7 cl, 8 dwg