Heat pipe electric element
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: heat pipe electric element includes housing made from dielectric material and consisting of the cover blanked off on both edges with hot and cold walls made from dielectric material; casing made from electrically conducting material and placed inside the shell coaxially so that its upper and lower edges are toothed along the whole perimetre and tightly pressed with tops of teeth to inner surfaces of hot and cold walls so that triangular holes are formed between teeth and interact with steam transport zone, thus forming evaporation and condensation zones; annular space between the shell and casing is filled with wick made from porous material with homogeneous electrochemical characteristic, which in its turn is filled with working liquid, and upper and lower edges of casing are connected with electric wires to upper and lower external terminals.
EFFECT: improving efficiency and reliability.
The present invention relates to a power system and can be used for utilization of secondary thermal energy and low-grade thermal energy from natural sources, namely the transformation of thermal energy into electrical energy.
Known electrostatic generator containing a pump, piping system, the housing, in which is placed a porous plate (wicks), made from materials which allow to obtain positive and negative charges of the liquid dielectric (dielectric liquid), pumped through them, and to transfer these charges on manifolds [AS. the USSR # 66073, Ál. H02N 3/00, 1940].
The disadvantages of the known devices are cumbersome construction and substantial expenditure of energy to drive the circulation pump, which reduces its effectiveness.
Closer of the present invention is deplorably electrostatic generator, which includes: a casing consisting of a shell, capped at both ends of the hot and cold walls made of a dielectric material and placed inside a shell coaxially of the casing so that between its upper end and the hot wall, the bottom end and the cold wall has gaps, communicating with the channel (area) transportation of steam, forming the evaporation zone and condenses and; vertical U-shaped wall made of dielectric material, transport dividing the area into two equal-size compartments filled with wicks made of different electrochemical characteristics of porous materials, allowing to obtain a positive or negative charges in the working body, the collectors of positive and negative charges, provided with external terminals, and as the working fluid is used dielectric fluid [RF Patent №2327055, Ál. H02N 3/00, 2008].
The main disadvantages of known teletrabajo electrostatic generator are the complexity of the installation, the required size of the gaps between the ends of the casing and the hot and cold walls, the necessity of setting two different compartments with different electrochemical properties placed in them wicks, which complicates its design and modes of operation, limits the scope of its application and ultimately reduces its efficiency and reliability.
The technical problem solved by the invention is to increase the efficiency and reliability teletrabajo electric element.
The technical result is achieved in talocrural electric element, which includes a housing made of dielectric material and consisting of obechi and, plugged from both ends of the hot and cold walls made of a dielectric material; a casing made of electrically conductive material placed inside the shell coaxially aligned so that its top and bottom sides are made of jagged around the perimeter and close the tops of the teeth to the inner surfaces of the hot and cold walls to form between the teeth of triangular holes, communicating with the area transportation vapor, forming a zone of evaporation and condensation, the annular space between the shell and casing is filled with a wick made of a porous material with a homogeneous electrochemical characteristic, in turn, filled with the working fluid dielectric, and the upper and lower ends of the casing are connected by cables with the upper and lower outer terminals.
Figure 1-2 shows the proposed deplorably electric element (figure 1 - General view, figure 2 - cross section).
Deplorably electric element (TEE) includes: a housing 1 made of a dielectric material, consisting of a shell 2, capped at both ends 3 hot and cold 4 walls, also made of a dielectric material; a casing 5 made of electrically conductive material and which is the collector of electric charges placed inside the shell coaxial thus, its top and bottom sides are made of jagged around the perimeter and close the tops of the teeth 6 to the inner surfaces of the hot and cold walls to form between the teeth 6 of the triangular holes 7, communicating with the area transportation vapor 8, forming the evaporation zone 9 and condensation 10; zone transport fluid 11 that is located in the annular space between the shell and the casing filled with a wick 12, made of a porous material with a homogeneous electrochemical characteristic, in turn, filled with the working fluid dielectric; wiring 13 and 14 connecting the upper and lower ends of the casing 5 with the upper and the lower outer terminals 15 and 16, respectively.
