System with controlled medium and method for quick cultivation of seed potato

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: system to grow potato plants to produce microtubers comprises chambers with automatically controlled medium to keel and maintain growth of potato plants for the whole life cycle. Each chamber has facility of air temperature control, facility of atmospheric humidity control, illumination facility, sensors of temperature, moisture and light, facility for delivery of nutrients and water to plants. System includes computer facility for continuous automatic monitoring and control of facilities of lighting, air temperature and atmospheric humidity control, and also facilities for delivery of nutrients and water. It is possible to grow both sprouts of tissue culture into mother plants, as well as hefts of mother plants into minitubers, which may be used as source of seeds for further reproduction in the field as stocks of seed potato.

EFFECT: using system with controlled conditions of medium and method providing for optimal conditions of cultivation, results in quick growth and development of potato piece, so that up to six harvests of tubers may be gathered in a calendar year.

18 cl, 8 dwg

 

This application has priority application U.S. Ser., No. 60/758,313, dated January 12, 2006.

This invention relates to the cultivation of potato tubers using system-controlled environment, which provides the optimal environment and nutrition for growth and development of the potato plant and tuber formation. These tubers form the basic material, which can be further diluted in the field in large quantities of high-quality stocks of seed potatoes.

The potato is the most important agricultural and vegetable crop. Potatoes are currently grown commercially in almost every state in the US. The annual production of potatoes is more than 18 million tons in the United States and 300 million tons worldwide. The popularity of the potato comes mainly from its versatility and nutritional value. Potatoes can be consumed fresh, frozen or dried, or can be processed into flour, starch or alcohol. They contain complex carbohydrates and are rich in calcium, Niacin and vitamin C. In the United States land area in acres of cultivated potato, declined from the 1960s through the 1970s, and this reduction together with the increased consumption should be offset by the higher yields usable. In some areas, diseases and pests damage crops, however is on the use of herbicides and pesticides.

It is generally accepted that high-quality stocks of seed potatoes, usually identified as "Certified"potatoes are an essential component of profitable enterprises for the production of potatoes. The use of these seed stocks is critical for the commercial success of such enterprises, because the potato is one of the few vegetatively propagated crop species. Therefore, any change or disease in the stocks of seed potatoes will be present in all subsequent outbreaks with the relevant harmful effects, because the potato tuber is the vegetative body, and not the seed.

Several schemes have been developed to minimize the impact of disease on the commercial value of the stocks of seed potatoes. Such schemes come from uninfected tissue cultures of material obtained in a sterile laboratory environment, with the subsequent growing tissue cultures obtained in the greenhouse or in the exterior conditions of the protected area. These schemes are described in many articles in the literature on potato, including Struik, 1991, Struik and Wiersma, 1999, and Pruski, et al., 2003. A slightly different scheme applies Wisconsin Seed Potato Certification Program Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 to create "Elite seed Fund" and follow Rodi certified seed potato producers. This includes the identification does not contain pathogens of material that is long-term support to the tissue culture medium in the form of microtubers. Each year, these "clones" will subcultured in the form of thousands of plants that are grown in a protected area for the formation of tubers. These tubers are then propagated in the field and they become "Elite seed Fund ".

The scheme described in the published literature, have several inherent disadvantages. These disadvantages are a limited number of seeds, which can be obtained in this calendar year, and the cost of obtaining such material. Greenhouse schemes provide no more than two crops tubers per year even in those geographical areas where the winter months is not too cold. Schemes based on open protected areas, is limited essentially only one tuber yield per year. As the hothouse scheme and the scheme with the public protected area have a high probability of accidental contamination by insects, such as aphids and grasshoppers, which are carriers of serious diseases of potato. Poor performance of these schemes also reduces the suitability significant seed stocks of new varieties for commercial growers of potatoes.

Method to produce mini-tubers of cartof the La is known from the patent U.S. 5,419,079 (30 may 1995), Wang and others, This patent describes the various stages of a method of influencing the environmental conditions and power propagated sliced potatoes. This scheme, however, requires the execution of all stages of the way by hand and without any automatic control and regulation of the environment, so it is very time consuming and completely inert. In addition, the potato slices should be planted inside the structure of a skeleton and a plastic film, placed in a greenhouse, and then manipulate the film, so all this is cumbersome and inefficient. All control of temperature, lighting, humidity and nutrients occurs without any feedback during the breeding process. It is doubtful that such a scheme, manually adjustable, provide products repeatable and rapid manner and without complications, as stated in the patent, especially in any geographic area.

Known to other computerized systems of growing plants, but none of them provides optimized growth of potato plants during the whole life cycle.

The General objective of the present invention is to provide a system and method for more efficient breeding of seed potatoes, automatic monitoring, regulation and registration options for the environment and food in the room in which they grow and develop age who I potatoes.

System with adjustable environmental conditions and method provide optimal environmental conditions and nutrition for the growth, so the potato plants produce usable for collecting tubers less than 60 days after planting. Such rapid growth cycles allow you to receive up to six harvests per year in any geographic area.

The environmental conditions regulate and register within special areas, and these conditions include the duration and intensity of lighting, temperature during light and dark periods and the level of humidity of the atmosphere in which the crop develops. Additionally, the composition of nutrients and water supplied to the plant programmed during the growth cycle to meet the requirements for nutrients during a particular stage of development of potato plants and tuber formation. Thus, carefully synchronized regimes environment and nutrition support rapid growth and development so that they can be collected six yields of tubers during any calendar year, regardless of external weather conditions, in which the system works with variable environmental conditions. Tubers produced by a camera with adjustable environmental conditions, subsequently propagated by planting the tubers in the field to obtain sufficient vysokokachestvenn the St of the certified material seed potatoes for sale to producers of potatoes.

