Power take-off device for transport facility

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises p.t.o.-shaft intended for engagement with mechanically driven appliance. Input shaft allows coupling with rotary drive, e.g. engine. Stepless-control transmission 19 is switched between input shaft and drive force transfer shaft and features smoothly controlled gear ratio. Stepless-control transmission is configured to adjust torque and automatically compensate for p.t.o.-shaft rpm variation by changing gear ratio of said shaft.

EFFECT: higher reliability.

17 cl, 6 dwg

 

The present invention relates to devices for PTO and transport.

Used here, the term "device power" refers to devices designed to transmit drive force of the rotation from the engine (or other rotational actuator such as a motor vehicle to any point of use, other than the driven wheels of the vehicle. Short for the term will be expressed as "RTO". Agricultural vehicles such as tractors, are usually equipped with RTO to connect with slave devices, such as reapers, mowers, trailers with driven wheels and the like. Usually RTO consists of a drive shaft connected to the engine by the transmission of a certain type, and provided with means for forming a detachable connection with the shaft of the device. RTO is used not only for agricultural vehicles. Military vehicles also use RTO to implement the driving trailers with driven wheels and other means, and in addition, there are other areas in which CNS are or may find application.

Conventional agricultural RTO is usually designed to operate at a constant speed. Transmission with constant gear number is ω, usually separated from the transfer vehicle, provides one or several gear ratios, and diesel motor with adjustable speed is set to a fixed speed to provide the desired frequency of rotation of the output RTO. Between the motor and CNS requires the clutch disengaged to separate them when not required actuator RTO.

These conventional technical solutions RTO suffer from several disadvantages. One face in "run", i.e. the application of drive power output RTO for acceleration from idle to the desired operating speed. The slave device often has a large moment of inertia and needs acceleration for a considerable period of time to reach its operating speed. When first enacted, the clutch, the mismatch between the frequency of rotation of the motor shaft and RTO leads to a sudden and unwanted sharp jolt and may cause engine stop. The operators learned to repeated engagement and disengagement of the clutch in order to start that is a rough approach, which can lead to equipment damage. Desirable may be more controlled starts.

Another problem arises in respect of trailers with driven wheels. Many agricultural and military vehicles the s means transmits the driving force to the wheels of the trailer by PTO, that helps a vehicle, for example, to cross rough terrain. The speed on the ground at the wheels of the trailer are not always equal to the speed of rotation of the driven wheels of the vehicle. When driving in rotation, for example, different wheels describe ways with different radii and thus intersect the ground with different speed. The relative frequency of rotation of the wheels, however, is fixed due to the gear ratios, which provide a leading transmission (transfer), which typically do not provide for the presence of differential transmission. The result becomes inevitable slippage of the wheels, which is accompanied by a very large and undesirable recirculation of power through the transmission (transfer). Despite the strength of agricultural vehicles, happen as a result of costly breakdowns. The problem occurs not only when turning, but also because of the differing sizes of wheels, uneven ground, etc. it would be desirable to provide some means of drive RTO, which would coordinate their speed with the rotational speed of the driven wheels of the vehicle, while providing the necessary torque of the wheels of the trailer.

Another problem of known variants RTO in terms of energy efficiency. Usually the standing puredata the specific number chosen on the basis of that the engine operates with high speed, such as allowing you to obtain maximum power or close to it value. This is the place to be transmitted to the slave device requires a high power without deviating from the required drive speed. As a result, even if the device requires a relatively low power, the engine must operate at the same constant speed, which leads to unnecessary fuel consumption.

The final difficulty arises when varying the load on the CNS. An example could be the use of the forage harvester, fixture, which is mounted on the vehicle for collecting the crushed material and which consumes more power. When the forage harvester is particularly densely forested area, increases the torque required to drive it. The power required to maintain speed RTO, may exceed obtained from the engine. In this situation it is desirable to prevent the slowdown RTO instead of stopping the engine. Preferably you should maintain a high engine speed to obtain a high power engine.