Based on the proposed TEE is the ability of the dielectric fluid to be electrified when moving through pipelines, and especially through the porous walls, in which the amount of current electrification may increase by several orders of magnitude [Art and other Electrification of liquids and its prevention. - M.: Chemistry, 1975, p.15-25], as well as high efficiency of heat transfer in heat pipes, which are divided into three sections: the zone of evaporation (heat supply), the adiabatic zone (heat transfer) and the condensation zone (exhaust heat), covered inside with a wick made of a porous material is but partially filled with the working fluid (liquid) - carrier heat, which used water, alcohols, and other organic liquids, freon, liquid metals, etc [HIV and other Secondary heat flow meters and environmental protection. - Minsk: Enter. school, 1988, p.106].
Offer TEA works as follows. Before you begin from the housing 1 TTEE remove the air and pumps the working fluid is a dielectric with a specific electric resistivity of not less than (10-12) Ω·m, which is also selected depending on thermal capacity of the cold and hot environments (fitting to remove air and working fluid supply figure 1-2 not shown), in the number of larger pore size of the wick 12 by the amount of steam condensate occupying the volume of the zone transportation vapor 8. Terminals 15 and 16 connect with the consumer current, after which the housing 1 TEA set so that the hot wall 3 will become hot, and the cold wall 4 with cold. As a result of heating of the hot wall 3 in the evaporation zone 9 the evaporation of the working fluid produces steam, which passes at high speed through the area transportation vapor 8, enters the condensation zone 10, is condensed there by contact of the outer surface of the cold wall 4 with the cold environment, then the resulting condensate dielectric liquid is absorbed p is Rami wick 12 through the gaps triangular holes 7 and under the influence of capillary forces and evaporation in the evaporation zone 9 adiabatically transported through the pores of the wick 12 (manufactured for example, organic fibers, where the liquid is electrified with the acquisition of positive and negative charges are collected on the casing of the collector 5, creating a potential difference, and through wires 13 and 14, the terminals 15 and 16 is supplied to consumers, and raredisease fluid through the triangular gap 7 is fed to the evaporation zone 9, where the above-described evaporation process and the cycle repeats.
Thus, the proposed TEE provides the ability to generate electric energy by utilization of thermal energy potential (energy, waste water, waste gases and so on), thermal resources natural sources (solar energy, water, etc), which ensures its high efficiency in various sectors of the national economy.
Deplorably electric element, comprising a casing consisting of a shell, capped at both ends of the hot and cold walls made of a dielectric material, a casing placed inside the shell coaxial, wick, filled with the working fluid dielectric, characterized in that the casing is made of electrically conductive material and located so that its upper and lower ends of the gear made around the perimeter and close the tops of the teeth to the inner surfaces of hot and Ho is one of the walls to form between the teeth of triangular holes, communicating with area transportation vapor, forming a zone of evaporation and condensation; the annular space between the shell and casing is filled with a wick made of a porous material with a homogeneous electrochemical characteristic, and the upper and lower ends of the casing are connected by cables with the upper and lower outer terminals.
SUBSTANCE: integrated heat tube includes housing forming a closed vacuum chamber having heat transfer medium and a group of heat conductors connected to the closed chamber. Each group contacts the closed chamber and heat transfer medium. Radiating surface of heat tube can be considerably enlarged owing to changes in construction of heat conductors. Method for ensuring large heat dissipation surface for integrated heat tube involves steps at which there made is corrugated thin-wall channel or heat-absorbing construction or any of their combinations. There made is curved surface for corrugated thin-wall channel for fluid medium, or curved surface for thin-wall channel for fluid medium in the form of a closed tube, or curved or bent surface for heat-absorbing construction or any of their combinations. There made is a group of thin-wall channels for fluid medium inside the closed chamber. Method of developing the construction of heat-absorbing end of integrated heat tube, which involves the steps at which the heat-absorbing end shall be smooth and flat or smooth and protruding or smooth and deep, there provided are cavities passing through opposite sides or through one and the same side of the housing. There made is heat-absorbing end of heat tube in the form of closed corrugated thin-wall curved surface; at that, there made are groups of finned curved surfaces, there made is metal plate having cavity, channel for molten substance, and air discharge channel. Method of heat exchange in integrated heat tube, which involves the steps at which there provided is heat absorption owing to contact with heat source on the surface of heat-absorbing end of heat tube housing; at that, heat is transferred to the same heat transfer medium in the same closed chamber through surface of heat-absorbing housing end. Method of heat exchange in rotary integrated heat tube using liquid medium involves the steps at which there used is round cross-section of heat tube housing as heat-absorbing end for heat absorption owing to contact with heat source during high-speed rotation when heat tube rotates at high speed.