One of the objects of the invention concerns the system of cultivation of potato plants to obtain mini-tubers. This system contains at least one camera with automatically adjustable environmental conditions for keeping and maintaining the growth of potato plants during the whole life cycle. The design of this camera includes sensors for temperature, humidity and lighting, lighting structure to provide light and dark periods of the exhibition, containing multiple fluorescent lamps located above the potato plants and separated from them by being transparent separator. The structure of the temperature of the air, including air conditioning, provided for the creation of temperature, variable uniformly throughout the chamber structure. The structure of the atmospheric humidity supports relative humidity throughout the chamber structure, and the structure of the delivery of nutrients and water provided for fertilizers and irrigation of potato plants. The computer provided for automatic and continuous monitoring and control of structures, lighting, air temperature, atmospheric humidity and delivery of nutrients and water. The system allows the development of sprouts tissue cultures in the mother plants and cuttings from mother plants, giving the mini-tubers. The computer periodically registration of the range parameters of the medium in the chamber structure.

The invention also regards a method for the development of potato plants, giving the mini-tubers. The method involves the step of providing at least one chamber structure with automatically adjustable environmental conditions for keeping and maintaining the growth of potato plants during the whole life cycle, the chamber structure, including temperature sensors, humidity and lighting, lighting structure to provide light and dark periods of the exhibition, containing multiple fluorescent lamps located above the potato plants and separated from them by being transparent separator, and the structure of the temperature of the air, including air conditioning to create a temperature variable uniformly throughout the chamber structure, the structure of the atmospheric moisture content, structure, delivery of nutrients and water for fertilizer and irrigation plants potatoes, and a computer for automatic and continuous monitoring and control of structures, lighting, air temperature, atmospheric humidity and delivery of nutrients and water, and periodically check the status of the various parameters of the environment in the chamber structure; placing uncovered cuttings from mother plants inside trays filled with solid environment for the growth chamber structure in a single layer; the cultivation of cuttings in the chamber structure of the ur in the mini-tubers by automatic monitoring and regulation of the duration and intensity of the lighting, air temperature as a function of time during light and dark periods, the percentage of humidity as a function of time, and the duration and frequency of supply of dissolved nutrients according to the points laid down in the computer, compared with incoming signals from the sensors; and harvesting mini-tubers on 56-64 days of cultivation.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

The drawings illustrate the best way of carrying out the invention currently offered.

Fig. 1 is a block diagram of the system of monitoring and regulatory environment for the multiplication of seed potatoes.

Fig. 2 is a fragmentary, perspective, distant view camera with adjustable environmental conditions applied in the system of Figure 1.

Figa is the view of the camera in figure 2 in the section.

Fig. 3 is a more detailed block diagram of a computer system regulation figure 1.

Fig. 4 is a block diagram of the lighting system used in connection with the camera in figure 2.

Fig. 5 is a block diagram of the system of atmospheric humidity, applied in the chamber in figure 2.

Fig. 6 is a block diagram of the delivery system for nutrients and water, applied in the chamber in figure 2.

Fig. 7 is a representation of the method of propagation of seed potatoes with the use of the system in Figure 1.

The DETAILED DESCRIPTION of the INVENTION

OVERVIEW

Referring now to the drawings, Figure 1 illustrates the control system environment 10 for propagation of seed potatoes in accordance with the present invention. The system 10 generally consists of at least one and preferably multiple housings 12, forming chambers for plant 14 for the cultivation and development of seed potatoes and maintenance of tuberization. The housing 12 and chamber 14 are in communication with the switch network 16 via a short Ethernet connectors 18 that are connected to the control panel 19 connected with the chambers 14. The switch network 16 is also in communication with the computer control system 20 with an additional Ethernet connection 22. As will be clear later in this description, a computer control system 20 has software that automatically and continuously monitors and regulates several critical systems inside the chamber 14, and periodically records the state of the environment in it for optimization of rapid growth and tuberization of potato plants.

Critical components of each chamber 14, which provide the optimal regulated environment for the growth and development of potato plants include the following :

1. The lighting system 24, is able to provide the level of light intensity, revolade to photosynthetic rate, sufficient for tuberization of potato plants growing in the chamber 14. The lighting system 24 may consist of fluorescent lamps, light emitting diodes or other lamps 26, placed close together with potato plants.

2. System temperature 28 capable of providing the desired air temperature, which leads to fast growth of plants and also supports tuberization of potato plants. System temperature 28, in General, consists of the air conditioner 30 is placed on the housing 12.

3. The delivery system atmospheric humidity 32, is capable of providing humidity conditions in the atmosphere required to maintain the fast pace of plant growth and tuberization of potato plants.

4. The delivery system of nutrients and water 34, is able to provide top dressings liquid nutrients required to sustain rapid plant growth and tuberization of potato plants.

5. Computer control system 20 that contains the computer is able to monitor and regulate the desired level and duration of illumination desired temperature, the atmospheric conditions of humidity and adequate delivery of nutrients and water within the prescribed stages of development and tuber formation. Computer C is subject to regulation 20 is additionally capable of detecting the state of the environment settings in the camera 14 at various selected points in time.