Previously it was proposed to use infinitely adjustable p is the transfer, i.e. transmission capable of continuously changing the gear ratio to drive the RTO. Reference in this regard refers to the published international Patent application US2003/0070819, application No. 10/236589 name Hrazdira. It describes the benefits, to ensure the use of infinitely-variable transmission (CVT), such as improved starting and flexibility in the frequency of rotation of a drive motor. Remain problems associated with managing. For example, conventional VT by itself does not protect the engine from stopping in the event of excess load.

The search conducted by the European patent Agency in relation to the present invention, reference EP 1106870 (Kawasaki Jukogu Kabushiki Kaisha). It describes a device designed to drive the aircraft generator from a jet engine with a constant speed. In the device for regulating the rotational speed of the generator is used partially or in full toroidal variator, but it is obvious that it is a device with an adjustable gear ratio. Reference is directed in this respect to Fig. 10 in the corresponding description of the invention in paragraph 55. In the same search drew attention to U.S. patent No. 4186616 (Sharpe), which also applies to transmission intended for aviation drive the alternator. Here COI the box is used variator of the toroidal-type but it is not specified whether the torque is adjustable. Of course, the drive of the alternator in the plane is not a unit of power, designed for the vehicle in the sense in which it is used here the term.

According to the first aspect of the present invention, a device drive for power take-off (RTO) of the vehicle, which includes a shaft RTO, designed and made with the possibility of connection to a device with a mechanical drive, the input shaft, constructed and arranged to connect with the rotary actuator, and infinitely-adjustable transmission connected between the input shaft and the shaft RTO for the transmission of drive force between them with infinitely-adjustable gear, characterized in that infinitely-adjustable transmission is designed and executed to control the reactive torque and automatically compensate for changes in the frequency of the rotation shaft RTO by changing the gear ratio.

The rotational drive can be an internal combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine, but the invention in its basic idea is applicable to vehicles in which instead is used to provide drive rotations is of motors, the external combustion engines, etc.

Especially, it is preferable that the transmission contains a unit change of the gear ratio ("variator"), which has a rotational input of the variator and the rotational output of the variable-speed drive and constructed and arranged to control the reactive torque, which is defined as the sum of the torques at its input and output. This kind of functionality can be provided by using a toroidal CVT with power rollers.

Preferably, the variable was associated with a controller designed to regulate the reactive torque to obtain a constant speed RTO during normal operation. The term "normal", which is used in this context, eliminates run, in which the rotational speed RTO should certainly consistently be changed, and the conditions under which the load on the RTO becomes excessive. Regulation of reactive torque may be based on feedback from the shaft speed RTO.

The present invention provides particular advantages in situations in which the load RTO becomes excessive, which may in known devices RTO to overload the motor and cause it to stop. The natural reaction to such p is regresso transmission, regulating torque is to provide deceleration of the shaft RTO due to a change in the gear ratio that reduces the power consumption of the motor (not forcing it to change the speed, so the engine can be maintained at the same level) and increases the torque on the shaft RTO. In practice, the transfer reaction is exactly what is needed to maintain the proper functioning of the devices driven by the RTO and the engine. The situation is somewhat more complicated in the case when, for example, is a regulator seeking to maintain the shaft speed RTO. In this case, the validity of the regulator preferably several changes in response to potential overload.

The controller preferably limits the reactive torque to avoid excess load on the engine, so that in response to excessive load applied to the shaft RTO, the regulator limits the reactive torque and slows the rotation of the shaft RTO due to the fact that the applied load is automatically compensated for by changing the gear ratio of the variator.

Especially, it is preferable that the transmission further comprises a planetary shunt gear, functionally connected to the variator and RTO.

In one such is ariante implementation of appropriate inputs shunt gear connected to the input shaft through the variator and timing chain with a constant gear ratio, so at a certain transmission including a variator two parallel input balance each other and provide the neutral position to the engaged position, in which the shaft RTO remains stationary despite the fact that it is mechanically connected to the moving input shaft. In some such embodiments, the implementation may cancel the coupling intended to detach the RTO from the input shaft.