EFFECT: large cooling area, high heat transfer speed, low heat resistance.
63 cl, 23 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering, and namely to heat tubes intended mainly for freezing of soil with the purpose of reinforcement of foundations and bases of various facilities erected on permanently frozen soils. In gravity-assisted heat pipe containing tight housing partially filled with liquid heat carrier and having evaporation and condensation zones and with transportation zone, housing in evaporation zone and in transportation zone or in any of those zones has at least one insert made in the form of bellow connected with cylindrical tips to the housing sections between which an insert is located, bellow is enclosed in flexible metal sleeve the ends of which are fixed on the above tips; the insert is also equipped with rigid removable casing for fixing mutual position of the housing sections between which there is an insert made with possibility of being located around the above sleeve and attached to the housing sections adjacent to the insert.
EFFECT: design of the tube provides high degree of manufacturability, transportation and installation thereof to operating position on the object.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for cooling of ground and can be used in construction industry. Heat pipe includes tubular housing, condenser of which is located above the ground surface, and evaporator - in cooled ground, which are provided with external finnings, filler pipe for vacuum treatment and filling of heat pipe with heat carrier with its further sealing. Heat pipe is provided with removable refill capacity tightly installed on the end of heat pipe condenser by means of coupling nut and by using annular seal. Filler pipe is connected to cavity of the above capacity, through end wall of which in direction of longitudinal axis of heat pipe there tightly installed is female wrench for the sealing screw installed in the edge of condenser along longitudinal line of heat pipe. From lower edge of sealing screw there made is central channel with side outlet for passage of heat carrier from cavity of removable refill capacity to cavity of heat pipe. Side outlet is located above annular seal of sealing screw when it is not completely screwed and below the above annular seal when the screw is completely tightened. Heat pipe is provided with sealing element in the form of a plug for installation instead of removable refill capacity after filling is completed.
EFFECT: increasing heat pipe efficiency.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: control method of heat pipe filling quality involves heat supply to one of its sections and measurement of temperatures at two points on opposite ends of heat pipe on both sides from heat supply zone. Temperatures are measured at heat pipe points at several heat flux values in the range of zero to maximum operating value. Then curve of difference of measured temperatures of heat flux value is built, and as per this curve, the conclusion is drawn whether there is non-condensed gas in heat pipe or not.
EFFECT: improving sensitivity and accuracy of quality control of heat pipe filled with heat carrier.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed coaxial multi-heat pipe engine comprises evaporation and condensation chambers consisting of vertical shells with their inner surface coated with strips and grid made from porous material and wick, all having their open end faces connected to covers of appropriate distribution (separation) sections. Evaporation chamber separated, from below, by concave perforated entrainment separator, accommodates distributing manifold furnished with nozzles arranged at the evaporation shell centers. Evaporation and condensation chambers communicate, via O-ring, with working chamber housing coaxially mounted power turbines. The latter have the peripheral edges of their vanes rigidly attached to inner wall of said working chamber, along normal to said inner wall surface. Distributing manifold center accommodates cylindrical vessel and feed pump communicated with distributing manifold of evaporation chamber.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: inventions are intended for heat removal and can be used in aircraft. Cooling device includes tube system which is tightly closed in relation to ambient atmosphere, has thermal coupling in heat reception section with heat source, and in heat transfer section - with heat absorber and which has adiabatic transfer section. Tube system is filled with heat-transfer medium. In heat reception section and/or in heat removal section there provided is heat exchanger which connects heat source and heat absorber to tube system. Heat absorber includes aircraft external wall section. Cold accumulator is provided between heat source and heat absorber. Method of heat removal from heat source to heat absorber consists in the fact that tube system tightly closed in relation to ambient atmosphere is filled with heat transfer medium which, during heat removal from heat source in heat reception section, is changed from liquid phase to gaseous phase and supplied to heat transfer section in which it is again condensed and moves back to heat reception section. Fan is used to control heat transfer between heat source and heat exchanger.