Referring now to Figure 2 and 2A, shows a typical case 12 forming each growing area 13, and the Cam plants 14. Each housing 12 includes a solid upper wall 36, a solid bottom wall 38, a solid back wall 40, solid opposite end walls 42, 44 and a pair of movable door of the chamber, one of them can be seen at 46. Typical external dimensions of the housing 12 are four and a half feet wide, nine feet long and three feet in height. The housing 12 is typically limited environment, when the door 46 is closed. The bottom wall 38 provided with a drain pan 48 and is supported approximately at the height of three feet above the surface of the support frame 50 having multiple dependent legs 52. One end of the housing 12 includes a horizontal portion 54 attached between the legs 52. The horizontal portion 54 serves as a connection point for a pair of brackets 56, which support air conditioning 30 mounted on the end wall 44 to regulate the temperature of the air in the chamber 14. Many fluorescent lamps 26 is placed across the upper part of the chamber 14, the upper wall 36. Lamp 26 is enclosed in the lighting cap 58 (Figa)formed by the upper wall 36 with highly reflective properties, essentially transparent acrylic plastic sheet 64 and end walls 42, 44. The sheet 64 forms the basis of the light quantity is aka 58 and also serves as a ceiling for the plant growing area 13 in the chamber 14. Lamp 26 is connected with the ballast for lamps 60 located outside the housing 12, as shown in Figure 4. Fans of the ventilation system 62 is mounted on the front and rear upper parts of the housing 12. Typically, the door 46 is open so that the trays 15 buds of the plant P can slide into the chamber 14 and out of her.

As can be seen from Figure 3, each housing 12 is equipped with a combined analog temperature sensor/humidity 66 and analog ambient light sensor 68. The sensors 66, 68 are generally located in the center of the wall of the housing 12 is approximately three inches below the acrylic sheet 64. The combined sensor 66 monitors the temperature and humidity level in the chamber 14 and continuously transmits these parameters in the first of three signal interface modules 70, 72, 74, connected with Ethernet connector 76 to the switch network 16. The modules 70, 72, 74 are contained in each control panel 19, the light sensor 68 simply checks whether the lamp 26 is on or off. The number of included lamps 26 and the length or duration of the light period determines the operator to any desired growth conditions. The light sensor 68 does not enable or disable any of the lamp 26. The housing 12 is further provided with digital relays temperature control 78, the digital relay control humidity 80, digital relay lighting control 82 and digital reuleaux the control of delivery of nutrients 84. All these relays 78, 80, 82, 84 are communicated with the second signal interface module 72 and respond according to the sensor 66. Module 74 functions as the microprocessor and is coordinated with the software governing computer. Module 74 compares the output signal of the sensor module 70 with the desired points incorporated in the software, and then transmits the corresponding information to the module 72, which, in turn, activates the appropriate relay 78, 80, 82, 84, to start or stop a particular site to ensure the desired environmental conditions in the chamber 14.

Figure 5 shows the delivery system of the atmosphere 32 for each of the housing 12. The delivery system humidity 32 includes a reservoir of dampening solution 86 associated with the pump 88 and the pressure relief valve 90, all of which are located outside of the housing 12 and the camera 14. The hose 92 attached to the pressure relief valve 90, passes inside the chamber 14 and is attached through connector 94 to the pipe 96 having a number of separate spray nozzles 98 extending into the chamber 14 to regulate the humidity.

Figure 6 is a delivery system of nutrients 34 for each of the housing 12. The delivery system of nutrients 34 includes a reservoir with nutrient solution 100 connected to the pump 102, and the relief valve pressure is 104, all of which are located outside the housing 12 in the chamber 14. Like the delivery system humidity 32, the hose 106 attached to the pressure relief valve 104, passes inside the chamber 14 and is connected through a connector 108 to the tube 110, containing a number of separate spray nozzles 112 for delivery of nutrients into the chamber 14.

The DETAILS of the SYSTEM

ZONE of GROWING PLANTS

Zone of growing plants 13 (Figa) has a height of approximately 2 feet, which allows sufficient plant growth in height, at the same time maintaining a minimum distance between the lamp 26 and the plant P. the distance from the lamp 26 to the plant P is a critical feature of the design, to maximize the amount of light falling on the leaves. Fundamental physics (Law Baer) argues that the intensity of light at any point is perpendicular to the light source is inversely related to the square of the distance from the light source. Thus, to maximize the efficiency of the lighting system 24, the distance between the light source 26 and the leaves of the plant should be as short as possible, at the same time providing a height that would accommodate the plants P, grown in the chamber 14. The distance from the lamp 26 to the leaves of plants in the early growth period is the eye is about 20 inches. As plant growth P distance is reduced to about 6 inches between lamps 26 and leaves of plants.

The ceiling of the zone of growing plants 13 is an acrylic sheet 64, which has a high transmittance with respect to visible light from the light source 26 in the zone of growing plants 13. Floor 48 zone of growing plants 13 is sufficiently durable perforated metal to hold the plant and rooted material in the containers 15, at the same time making it possible for the drainage of any liquid material that can flow from the container 15 containing rooted material.

LIGHTING HOOD

Lighting cap 58 holds the fluorescent lamp 26 is used to provide the necessary energy radiation (light) for the process of photosynthesis, involved in the conversion of radiation energy into the energy of chemical bonds plants P. Fluorescent lamp 26 turns electricity into light that can be absorbed by the leaves of plants and used in photosynthesis. The efficiency of transformation is about 20 percent, which means that 20 percent of electricity used fluorescent lamps 26, is radiated in the form of light, and the other 80 percent are emitted in the form of heat, mainly as obvious warmth. Thus, another critical pH is d design zone lighting cap 58 is what height is about 6 inches, so the lighting cap 58 forms a "Plenum". Then after lighting the cap 58 may be pumped air to remove most of the obvious warmth emitted by the fluorescent lamps 26, instead of flowing into the zone of growing plants 13 and, thus, complicate the regulation of the temperature zone of growing plants 13.