Without coupling it is desirable to ensure a certain way "neutral" state in which the shaft can rotate freely. This result can also be obtained by using the present invention. Preferred embodiments of contain the means of information, the reactive torque of the variator to zero and ensure thus quasi-neutral state in which the shaft RTO can rotate freely even though it is mechanically connected to the input shaft.

Preferably means are provided to regulate the running RTT of the quasi-neutral state by increasing the reactive torque of the variator to generate a drive torque on the shaft RTO, while the regulator automatically compensates for the subsequent acceleration of the shaft RTO due to the change of the gear ratio.

According to the second variant of the present invention, a method for regulating the selection of m is snasti vehicle, containing the shaft RTO, designed and made with the possibility of connection to a device with a mechanical drive, the input shaft, constructed and arranged to connect with the rotary actuator, and infinitely-adjustable transmission connected between the input shaft and the shaft RTO for the transmission of drive force between them, which regulate the reactive torque transfer and a change gear ratio of the transmission according to the change of the rotation frequency at the output caused by the application of torque to the release of the next transmission to the inertial load related to the shaft RTO.

Next will be described the specific embodiments of the present invention, given solely as examples, with reference to the accompanying drawings, on which:

figure 1 is a schematic and simplified view of the portion of the toroidal CVT with power rollers used in the variants of implementation of the present invention;

figure 2 is a perspective view of the CVT of the same type;

figure 3 is a very schematic representation of the transmission engaged drive PTO according to the present invention;

figure 4 is a very schematic representation of the transmission to drive implementation of RTO in lasaosa the present invention;

figure 5 is a very schematic representation of an additional transfer for the implementation of the actuator RTO embodying the present invention;

6 is a very schematic representation of another additional transmission to drive implementation of RTO embodying the present invention.

In embodiments of the invention, to be described below, the drive device of the PTO is the rotational actuator (typically a diesel engine vehicle) through the transmission and, more specifically, a device with a steplessly variable transmission ratio (CVT), which works by regulating rather torque than the gear ratio. This principle is known from various publications of the applicant and others (including ER, published under No. 1606135), however, it seems paradoxical to readers familiar with more conventional transmission, and will be explained hereinafter with reference to the example of a toroidal transmission with power rollers. It should be noted, however, that can be made of other types of transmission, operating principle, torque control, for example, which can be seen in published European patent application 0736153 (Torotrak (Development) Ltd.).

The variator 10 shown in figures 1 and 2, is not himself myself a new one. The drawings are highly simplified and are intended simply to show how it works. More details about the design can be found in previous publications of the applicant, which includes, for example, European patent application No. 0894210 and 1071891 (Torotrak (Development) Ltd.). In Fig. 1 shows an input shaft 12 of the variator and the output shaft 14 of the variator, between which transfer drive force from the device containing the driving disk 16, a driven disk 18 and the set of rollers 20, only one of which is shown in figure 1. Master and slave disks mounted for rotation around a common axis (the axis 21 of the variator) and have turned to each other surfaces 22, 24 having such a shape that together they form an essentially toroidal cavity 26 containing the rollers 20. The rollers 20 roll on profiled surfaces of both disks and are used to transmit the drive force from one drive to another. Between the rollers and the discs stored film stage for minimizing the wear on the surface of the partition and the drive force is transferred through shear in this film. The disks are shifted to each other, usually by means of a hydraulic actuator, not shown here, to create pressure on the boundary surface, necessary for the implementation of this transfer drive force.

Each R is lik 20 set, what is provided for him three degrees of freedom: (1) it is able to rotate around its own axis under the influence of disks; (2) he is able to move back and forth around the circumference of 27 around the axis 21 of the variator; and (3) he is able to "precessional", i.e. to rotate around the axis of precession 28, which is not parallel nor relative to the roller axis or about the axis of the variator, thus altering the inclination of the roller. This is achieved in the illustrated CVT by conducting roller holder 30, which is connected through the piston rod 32 and piston 34. The piston 34 is enclosed within the cylinder 36, forming a hydraulic actuator, intended for application to the roller controlled next effort with the component along its circular movement direction 27.

