# Method to produce function of distribution of probabilities of initial signal of system

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: analytical method is created to produce signal probability distribution function (PDF) at the system output (initial system). This method is applicable, if: the system is described by analytical function; the system depends on accidental value; PDF of accidental value at the system input is available. There is an inverse function to function that describes system. Created method solves the following formal task. To produce PDF analytically for specified function y(x), if PDF of accidental value x in the interval [a,b] is available.

EFFECT: increased accuracy of production of probability characteristics of initial signal.

1 dwg

The invention relates to the field of measuring technology. The invention can be used to obtain well-defined probabilistic characteristics of the original signal.

The objective of the invention to obtain probability distribution function (DAF) of the signal at the system output.

This object is achieved in that determines the probability of finding analytically the function inverse to y(x) (the function describing the system), and is functional transformation for a given algorithm.

The invention consists in that the method of obtaining WDP is in the implementation of functional transformation y(x) algorithm:

int{S_{x}(x(y))dx/dy}/{int_[a, b](S_{x}(x(y))dx/dy)dy},

where int is an indefinite integral of a function, int_[a,b] is the Lebesgue integral on the field values in the interval x∈[a, b], S_{x}the distribution density of the test signal.

Get WDP analytically for a given function y(x) is possible if the WDP random variable x on the interval [a, b] is known and can be found analytically the inverse function x(y). Let x be a random variable with a given distribution function.

Let the original random variable ξ has a density distribution of S_{x}(x) on the interval [a, b]. Let the function through which the signal passes, is defined as y(x). If the inverse function x(y) on the interval [a, b] is unambiguous, continuous dy/dx vanishes,
then the density distribution of the resulting random variable S_{y}(y) is proportional to:

Using the normalization, we find the absolute value of S_{y}:

where int_[a, b] is a Lebesgue integral over the area of the y values at x∈[a, b] (Not necessarily to the interval coincided c [y(a), (b)], since y(x) may have a gap. For example, y=x^{-1}has a tear on [-1, 1].) Result (2) is the probability density function (MF). The first derivative of WDP is RO. If x(y) ambiguously defined and(or) dy/dx vanishes on [a, b], we use another method. Also for those y that are not values of x(y) in dots dy/dx=0, use the following method:

let y_{0}- the point at which you want to find S_{y}.

1. Get a set of line segments [a_{1}b_{1}], [a_{2}b_{2}], ..., [a_{n}b_{n}], ... each of which y(x) is monotonic and inseparably, dy/dx has no zeros, and there is only one solution for the equation y(x_{n})=y_{0}. In the worst case, the number of such intervals is countable.

2. Take the interval [a_{n}b_{n}], find the probability P_{n}that ξ belongs to this fragment (itwhere- defined the integral of a_{n}to b_{n})get private density:

DG is
- definite integral of y(a_{n}) to y(b_{n}).

3. The total density is the sum of private densities

where sum_n - sum of elements n.

4. The value of the integral (3) and the probability density of S_{yn}(y_{0}) significantly positive values.

5. The result (4) is the RO to obtain WDP need to integrate.

This method can be implemented in a simple blocks. The circuit implementation shown in the drawing, where

- block 1 - block generate signal x(y), the corresponding inverse functions to the test signal y(x);

- block 2 - block of differentiation;

- block 3 - block density functions of the distribution of the test signal;

blocks 4 and 7 blocks the multiplication signals;

blocks 5 and 8 blocks integrators;

- unit 6 - unit exponentiation (-1);

blocks 9 and 10 oscilloscopes.

The output unit 1 is connected to the input unit 2 and unit 3. The output unit 2 is connected to the input unit 4. The output unit 3 is connected to the input unit 4 and unit 5. The output of block 4 is connected to the input unit 7. The output unit 5 is connected to the input unit 6. The output unit 6 is connected to the input unit 7. The output unit 7 is connected to the input unit 8 and unit 9. The output unit 8 is connected to the input unit 10. Signal transmission in the direction from output to input.