Floor lighting cap 58 is acrylic sheet 64, which is the ceiling of the zone of growing plants. The upper wall or ceiling 36, lighting cap 58 is highly reflective metallic material. The use of highly reflective material is critical, since the fluorescent lamp 26 emits light in all 360 degrees of the surface of the fluorescent tube. Since the surface of the growing plants P perpendicular to the fluorescent lamps 26, it is important that the light emitted from the surface of the lamp remote from the leaves of plants, reflected back in the direction of the leaves of the plant. To further increase the electrical efficiency of the lighting system 24, electronic ballasts 60 is used to power fluorescent lamps 26.

Another critical feature of the design area lighting hood is the use of fan 62 for movement clear of the heat radiated by the fluorescent is diversified lamps 26 through convection. This feature supports the lamp 26 at optimal temperature of about 110 degrees F. Drain clear of heat emitted from the fluorescent lamps 26, is energy efficient, as well as minimizing the impact on air temperature zone of growing plants 13, since the temperature zone of growing plants 13 must be maintained in the range of 65-75 degrees F, depending on the stage of plant development.

The criterion used in the selection of the fluorescent lamp 26, based entirely on the efficiency of turning the lamp as defined in lumens per watt. This factor is the reason why the zone of growing plants 30 has a length essentially 8 feet. Thus, the full dimensions of the lighting hood is 9 feet long (8-foot lamps), 4 feet in width and 6 inches in height.

The DRAINAGE AREA

The drainage area of the camera 14 is located beneath the floor of the 38 zone of growing plants 13 and serves to collect any fluid flowing from the zone of growing plants 13, allowing convenient to output the coolant. The collection and removal of liquid necessary in order to avoid unnecessary accumulation of fluid and, thus, becoming a source of infection by harmful microbes in and around the chamber 14.

The LIGHTING SYSTEM

The lighting system 24 consists of fluorescent lamps 26 and is of allesto 60 to move the lamps (Figure 4). Fluorescent lamp 26 is used to provide radiation energy required by the process of photosynthesis, are T-8, high (HO, 8 feet long). These lamps 26 provide the greatest efficiency of converting electricity into visible light of all commercially available fluorescent lamps 26, as expressed by the term "lumens per watt".

Fluorescent lamps 26 are driven by electronic ballasts 60 capable of operating in the range of 120-270 volts AC. The use of electronic ballasts 60 additionally increases the overall efficiency of the lighting system 24 for converting electricity into visible radiation (light). Similarly, the ability of the ballast 60 to operate in the range of input voltages allows the use of the lighting system 24 in a variety of environments. Ballasts 60 is placed in the attachment, attached to one of the outer walls of the chamber 14. This reduces the heat produced by the ballasts 60 during their work on air temperature in the zone of growing plants 13 camera 14.

The use of commercially available fluorescent lamps T-8 HO 26 and electronic ballasts 60 is a very important design criterion, which affects the cost of both the original and maintenance costs of the camera for plants 14 and electrical operating cost is. The use of fans 62 to drain clear of the warmth emitted from the fluorescent lamps 26 in lighting cap 58, significantly reduces operating costs compared with the use of mechanical cooling to drain clear of warmth. These design considerations are significant factors that affect the commercial viability of using cameras with adjustable environmental conditions 14 to obtain vredonosnogo material of seed potatoes.

Cycle switching of the lighting system 24 adjusts the input signals to the computer 20, which regulates the conditions of the environment in the zone of growing plants 13 camera 14. The regulation determines when the fluorescent lamp 26 is enabled and for how long during any 24-hour time cycle. Also, the regulation determines whether one third, two thirds or all of the lamps 26, thus, determining the level of radiated energy (light)falling on the plants P, growing in the chamber 14. The ability to adjust the amount included lamps 26 at any time is essential to ensure the correct level or intensity of light at any particular stage of growth and development of plants.

SYSTEM TEMPERATURE CONTROL

System temperature 28 based on the use of commercially available room to the of nditioner 30 sufficient BTU capacity modified in such a way that the temperature in the zone of growing plants 13 can be adjusted in the range 50-86 degrees F (10-30 degrees C). Modification of conditioning allow the conditioner 30 to provide cooling zone of growing plants 13 to 50 degrees F, since all commercially available room air conditioners configured to limit regulation of the air temperature with a minimum of 60 degrees F.

The air temperature in the zone of growing plants 13 camera 14 may be programmed to provide different levels of air temperature during light and dark periods of the 24-hour cycle. Another feature of the system temperature 28 refers to the range of regulation, which can be adjusted in the range of ±1-(+4) degrees F (±0.5 to 2 degrees C). The range of regulation is based on the tolerance of plants P in various stages of development to a certain temperature. It is important that the temperature did not change within the zone of plant growth 13 to promote uniform growth and development of plants.

Any heating options is not granted for the following reasons. When the lamp 26 is turned on, the energy emitted by the lamps 26, raises the temperature of the air in the zone of growing plants 13 beyond a selected reference temperature level, and therefore required the Xia cooling to maintain a selected reference temperature level. When the lamp 26 is turned off, or during the dark period 24-hour cycle, growth and development of plants increased while maintaining the temperature at a lower level than during the light period. This daily temperature cycle reach without the use of heat to maintain the desired temperature control.

The use of commercially available room air conditioner 30, modified to regulate the temperature to 50 degrees F, with a wide range of temperature regulation and the lack of equipment for heating air in the zone of growing plants 13 significantly reduces initial costs and maintenance costs of the camera for plants 14 and electrical operating costs. These design considerations are significant factors that affect the commercial viability of the use of cameras with adjustable environmental conditions 14 to obtain vredonosnogo material of seed potatoes.