It should be noted that the axis of precession 28 is not perpendicular to the axis 21 of the variator, but tilted relative to the perpendicular under longitudinal angle SA of the axis of rotation. In addition, the roller is exposed to the control pressure in the disk on which it is rolling, seeking to ensure that the movement of the roller and the adjacent disc is parallel to their surface section. This is equivalent to say that the control action tends to maintain the intersection of the axis of the roller with the axis 21 of the variator. As a result, there in amatavivat between the position of the roller on the circle and its inclination. When moving the roller back and forth he also precessive, i.e. changes its slope.

The rollers have a tendency to coherent motion and the tilt of the roller corresponds to the transmission number of the variator. When changing the inclination of the rollers, the radius of the path that they are on one disk, is reduced, while the radius of the path traversed by the other disk is increased, thus altering the relative speed of the two disks, i.e. changing the gear ratio.

Let us now consider the torques acting about the axis 21 of the variator. The motor shall drive the master drive 16, applying to it the input torque Tin. The roller is driven by the leading disk 16 and, in turn, provides the drive is the slave drive 18, attaching to it the output torque Tout. The roller is exposed to the reactive torque, sending it along a circular path and is defined by the sum of the input and output torques (which act in opposite directions). Reactive torque also depends on having a place at the moment of inclination of the roller. For maintaining the position of the roller it is necessary to counteract the reactive torque, and in the illustrated embodiment, the opposing torque is developing g travelcheck actuator 8, 34, 36.

It should be noted that although the above discusses one roller, the same argument applies jointly to the entire set of rollers. Disks tend to lead them in a circle around the axis of the variator. This counteracts the effective torque applied to the rollers of the respective actuators. If we neglect any torque, which is involved in the acceleration of the roller nodes, reactive torque Tin+Tout must be equal to the effective torque applied by the Executive mechanisms. Regulation effective torque (or equivalent can talk about circular force applied by each actuator) provides regulation of reactive torque. In the example shown with the use of hydraulic actuators, the pressure of the working fluid together is applied to the opposite sides of each actuator, and the difference between two values of the pressure of the working fluid determines the reactive torque of the variator.

While figure 1 shows only a pair of disks forming one toroidal cavity, in practice, variable-speed drives usually have two pairs of disks forming two cavities, each of which contains the corresponding set of rollers. Figure 2 shows such a device is on, in which most components are direct copies of the variant shown in figure 1, and denoted by the same reference positions, although additional master and slave drives are denoted respectively as 16A and 18a. It should be noted that the output shaft 14 is located between the two slave drives 18, 18a. The driving force from the shaft can be selected, as is well known, through the circuit on the intermediate shaft or through certain coaxial device.

It is generally assumed that the transmission is configured to receive a fixed gear ratio and accordingly will self-adjust mode, which can be designated as "control gear". This is not so in the case of the transfer of the above-described regulator regulating a torque. Instead, the regulator regulates torque (in particular, the reactive torque) and automatically configures itself to compensate for subsequent changes of the gear ratio. Figure 3 attempts to illustrate the principle on which it is based. And in this case, the variator 10 is shown very schematically, when shown only the master and slave disks 16 and 18 and the only roller 20. The input of the variator is connected through gears with the engine, and drawing gear and the engine pok is explained simply in the form of block 50, with the moment of inertia Je (which is created by the engine, gear and parts of the variator), and attaches to the variator leading torque of The engine. The output of the variator is connected through gears to the shaft of the device of the PTO and, thus, with a particular external tool. Block 52 represents and the resulting moment of inertia Jv relating to the output of the variator (associated with the inertia of the gear parts of the variator and moving parts of the tool), and the braking torque Tv, applied to the output of the variator thanks to the work performed by a work tool, as well as losses due to friction. Recall that the reactive torque Tin+Tout is governed by the variator. The ratio of Tin/Tout is determined by the current gear ratio of the variator. Therefore, the values of Tin and Tout (if we ignore the shortcomings of the variator) are determined by the reactive torque of the variator and the current gear ratio of the variator. At the output of the variator get effective torque Tin-Tout, allowing you to accelerate the inertia of the output Jv. If the effective torque is not equal to zero, the rotational speed of the output will change. The regulator automatically compensates for this change by changing your gear ratio (by moving and precessional rollers),and the change of the rotation frequency at the output and the gear ratio of the CVT continues until reaching equilibrium, where Tout is Tin. In principle, the same applies, mutatis mutandis, to the input side of the variator: any imbalance between engine torque Te and the torque Tin, created by the variator at its input should lead to a change in rotational speed at the input of the variator, aimed at restoring the equilibrium. However, the drive RTO is often a diesel engine with a speed control that automatically adjusts its torque output to maintain a selected engine speed, so that, in practice, the engine itself can adjust your torque Those to achieve essentially constant speed at the input of the variator.