EFFECT: reducing costs for cooling and increasing heat transfer.
15 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is aimed at heat exchanging and can be used in energy sector. A heat recovery unit comprises a casing divided by a leakproof baffle into the cells for the cold and hot media, and a heat tube bundle passing through the cells and fixed in the baffle. The cold medium cell is divided into two chambers by a wall being perpendicular to the baffle between the cold and hot media cells, namely into the cold medium preheating chamber and final heating chamber. The former chamber is filled by heat tubes along its total height and the latter chamber is made with a tank which is free from the heat tubes and made in the chamber upper part. The chambers are interconnected by a pipeline. Heat tubes in the hot medium cell or in the cold medium cell or in both cells can be ribbed.
EFFECT: expanded applicability and high economic parametres of the performance along with high heat engineering efficiency and reliability.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for heat transfer and can be used for ensuring operation of mechanical devices submerged into liquid medium. Thermal siphon contains housing, the working volume of lower chamber of which is filled with liquid, cone by means of which the lower chamber with steam line for transporting steam is partitioned, steam generator in lower chamber and condenser in upper chamber. Condenser is cooled surface of upper chamber of thermal siphon, some part of lower chamber is intended for air accumulation and other gaseous impurities originally contained in thermal siphon. Valve for releasing some air to the outside is installed in lower chamber.
EFFECT: invention allows improving heat transfer effectiveness in thermal siphon from heated part to cooled section by intensifying heat transfer during condensation in conditions of high air content of the system.
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: this heat pipe is intended mainly for freezing of soil. Pipe includes tight housing filled up with heat carrier and having evaporation and condensation zones, and transport zone, as well as thermoelectric elements, cold surfaces of which have thermal contact to external surface of housing wall in condensation zone, and hot surfaces - to heaters. Peculiar feature of pipe is that housing is provided with external surface of wall having rectangular shape (60) in cross section in condensation zone at the internal cross section in that zone, which does not change as to housing length. Thermoelectric converters (6) are installed on all four sides of external surface of housing wall, and heaters are made in the form of finned plates (8) so that they form cavity (9) enclosing the housing, and free internal volume of the above cavity is filled with low heat-conducting material with low saturation coefficient.
EFFECT: increasing heat transfer ability of heat pipe.
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention is meant for steam generation and can be used in steam boiler design. Steam boiler includes drum, furnace, steam collector, and superheater. Furnace longitudinal axis is offset downwards relative to longitudinal axis of cylindrical drum. Furnace is made in the form of hollow cylinder closed with covers on both sides, and in upper arch of which rectangular through channels are provided at some distance from each other in longitudinal and cross directions. In the above channels there inserted are heat transfer devices installed so that longitudinal axis of each of them is located in radius line of furnace and passes through centre of circle of the latter. Heat transfer devices are made in the form of heat pipes, each of which has rectangular hollow duct whereto covers are welded from above and from bellow, and inside each heat tube there is liquid filling up 1/4 of the volume, which has been supplied through the hole made in upper cover, which is closed with a plug. Lower parts of heat pipes, being heating and evaporation zones, protrude to furnace volume. Upper parts of heat pipes, being condensation zones, are located in the form of a fan in upper part of cylindrical drum and have cooling ribs.