SYSTEM ATMOSPHERIC HUMIDITY

The level of humidity in the zone of growing plants 13 camera for plants 14, as defined by the percentage of relative humidity is regulated through a system of atmospheric humidity 32, which includes a number of spray nozzles 28 and the high-pressure pump (~80 psi) 88, which is driven while reducing otnositelnoi humidity is below the selected level (Figure 5). It provides water dust deionized or distilled water from the reservoir 86 outside of the chamber 14 in the growing area 13 of the chamber 14, which evaporates quickly, leading to increase the percentage of relative humidity (moisture). The percentage of relative humidity regulate in the range of 50-95 percent ±3 percent and 5 percent, depending on the stage of plant development.

No conditions are not provided to reduce the percentage of relative humidity (drainage) with increasing percentage of relative humidity is above a certain reference point. Certain checkpoint percent relative humidity is set to reflect the fact that the plant P is insensitive to humidity levels above a certain reference point, but is very sensitive to humidity levels below a certain reference point. These design features reduce the cost of the source, maintenance and operational without any negative impact on the growth and development of plants P in the growing area 13 of the chamber 14. These design considerations are significant factors that have an important bearing on the commercial viability of the use of cameras with adjustable environmental conditions 14 for receiving the mini-tubers of potatoes.

The DELIVERY SYSTEM of NUTRIENTS AND WATER

The delivery system for the nutrients the STV and water 34 consists of a series of nozzles 112, to distribute small sheet spray on plants P, growing in the chamber 14, the nutrient solution from the reservoir 100 that is outside the chamber 14 when the pump is low pressure (~30 psi) 102 is driven in accordance with the prescribed schedule (6). The spray is a specific nutrient solution containing all the essential elements required to support the growth and development of plants. Schedule action of the pump includes the frequency of spraying water and nutrient solution for 24-hour period, as well as the duration of spraying during any action.

This system provides for the operation of automatic watering and fertilizing in P, increasing in the chamber for plants 14. Thus, a critical feature of the design of the delivery system for water and nutrients 34 is the number and location of nozzles 112 to ensure that all plants P in the growing area 13 camera 14 receives an adequate amount of water and fertilizer during the growth period.

The composition of the nutrient solution, along with the frequency and duration of the spray is changed to match the requirements of the plant P during the different stages of development, growth chambers for plant 14 for optimization of methods of cultivation and development.

The COMPUTER SYSTEM of REGULATION

p> The computer system of regulation 20 monitors and records the environmental conditions in the growing area 13 of the camera for plants 14 and actuates or stops the component involved in changing environmental conditions of the camera (Figure 1). Desirable environment zone of growing plants is maintained at certain selected points through a system of computer control 20. The system 20 is connected with a power switch 16, which in turn is connected to the control panel of the camera 19 in each of the chambers 14 through Ethernet cables 18.

An important and critical part of the system computer control 20 is a package of software installed in the computer, which contains instructions for antoninscalia monitoring, control and recording of environmental conditions in the zone of growing plants 13 camera 14. The package of regulatory programs written in a commercially available programming language LabVIEW® (National Instruments, Dallas, Texas, USA). The software package is configured with the capability of monitoring, control and recording of environmental conditions, many of the chambers 14 through one computer.

The control panel of each chamber 21 contains three Field Point® module 70, 72, 74 (National Instruments, Dallas, Texas, USA)driven by a power source DC low voltage (Figure 3). E and three modules include an interface module Ethernet network 70 (FP-1601), which functions as the microprocessor and serves as a means of communication between the network switch 16, and eight-channel analog-to-digital (A/D) Converter module 74 (FP-AI-100), which represents the connection of analog sensors 66, 68, and eight-channel digital output module data (D/O) 72 (FP-DO-400), which represents the connection with the corresponding solid state relay 78, 80, 82, 84 to provide electricity to actuate the various components involved in maintaining environmental conditions in the zone of growing plants 13 camera 14. These three modules 70, 72, 74 are connected through the electrical and mechanical Field Point® terminal bases installed on the DIN rail.

Electrical information formed by the FP-1601 module 70 is processed by software in the computer system 20 for the formation of a database for registration: (1) air temperature in the zone of growing plants 13 (2) percentage of relative humidity in the growing area 13, (3) light level directly under acrylic plastic ceiling 64 zone of growing plants 13, (4) indicating whether the lamp 26 or off, (5) indicate whether the pump nutrient solution 102 is on or off, and (6) indicate whether the pump humidification 88 or off, at the selected time. The time interval between the registration of these parameters is the moat can be pre-selected, starting with one minute to any desired interval, such as every 10 minutes. Thus, the entry represents the state of the parameters at that point in time when data is provided by the software.

The signals formed by FP-DO-400 module 72, is used to actuate the solid state relays 78, 80, 82, 84 to provide electricity to turn on either one third or two thirds, or all of the fluorescent lamps 26, fans 62 in lighting cap 58, units air conditioning 30 and pumps 88, 102 in the delivery systems of the moisture and nutrients 32, 34, respectively. Solid state relays 78, 80, 82, 84 are driven by a DC signal low voltage (~5 watts), but can provide 120 or 240 Volts AC and up to 18 amps of power to various units of the load.

The use of commercially available technology Field Point® as part of a system of computer control 20 greatly reduces the ratio of noise to signal, which is a common and serious problem in many computer approaches to the regulation. This design improves the reliability of monitoring and regulation, which is so important in maintaining desired environmental conditions in the zone of growing plants 13 camera 14. This feature Field Point® modules 70, 72, 74 obviously reduces the possibility of mistakes regulation, which could have a serious negative effect on the survival of the plants P in the chamber 14 and on the commercial viability of the system 10 to obtain valuable plant materials.