The regulator regulates torque at its input and output and automatically adjusts to the gear ratio is obtained due to the impact of these torque to inertia at the input and output, instead of having to adjust your gear ratio (as in most other CVT), and creates a torque on the input and output necessary to achieve this gear.

As noted above, for connecting the variator between the engine and the PTO provided a gear. 4 shows a very simple device in which drive of the variator 10 implementing tsetse through the stepped gear R1 from the engine 100 and is connected through the clutch 102 and gear R2 device PTO 104. The clutch 102 is used to detach if necessary engine from RTO 104 and to run.

A more complex solution is presented on figure 5, which uses a planetary gear mechanism, designated here as "shunt" 150. It is a common type of device known in connection with transmissions intended for the implementation of the drive wheels of the vehicle. The basic principle of a planetary gear is very well known and will not be described here in detail. It contains three input shaft connected respectively with (1) a sun gear, (2) the annular gear wheel, and (3) a planet carrier on which set of planetary gears that are in mesh with the sun gear and the annular gear wheel. In the shown device, one of the shafts of the shunt resistor 152 is connected through a gear R1 motor 153. Another shaft shunt 154 is connected to the engine through the variator 10 and gears R2, R3. The third shaft of the shunt resistor 156 is connected via a final gear R4 with RTO 158. A device of this type is sometimes described as a device with recirculation of power, because power circulates through a closed circuit formed by the shunt and the variator. It has an important advantage, because it provides a means for endlessly is to reduce the speed or "neutral gear". At a certain transmission including a variator inputs 152, 154 in shunt balance each other, so that the output 156 is fixed despite the fact that physically he is connected with the moving engine. Thanks to this tool neutral gear device does not require the clutch to disconnect the RTO from the engine.

Of course, for the user is familiar undocking such couplings in order to achieve a "neutral" position in which RTO rotates freely. However, this can easily be achieved in the shown device through the use of variable-speed drive with adjustable torque, by setting the variable to receive the zero reactive torque. In this case, if we neglect the losses on the friction torques at the input and output of the variator respectively equal to zero. The output is in a state of free rotation, while the gear ratio of the variator is changed as needed to compensate for subsequent changes in the rotational speed RTO. For example, if the device is in this quasi-neutral condition, while the RTO is connected with a moving load, such as pick-up, driving force is not available anymore on the load, which, of course, stops, while before the exact number of the progressive transmission automatically shifts to neutral gearing allowing the engine to continue to operate. In the above-described variable-speed drive with hydraulic control quasi-neutral state is achieved by equalizing the pressure on both sides of the piston 34.

An alternative device is illustrated in Fig.6, does not form a neutral gear, and therefore need the clutch 200. Its advantage is that it allows to reduce the share of power flowing through the variator. Arriving at the RTO torque and power can be large. It is desirable to skip as much power through the transmission gear and as you lower through the variator, and both enhances the efficiency and reduces the weight and volume of the variator. This shunt device 201 has a first shaft 202 connected through a gear R1 with the engine; a second shaft 204 connected through gear R2 with a side entrance of the variator 10; and the third shaft 206 connected to the RTO 207 gear R3. The third shaft 206 can additionally be connected with the outlet side of the variator by engagement of the clutch 200. When the clutch 200 is cleaved, the variator and the second shaft 204 move on freeplay. As a result, the shunt as a whole can also go to free play. No drive power from the first shaft 202 to the third shaft 206 is not transmits from the, and the device thus becomes neutral. When engagement of the clutch variator determines the total gear ratio and a certain power must be recycled through the variator, but with proper selection of gear ratios, you can guarantee that it will account for only a small part of the overall transmitted power.