The system operates the trail the way. The signal output from the block generating the signal 1 is fed to the input of block 2, which is differentiated, and the input unit 3, which is converted according to the density function for the distribution of the test signal, the output signal from unit 2 to the input of the multiplier 4, which is multiplied by the signal output unit 3, the signal output unit 3 is also fed to the input of block integration 5, which integrates the signal from the output unit 5 is fed to the input of block 6 of the exponent -1, the signals from the outputs of the block 6 and 4 are sent to the input unit 7, which are multiplied together. The output unit 7 is fed to the input unit 8 is integrated, and the input unit 9, which is clearly displayed on the oscilloscope, the output unit 8 is also fed to the input of the oscilloscope 10, which displays clearly.

The technical result of the use of the invention is to obtain accurate probabilistic characteristics of the original signal that can be used, for example, to create a reference source signal systems testing of technical devices.

The method of obtaining the probability distribution function of the original signal with a given density distribution of the test signal in the interval consisting of the transmission signal described by the function inverse to the probability distribution function of the input signal through a differentiator, and the parallel through the block,
converts the incoming signal randomly with a given probability density, then the signal at the output of this block is fed to the first of two multiplier units, where it is multiplied by the output signal of the differentiator, and the first of the two integrators; the signal coming from the integrator is fed to the unit exponentiation -1, the output of which the signal arrives at the second of the two multipliers, where is multiplied by the output signal from the first multiplier and the output signal from the second multiplier is passed through the second of the two integrators, the output of which is a probability distribution of the source signal that can be represented in as algorithm:

int{Sx(x(y))dx/dy}/{int_[a,b](Sx(x(y))dx/dy)dy},

where int is an indefinite integral of a function, int_[a,b] is the Lebesgue integral on the field values in the interval x∈[a,b}, Sx - density distribution of the test signal.

**Same patents:**

FIELD: measurement technology; generating test signals with preset probability characteristics.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for generating test signal incorporating desired distribution probability function F(x) concerning occurrence of instant test signal amplitude values x(t) depends on generation of original signal r(t) with uniform distribution of instant amplitude values within the range of 0 to 1 and its functional conversion; generated as original signal r(t) is determinated signal with period T_{0} for which purpose signal φ(t) varied obeying known law and using desired algorithm is functionally converted.

EFFECT: enhanced precision of generated signal incorporating desired probability distribution function.

1 cl

FIELD: engineering of specialized computer means, possible use for engineering generator equipment, and also solving boundary problems of mathematical physics.

SUBSTANCE: device contains three integrators, multiplication blocks, adder, inverter, analog-digital converter, five analog-digital converters of first group, three analog-digital converters of second group and two memory blocks.

EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities due to reproduction of all classes of orthogonal functions, being solutions of second-order differential equations.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: electric communication area, in particular, engineering of orthogonal functions generators, possible use for engineering generator equipment for communication systems.

SUBSTANCE: generator of functions contains set-point generator, block for forming Walsh functions, element of one-sided conductivity, two-bit shift register, two-input commutator, multiplier and 2^{n} group multipliers.

EFFECT: increased energetic concealment of signals, created by generator.

6 dwg

FIELD: automatics and computer science, possible use in information compression equipment in television, multi-channel communications, telemetry for representing varying messages and signals in Walsh basis.

SUBSTANCE: generator has set-point element, NOT element, shift register, function number register, AND element, trigger, n-digit counter and additional AND element.

EFFECT: simplified generator due to decreased number of triggers, used as shift register digits.

3 dwg, 4 tbl

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to specialised computer means and may be used in systems, where hardware implementation of algorithms of digital signal filtration is required. For instance, when zero level is assessed at the background of pulse signals/noise or under conditions of asymmetrical limitation of dynamic range, relative to zero level. Digital filter comprises digital comparator (1), the first and second reversive counters (2, 3).

EFFECT: simplified hardware implementation of digital filter for assessment of slowly changing median of signal.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises register for storage of input realisation (1), control unit (2), clock oscillator (3), unit for formation of coefficients matrix (4), registers for storage of matrix line (5.N), multipliers (6.N), summator (7), register for storage of output realisation (8).

EFFECT: separation of useful component under conditions of insufficient a priori information on statistical characteristics of additive noise and function of useful component.