Solid-state sensor relative humidity and temperature 66 (Intercap® Humidity and Temperature Probe HMP 50, Vaisala Oyj., Helsinki, Finland) is located in the zone of growing plants 13 camera 14. The DC signal coming from the sensor 66 transmits the signal FP-AI-100 module 74 for monitoring and regulation of the percentage of relative humidity and air temperature in the growing area 13 of the chamber 14. Silicon photodiode 68 is used for monitoring the light level in the growing area 13 of the camera for plants 14 when the lamp 26 is turned on. These sensors 66, 68 are located in the growing area 13 of the camera for plants 14, thus to provide a representative indication of the observed and regulated environment.

METHODS CULTIVATION of PLANTS

The methods of cultivation used in the cultivation vredonosnogo material of seed potatoes, which can be applied to produce high-quality, not containing pathogens seed for commercial growers of potatoes in the scientific literature refers to the origin of the cuttings of the "mother" plants. Significant difference between privatevideotube and described is growing cuttings in chambers with controlled environmental conditions 14, and not in a greenhouse or building sort. Schematic description of the method of obtaining large quantities of vredonosnogo material of seed potatoes by the means of this invention is shown in Fig.7.

The CULTIVATION of the "MOTHER" PLANT POTATOES

"Parent" Mr potato plants derived from germ tissue cultures obtained from organizations that routinely produce such germs of different potato varieties. Such germs extensively tested to ensure that they do not contain pathogenic microorganisms. Sprouts tissue cultures grown in flat containers 15 (trays)containing the soil in the form of a mixture of peat, coarse horticultural vermiculite and perlite, taken in the ratio 1:2:1 (by volume). Flat containers 15 is moved in the chamber having a controlled environment 14. The air temperature in the growing area 13 of the chamber 14 is supported at 77 ± 3 degrees F (25 degrees C) during the light period and, thus, that it does not exceed 68 degrees F (20 degrees C) during the dark period. Light period has a duration of 16 hours dark period has a duration of 8 hours. In the first week of the lighting level is one third fluorescent lamps (low light level), two-thirds of the fluorescent lamps 26 in the second week (the average level of illumination, then all fluorescent lamps 26 (full lighting). The percentage of relative humidity in the zone of growing plants 13 camera 14 is supported within the first five days, so in order not to decrease below 80 percent. After the five-day period, the percent relative humidity of support, so that is not lower than 60 percent and for light and for dark periods.

Foliar application of nutrient solution applied with a six-hour intervals during the light period and once during the dark period. Feeding have a duration of 20 seconds. Nutrient solution has the following composition: Ca(NO3)2•4H2O - 590 mg; KNO3- 253 mg; MgSO4•7H2O - 246 mg; KH2PO4- 136 mg; K2SO4- 68 mg; H3BO31.4 mg; MnCl2•4H2O - 1.0 mg; CuSO4•5H2O - 0.04 mg; ZnSO4•7H2O - 0.1 mg; MoO3- 0,008 mg; iron chelate (14% Fe2O3) - 50 mg per liter of distilled water, brought to pH 5.5 by means of 0.05 N H2SO4.

This program is the cultivation of plants promotes and stimulates the growth of the stem of the mother plant MP rather than tuberization. Approximately 4 weeks "mother" plants MP will have the stalks 20-30 see These stems using a sterile cutting tool is s divided into cuttings 114 approximately 5 cm, each handle 114 has at least one node. After removal of stems mother plant continues to be cultivated in a controlled environment so that you can get re-harvest cuttings 114 from the same "mother" plants MP, because the environmental conditions, especially the duration of the light period, support the plants P in a vegetative state rather than the state education tubers. Thus, many of the cuttings 114 can be obtained from a minimum number of sprouts tissue culture, leading to a significant reduction in operating costs.

The CULTIVATION of PIECES of STEMS (CUTTINGS) FOR SEED POTATOES

As cuttings 114 from the "mother" plant MP take the lower part of the stalks that are immersed for 15 minutes in a solution of stimulating the development of adventitious roots. The composition of this solution, stimulating root growth, contains: 20 ppm (ppm) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 380 ppm 1-naphthalenyloxy acid (NAA), 400 ppm thiamine hydrochloride (B-1) and 1000 ppm KH2PO4. Cuttings 114 then planted using sterile instruments, trays 15, filled with peat material for rooting, coarse horticultural vermiculite and perlite (1/2/1 parts by volume). Cuttings 114 have a distance of 2 inches (5 cm) apart in trays

The trays 15 with cuttings 114 is placed in a chamber having a controlled environment 14. The air temperature in the zone of growing plants 13 camera 14 regulate to maintain 68±4 degrees F (20 degrees C) during the light period and so that it does not exceed 68 degrees F (20 degrees C) during the dark period. Svitavy period has a duration of 12 hours and a dark period of 12 hours. In the first week of the lighting level is one third fluorescent lamps (low light level), two-thirds of the fluorescent lamps 26 in the second week (the average level of illumination). At the end of the second week of the illumination level increases to all fluorescent lamps 26 (full lighting). The percentage of relative humidity in the zone of growing plants 13 camera 14 is supported within the first five days, so in order not to decrease below 80 percent. Over the next five days the percentage relative humidity of support, so in order not to decrease below 70 percent and for light and for dark periods.

Foliar application of nutrient solution applied with a six-hour intervals during the light period and once during the dark period. Feeding have a duration of 20 seconds. Nutrient solution has the following composition: Ca(NO3)2•4H2O - 50 mg; KNO3- 253 mg; MgSO4•7H2O - 246 mg; KH2PO4150 mg; K2SO4- 68 mg; H3BO31.4 mg; MnCl2•4H2O - 1.0 mg; CuSO4•5H2O - 0.04 mg; ZnSO4•7H2O - 0.1 mg; MoO3- 0,008 mg; iron chelate (14% Fe2O3) - 50 mg per liter of distilled water, brought to pH 5.5 by means of 0.1 N H2SO4.