The control device RTO likely to be achieved using solely mechanical or hydraulic device, but the preferred method of control involves the use of a microprocessor receiving input signals indicating the instantaneous rotation frequency at the input and output and other operating variables, and issuing commands to the hydraulic valves that control the variator and, where appropriate, an associated clutch. The control valves regulator regulates the pressure applied from two sides of the piston 34 of the variator, and determines thus the reactive torque of the variator.

Management tools at the disposal of the user, are simple. A typical implementation involves the use of control "on / off" to switch between a neutral and a work position and the variator (and, if available, clutch) respectively controlled by a microprocessor is Often required, to agricultural RTO worked with a constant rotational speed, such as 1000 rpm, the User can get the opportunity of selecting the speed of a certain range or from a separate set of alternative values. And, finally, possible to provide controls that allow the user to adjust the level of torque on the output during start - in essence to control the speed of the run.

As noted above, used to drive the RTO engine in many cases will be a motor with adjustable speed, i.e. he is able to keep a specified number of revolutions. In addition, in many cases, the output RTO will be required constant speed. During normal transmission, the desired rotational speed of the output is depending on the choice of speed input and the gear ratio. It should be noted, however, that the described regulator regulating a torque does not provide the possibility of direct regulation of the transmission ratio. Therefore, in order to maintain the desired rotational speed of the output, you need a management tool that allows you to adjust the reactive torque of the variator in accordance with the need to maintain speed RTO output. This can be, for example, achieved with p the power of the centrifugal regulator, but in this case, the preferred solution is to this task of the microprocessor. The simplest solution is to regulate the reactive torque on the basis of feedback from the rotational speed of the output, using, for example, proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller. The usual alternative to regulation constant speed RTO is the connection speed RTO with the speed of the vehicle relative to the earth. This can be achieved by sending information about the speed relative to the ground on the controller, or by driving RTO and wheels of the vehicle from the same transfer.

The use of variable-speed drive with adjustable torque allows you to stick to easy techniques when starting RTO. A simple method of managing device of the type shown in figure 5, is a simple switch when starting with zero reactive torque at a certain fixed value of the reactive torque that is set using control valves variator. It should be noted that this is not equivalent to the sudden engagement of the clutch in the conventional device RTH, where there is a danger of engine stop due to a mismatch of speeds of the engine and RTO. The increase of reactive torque from sdet torque output RTO and leads to a corresponding torque to the engine, but does not require any drastic change of the gear ratio. Instead, the load RTO is able to accelerate from rest with an intensity determined by its inertia, while the engine continues to run with a given number of revolutions, and the regulator automatically compensates for subsequent gradual change of the gear ratio. In addition, the device shown in figure 5, automatically provides a "soft start", in which the load applied to the motor increases gradually. In order to understand why this happens, recall that neutral gearing is the result of an infinite speed reduction in the transmission from the motor to the RTO. When neutral gear engaged (neglecting friction) load applied to the motor is zero regardless of the torque generated at the output RTO. With increasing rotation frequency at the output of the regulator maintains a constant value of the reactive torque, but the torque load of the engine to the torque output RTO is gradually increasing. More complex methods start providing control over the acceleration of the load, can be easily implemented using a microprocessor. When RTO contains a clutch, you can use separately the hydraulic system for regulating pressure attached to the coupling, and the values of the control pressure regulator. On the other hand, and to the variator and the clutch can be applied the same hydraulic pressure, which gradually increases when you start to get a soft start.