EFFECT: invention provides more complete and faster use of generated heat, its supply to the whole volume of water and its uniform heating, increasing boiler capacity, life time.
FIELD: cooling equipment, particularly heat exchange apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: device to remove heat from heat-generation component includes coolant stored in liquid coolant storage part, heat absorbing part including at least one the first microchannel and installed near heat-generation component. Heat absorbing part communicates with storage part. Liquid coolant partly fills microchannel due to surface tension force and evaporates into above microchannel with gaseous coolant generation during absorbing heat from heat generation component. Device has coolant condensing part including at least one the second microchannel connected to above coolant storage part separately from the first microchannel, gaseous coolant movement part located near heat-absorbing part and condensing part and used for gaseous coolant movement from the first microchannel to the second one. Device has case in which at least heat-absorbing part is placed and heat-insulation part adjoining heat absorbing part to prevent heat absorbed by above part from migration to another device parts.
EFFECT: reduced size, increased refrigeration capacity, prevention of gravity and equipment position influence on device operation.
22 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat pipe comprises vertical housing with evaporation and condensation zones and partially filled with heat-transfer agent and coaxial hollow insert in the evaporation zone which defines a ring space with the housing and is provided with outer fining. An additional hollow cylindrical insert of variable radius made of a non-heat-conducting material is interposed between the condensation zone and coaxial hollow insert. The outer side of the additional insert and inner side of the housing of the heat pipe define a closed space.
EFFECT: reduced metal consumption.
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger comprises housing separated into chambers of evaporation and condensation with a baffle provided with heat pipes which are arranged in both of the chambers. The zones of evaporation of the pipes are positioned inside the evaporation chamber, and zones of the condensation of the pipes are positioned inside the condensation chamber. The heat pipes inside the evaporation chamber are made of wound pipes of oval cross-section. The zones of condensation of heat pipes are also made of wound pipes of oval cross-section .
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
1 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: heating engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat pipe can be used for heat transmission and temperature control procedures. Heat pipe has evaporator provided with capillary-porous nozzle and capacitor. Evaporator and nozzle are connected by vapor line and condensate pipeline. Nozzle is made of electric-insulating material, for example, of ceramics. Grid-shaped electrode is mounted at the inner side of nozzle. The electrode is connected with rod electrode, which is mounted inside airtight isolator at edge part of evaporator.
EFFECT: improved heat power; prolonged length of heat pipe.
FIELD: heat-power engineering; utilization of low-potential heat, heat of soil inclusive.
SUBSTANCE: proposed thermosiphon includes heat pump with thermosiphon containing working medium capable of changing its liquid state to gaseous state and vice versa; it includes evaporation and condensation parts; thermosiphon is provided with hermetic thermal tube whose working medium is capable of changing its liquid state to gaseous state and vice versa; it also has evaporation and condensation parts; condensation part of thermal tube bounds cavity of heat pump evaporator together with outer housing, cover and lower platform; said cavity is provided with branch pipes for delivery of liquid phase of heat pump working medium and discharge of gaseous phase of heat pump working medium in such way that condensation part of thermal tube forms inner housing of heat pump evaporator; mounted in between of outer and inner housings of heat pump evaporator is intermediate housing which is provided with holes in lower part for passage of liquid or gaseous phase of heat pump working medium circulating inside its evaporator; tubes-nozzles mounted between inner and intermediate housings are directed vertically upward for admitting liquid phase of heat pump working medium under pressure; heat pump evaporator has inner surfaces. Besides that, outer, inner and intermediate housings of heat pump evaporator are taper in shape and are so located that have common vertical axis of symmetry; inner surfaces of heat pump evaporator and inner housing are finned.
EFFECT: considerable reduction of thermal head between soil and working medium in heat pump evaporator; reduced overall dimensions; possibility of utilization of energy of compressed liquid fed from heat pump condenser to evaporator.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: heat transfer equipment, particularly to carry heat for long distances, for instance refrigerators.