At the end of the three-week cultivation period and over the next five weeks the temperature in the zone of growing plants 13 camera 14 is maintained at 68±3 degrees F (20 degrees C) during the light period and 50±3 degrees F (10 degrees C) during the dark period. The level of coverage depends on all the fluorescent lamps 26. The duration of the light period is 12 hours, and the dark period is 12 hours.

Foliar spraying of water with a mixture of 15 ppm of ancymidol and 10 ppm of kinetin do in the third week and fourth week to enhance the initiation of tuber formation and development of tubers 116. Tubers 116 harvested after seven-eight-week cultivation period.

It should be noted that as described here, the specific options of method of cultivation are provided as examples and can be modified for different potato varieties to optimize the number and size of tubers collected at the end of the rearing period. This option is the ratification, first of all, will relate to the frequency and duration of foliar application of water and nutrient solution and to the composition of the aqueous solution to the sheet of drawing, used for amplification of tuberization.

After 50-60 days from the beginning of the growth cycle, depending on the specific varieties of potato tubers 116 is collected and placed for storage in the conditions required for the removal of tubers from quiescence and education buds before planting in the field. The duration and conditions of storage vary depending on the varieties of potatoes.

Tubers 116 received in chambers with controlled environmental conditions 14, consistently planted in the field 118 for the original breeding. For production fields carefully monitored and treated as needed to control disease and insects these fields. Specific adjustable treatment depend on the geographical location of the field and the nature of the infestation by insects or diseases. Tubers 116 collected from these field plantings, called stocks of seed potatoes "FG-1 and, for example, can be compared to the "Elite Foundation Seed", obtained in the program of the Wisconsin Seed Potato Certification. FG-1 tubers 116 planted in the field 118 to obtain a sufficient number of tubers 116, which may be sold as a material of the seed stock producers of potatoes. Lubni 116, collected from the second field of reproduction, called stocks of seed potatoes "FG-2". FG-2 tubers 116 comparable in quality to the traditional seed Fund available to seed, but will be marked as "certified seed".

Of critical importance in relation to the efficiency of the method set forth above, has the ability of system 10 to continuously monitor and record the temperature, humidity and the presence of light in each cell 14 by means of sensors 66, 68, and then reactive and continuously controlled relay lighting, temperature, deliver moisture and nutrients 78, 80, 82, 84, and related systems 24, 28, 32, 34 depending on the specific potato varieties.

While the invention has been described with reference to a preferred variant implementation, specialists in the field of technology will appreciate that certain substitutions, alterations and omissions may be made without departing from its essence. Accordingly, the preceding description is intended only to illustrate, but not limit the scope of the invention defined in the attached formula.

1. The system of cultivation of potato plants to obtain mini-tubers containing:
at least one camera with automatically controlled environment to maintain and support the growth of potato plants within always the life cycle, containing a temperature sensor, humidity and lighting, vehicle lighting to provide light and dark periods of the exhibition, containing multiple fluorescent lamps located above the potato plants and separated from them by being transparent separator, means for regulating the temperature of the air containing the conditioning to create a temperature variable uniformly throughout the chamber, means for regulating the atmospheric humidity, the delivery of nutrients and water for fertilization and irrigation of potato plants, and computational tool for automatic and continuous monitoring and control of lighting, air temperature, atmospheric humidity, and means of delivery of nutrients and water;
moreover, the system allows you to grow as sprouts tissue culture in the mother plants and cuttings from mother plants in the mini-tubers; the computer means periodically registers the environment settings in the camera, and this camera is made to maintain the temperature of the air at 68-72°F (20-22,2°C) during a 12-hour light period of 12 h, and no higher than 68°F (20°C) during the 12-hour dark period in the first week, during which the cuttings of the plants are illuminated at a low level, which included a third fluorescent the x lamps in the second week on average, which included two-thirds of the fluorescent lamps, and in the third week, with full lighting, where all of the fluorescent lamp is turned on when the air temperature during the light period is maintained at the level 65-71°F (18,3-21,7°C), and during the dark period at the level 47-53°F (8,3-11,7°C) for approximately five weeks after the third week of cultivation, the computer means periodically records the environmental parameters in the camera.

2. The system according to claim 1, in which the chamber is formed by a housing having a top wall, bottom wall, back wall, opposite end walls, essentially transparent acrylic dividing panel, located at a distance below the upper wall, a perforated drain pan, located at a distance above the bottom wall to maintain the trays of potato plants, and a sliding door device in the front of the housing, and the housing forms a light hood for content of fluorescent lamps and contains many fans at the rear and the front of the zone of growing plants between the separation plate and a drainage tray trays content of potato plants in one layer, and drainage area located between the drain pan and the bottom wall.

. The system according to claim 2, in which in the area of plant growth are temperature sensors, humidity and lighting.

4. The system according to claim 1, in which the computer means adjusts the percentage of fluorescent lamps included during the light periods of exposure.

5. The system according to claim 2, in which the camera includes a management tool with a modular means of signal processing associated with relays temperature control relays humidity regulation, relay supply of water and nutrients and relay light control, to supply power to the fluorescent lamps, air conditioner, fan, and pump means to adjust the moisture content and means of delivery of water and nutrients.

6. The system according to claim 5, in which the computer means associated with modular medium capable of recording, at the selected time, the air temperature in the zone of growing plants, the percentage of relative humidity in the zone of growing plants, the level of illumination directly below the divider panel, the status indication on or off lamps and status indication on or off pumps.