1 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: digital device for determining onset of any order has an input terminal, an analogue-to-digital converter, a functional generator, an adder, two registers, a divider, an indicator, two univibrators, a square-pulse generator, a timer and a counter.

EFFECT: more accurate determination of onset of any order.

1 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: system for creating compact description of digital materials has a reception module which can receive digital material, a segmentation module which can breakdown the said material into a set regions, a computation module which can calculate feature vectors for each region from the said set, where the feature vectors are calculated based on matrix invariance which include singular decomposition, an output module which can generate an output result using a combination of calculated feature vectors, where the output result forms a vector of hash-values for the said digital material, where the vector of hash-values is compact presentation of the digital material such that, digital material is identified based on the said compact presentation.

EFFECT: broader functionalities.

9 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics; image processing.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for simulating film grains. In order to determine film grain parametres, apparatus for determining film grain receives an input information stream and a filtered information stream from which film grain has been removed. The apparatus for determining film grain parametres gives out a message from these streams, which contains a model identifier for grain simulating, as well as at least one set from several parametres which include correlation parametres, intensity-independant parametres and intensity-dependant parametres used by the identified model. An encoder encodes film grain information for subsequent transmission.

EFFECT: simulation of film grain for mixing with an image after decoding.

26 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to computer engineering and can be used for evaluating activity index of trainees during training. The device has input registers, dividers, adders, an output register, a display unit, a clock-pulse generator and a pulse distributor.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of the training process and quality of training specialists.

2 dwg

FIELD: physics, computer engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of computer engineering and may be used to assess reliability and quality of functioning of complex automated and flexible production and telecommunication systems of arbitrary structure, in which cyclic character of production, presentation of telecommunication services are used, as well as time reservation. Device comprises control unit, unit of system model, unit of system section condition simulators, unit of failure signal generation, unit of registration, unit of model data check, unit of model data correction.

EFFECT: higher authenticity of production or telecommunication system condition identification under conditions of invalidation of modeled signals parameters that characterise affiliation of specific condition signal to space of faultless operation of the system or to space of failures.

3 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: physics; computer engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to computer engineering and can be used in automated information security media with the objective of monitoring local area networks to detect computer attacks on network resources. The method of detecting local area network devices, operating in network traffic capture mode, involves using a control network node for detecting devices, in which a threshold value for the coefficient of correlation is given. The response time of workstations on the network is then determined. ICMP packets with a submit field, which is not in the probed network, are broadcast on the network, and network loading is recorded. After that, the correlation coefficient of values of network loading parametres and response time of workstations is determined and, if the correlation coefficient exceeds the threshold value, there is a device on the network, operating in network traffic capture mode.

EFFECT: reduced number of false alarms on results of analysing response time of network nodes and increased probability of detecting workstations, operating in network traffic capture mode.

3 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to digital signal processing and measuring techniques. At the first approximation stage a fixed observation time interval is divided into local intervals. At each local interval the task of constructing local approximation models of signals is solved, on the basis of which local estimates are calculated for non-stationary parametric functions of composite oscillatory signals. At the second approximation stage the observation time interval with local models of parametric functions in form of piecewise continuous functions is divided into spline intervals on which the task of constructing a spline model is solved, which approximates piecewise continuous functions of estimates of non-stationary parametric functions. The result of spectral time analysis for estimation of non-stationary parametric functions is construction of spline approximating models.

EFFECT: provision for method of spectral time analysis, directed at effective estimation of parametric functions of non-stationary signals, as well as provision for a device for realising this method.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: proposed invention relates to information measuring devices and can be used in computer engineering, in signal control and processing systems. The devices has a register for storing measurement results (1), delay unit (2), approximation unit (3), register for storing estimations (4), averaging unit (5), control unit (6), clock generator (7), and a comparator unit (8).

EFFECT: pickup of useful signal against a background of noise with minimisation of end effects, in conditions of insufficient prior information on statistical characteristics of adaptive noise and useful signal function given a single realisation of the measuring process.

4 dwg

FIELD: computers.

SUBSTANCE: device has ADC, address multiplexer, memory block, combination adder, division block, counts number counter, control block, quality control block, indication block.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 2 dwg