SUBSTANCE: heat-exchanging system comprises closed loop including main heat-exchanging channel, heat carrier agent pumping device, additional heat-exchanging channel and heat-carrier supply channel connecting the main and additional heat-exchanging channels. Heat carrier agent pumping device may withdraw heat carrier agent in vapor or vapor-and-liquid state from one heat-exchanging channel and supply above vapor or vapor-and-liquid heat carrier agent under elevated pressure into another heat-exchanging channel. Heat carrier agent supply channel is formed as channel with capillary partition closing the channel. During heat-exchanging system operation the capillary partition obstructs vapor penetration or vapor-and-liquid flow. The vapor penetration obstruction is defined by cooperation between meniscuses and inner surfaces of capillary channels formed in the partition. The vapor-and-liquid flow obstruction is defined by bubble meniscuses cooperation with inner surfaces of capillary channels of the partition. The heat carrier agent pumping device may withdraw vapor or vapor-and-liquid heat carrier agent from any heat-exchanging channel and pump above heat carrier agent under elevated pressure in another heat-exchanging channel.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of heat-exchanging system.
14 dwg, 18 cl
FIELD: applicable for heat abstraction in various media.
SUBSTANCE: the heat transferring device has a sealed pipe with condensation and evaporation zones filled up with a heat-transfer agent with pockets provided on the inner surface, the pockets used for inhibition of draining condensate are located in the evaporation zone and made annular or formed by the sections of the helical surface adjoining the pipe inner wall with its lower edge at an acute angle, which are separated from one another by radial partitions, the annular pocket is formed by the side surface of the truncated cone, adjoining the inner wall of the mentioned pipe with the larger base. Besides, at least some of the pockets located one above other are positioned at such a distance that a capillary effect occurs between the surfaces facing one the other.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of heat transfer due to the increase of the pipe surface wettable by the heat-transfer agent, as well as simplified structure an facilitated actuation of the device.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: chemical and oil industry.
SUBSTANCE: reactor comprises housing, means for supplying initial components and discharging finished product, unit for heating and cooling made of a number of heat pipes, additional catalyzer applied on the heat pipes and/or housing and made of a coating. The heat pipes are staggered in the space of the housing. The total area of the surface of the heat pipes in the catalytic zone should provide heating and cooling the catalytic zone.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: electric mechanical engineering, possible use for cooling electric generators and electric engines.
SUBSTANCE: in proposed system for cooling electric machines, containing compressed air source with force pipeline, splitting vortex pipe, having as a result of energy division to hollows - hot one and cold one, thermal pipe made inside the hollow shaft of electric machine, as a special feature, along axis of hollow shaft a tubular channel is made for passage of cold flow from splitting vortex pipe, and space, formed by external surface of tubular channel and internal surface of hollow shaft is thermal pipe, condensation area of which - external surface of tubular channel, and evaporation area - internal surface of hollow shaft.
EFFECT: efficient and even cooling of electric machine, simplified construction, increased manufacturability.
FIELD: control of temperature of spacecraft and their components.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measurement of temperatures in spacecraft temperature control zones, comparison of these temperatures with high and low permissible magnitudes and delivery of heat to said zones at low limits. Heat is delivered by conversion of electrical energy into thermal energy. Power requirements are measured at different standard time intervals of spacecraft flight forecasting orientation of its solar batteries to Sun. Magnitude of electric power generated by solar batteries is determined by forecast results. Measured magnitudes of consumed electric power are compared with forecast data. According to results obtained in comparison, flight time is divided into sections at excess of energy generated by solar batteries over consumed power, equality of these magnitudes and shortage of generated energy. High magnitudes of temperature are maintained at excess energy sections by conversion of difference of generated energy and consumed energy into heat. In case of reduction of generated energy in the course of changing the orientation of solar batteries on Sun, temperature in these zones is reduced to low limits at simultaneous equality of energies. In case of further increase of generated energy, temperature in said zones is increased to high limits at equality of energies. Then, in the course of change of generated energy, temperature correction cycles in temperature control zones are repeated.
EFFECT: avoidance of excess of consumed energy above generated energy of solar batteries.