7. The system according to claim 1, in which the computer means maintains the temperature of the air within 50-86°F (10-30°C) and relative humidity in the range 47-100%.

8. The way to grow the project of potato plants to obtain mini-tubers, providing stage:
a) providing at least one camera with automatic control of environmental conditions for keeping and maintaining the growth of potato plants during the whole life cycle, containing sensors of temperature, humidity and lighting, vehicle lighting to provide light and timebig periods of exposure containing multiple fluorescent lamps located above the potato plants and separated from them by being transparent separator, means for regulating the temperature of the air, including air conditioning to create a temperature variable uniformly throughout the chamber, means for regulating the atmospheric humidity, the delivery of nutrients and water for fertilization and irrigation of potato plants, and computer means for automatic and continuous monitoring and control lighting, temperature control, atmospheric humidity and delivery of nutrients and water, and to periodically check the status of the various parameters of the medium in the chamber;
b) placement of uncovered cuttings from mother plants potatoes in trays filled with solid growth medium, the cells are in a single layer;
c) cultivating the cuttings in the chamber in a mini-tubers by means of automatic control, monitoring and registration to the duration and intensity of lighting, temperature as a function of time during light and dark periods, the percentage of humidity as a function of time, as well as duration and frequency of supply of dissolved nutrients according to your computer settings, compared with the data coming from the sensors;
moreover, the cultivation of cuttings in the chamber involves the following stages:
maintain the temperature of the air at 68-72°F (20-22,2°C) during a 12-hour light period of 12 h, and no higher than 68°F (20°C) during the 12-hour dark period in the first week, during which the cuttings are covered at a low level, which included a third fluorescent lamps, in the second week on average, which included two-thirds of the fluorescent lamps, and in the third week, with full lighting, where all of the fluorescent lamp is turned on; and
maintain air temperature during the light period at 65-71°F (18,3-21,7°C), and during the dark period at the level 47-53°F (8,3-11,7°C) for approximately five weeks after the third week of cultivation;
d) collection of mini-tubers on 56-64 days of cultivation.

9. The method according to claim 8, in which the mother plant, providing cuttings, cultivated in the chamber separately from tissue culture plantlets for about 4 weeks.

10. The method according to claim 8, in which the om stage cultivation of cuttings is preceded by a stage dive bottom of the cuttings for 15 minutes in the solution, containing 20 ppm (ppm) indole-3-butyric acid, 380 ppm 1-naphthalenyloxy acid, 400 ppm thiamine hydrochloride, and 1000 ppm KH2PO4to encourage the development of roots in cuttings.

11. The method according to claim 8, in which the environment for the cultivation of stage b) is a primer in the form of a mixture of peat, coarse horticultural vermiculite and perlite at a ratio of 1:2:1, and the cuttings are placed in the trays at a distance of two inches from each other.

12. The method according to claim 8, in which stage of cultivation of cuttings in the chamber additionally includes the stage of maintaining relative humidity within the first five days at the level of at least 80% during light periods, and during the dark periods;
maintain relative humidity within the next five days at the level of at least 70% as for light, and during the dark periods; and maintaining the relative humidity within the next 46-54 at the level of at least 50%.

13. The method according to item 12, in which stage of cultivation of cuttings in the chamber additionally includes a step of providing the base sheet application of the nutrient solution with a six-hour intervals during the light period and once in the dark period with a 20-second duration of each application.

14. The method according to item 13, which is nutritional the second solution consists of CA(NO 3)2·4H2On - 590 mg; KNO3- 253 mg; MgSO4·7H2O - 246 mg; KH2PO4150 mg; K2SO4- 68 mg; N3IN31.4 mg; MnCl2·4H2O - 1.0 mg; CuSO4·5H2About - 0.04 mg; ZnSO4·7H2O - 0.1 mg; NGO3- 0,008 mg; iron chelate (14% Fe2O3) - 50 mg per liter of distilled water, and pH of the nutrient solution adjusted to pH 5.5 by means of 0.1 N H2SO4.

15. The method according to item 13, in which stage of cultivation of cuttings in the chamber additionally includes a step of providing a reinforced sheet of drawing 20 ppm of ancymidol and 10 ppm of kinetin during the third and fourth week.

16. The method according to claim 9, in which the cultivation of sprouts of tissue culture chamber includes a step of maintaining the temperature 74-80°F (23,3-To 26.7°C) for 16 h light period and temperatures not exceeding 68°F (20°C) for 8 h dark period during the first week, during which shoots light at a low level, which included one third of fluorescent lamps, in the second week on the average level of illumination, which included two-thirds of the fluorescent lamps, and during the third and fourth weeks full coverage, which includes all fluorescent lamps.

17. The method according to claim 9, in which the cultivation of tissue culture plantlets in Cham the e stage includes maintaining the relative humidity within the first five days at the level of at least 80% during light periods, and during the dark periods; maintaining a relative humidity level of at least 60% during light periods, and during the dark periods for about 22-25 days.

18. The method according to 17, in which the nutrient solution consists of CA(NO3)2·4H2On - 590 mg; KNO3- 253 mg; MgSO4·7H2O - 246 mg; KH2PO4- 136 mg; K2SO4- 68 mg; N3IN31.4 mg; MnCl2·4H2O - 1.0 mg; CuSO4·5H2O - 0.04 mg; ZnSO4·7H2About - 0.1 mg; NGO3- 0,008 mg; iron chelate (14% Fe2O3) - 50 mg per liter of distilled water, and pH of the nutrient solution adjusted to pH 5.5 by means of 0.1 N H2SO4.



 

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