Problems stopping the engine during normal operation, unlike running, also easily solved by using the present invention. The load on the driven using RTO working tools may vary within wide limits, for example, due to the coupling properties of the material being processed. For example, common forage harvester plot with particularly wet or thick grass may (during normal device RTO using a constant gear ratio) to overload the motor, which, with insufficient power to maintain its number of turns, stalls. Let's see what happens in this situation with your device RTO with adjustable torque. The load on the RTT increases. If the reactive torque of the variator is not regulated, this leads to the fact that the load on RTO exceeds the available drive torque. Therefore, RTO slows down, and the regulator automatically compensates for the subsequent change of the gear ratio, supporting the specified reactive torque. If estvo engine speed can be maintained. The reduction gear ratio leads to an increase in torque output RTO, so at some point may be reached equilibrium in which the engine is capable of actuator RTO with a constant, albeit reduced, the number of revolutions. The situation is somewhat more complicated due to the application controller, which seeks to maintain a constant output RTO, but in this context there is a direct application of this method, which simply limits the reactive torque on the basis of the maximum load that can be applied to the motor, allowing the variator if you need to work as described.

The above-mentioned problems associated with the RTO, used to drive the wheels of the trailer or articulated vehicles in case of discrepancy between the frequency of rotation of the wheels. These problems can be easily solved by using a RTO of the type described here, because there is no need to set the speed RTO and, consequently, wheels, drive them out. Instead, the reactive torque determines (at this gear) torque applied to the wheels. Their speed can be freely changed as necessary to be consistent with the General speed of the vehicle, when subsequent changes p rectocele number automatically compensated for by the variator. Perhaps the use of sophisticated techniques, which provides for the regulation of the torque of the wheels in accordance with the elevation requirements of the actuator, etc.

As for the efficiency of the engine, possible improvements compared to conventional devices drive RTO through the coordinated control of the engine and the transmission is engaged, the drive RTO. Thus, for example, you can reduce the number of revolutions of the engine when the need for power is small, with variator configured to maintain the rotational speed at the output, which reduces fuel consumption.

1. The drive device for a vehicle power take-containing shaft RTO, designed and made with the possibility of connection to a device with a mechanical drive, the input shaft, constructed and arranged to connect with the rotary actuator, and infinitely-adjustable transmission connected between the input shaft and the shaft RTO for the transmission of drive force between them with infinitely-adjustable gear ratio, when the specified device contains a controller that restricts the reactive torque to avoid excess load on the engine, so that in response to excessive load applied to the shaft RTO, the regulator limits the jet is routashi time and slows down the rotation of the shaft RTO due to the fact, that the attached load is automatically compensated for by changing the gear ratio of the variator and infinitely-adjustable transmission is designed and made with torque control and automatic compensation of changes in the frequency of the rotation shaft RTO by changing the gear ratio.

2. The device according to claim 1, wherein the transmission contains a unit change of the gear ratio ("variator"), which has a rotational input of the variator and the rotational output of the variable-speed drive and constructed and arranged to control the reactive torque of the variator.

3. The device according to claim 2, in which the variator is a toroidal variator.

4. The device according to claim 2, containing regulator for regulating the reactive torque of the variator to obtain a constant speed RTO during normal operation.

5. The device according to claim 4, in which regulate the reactive torque on the basis of feedback from the shaft speed RTO.

6. Device according to any one of claim 2 to 5, containing planetary shunt gear, functionally connected to the variator and RTO.

7. The device according to claim 6, in which the corresponding inputs shunt gear connected to the input shaft through variate and through the timing chain with a constant gear ratio, so at a certain transmission including a variator two parallel input balance each other and provide the neutral position to the engaged position, in which the shaft RTO remains stationary, although it is mechanically connected to the moving input shaft.

8. Device according to any one of claim 2 to 5, containing the vehicle information, the reactive torque of the variator to zero and ensure thus quasi-neutral state that allows free rotation of the shaft RTO, despite the fact that it is mechanically connected to the input shaft.

9. The device according to claim 8, containing the means of adjustment start RTO of the quasi-neutral state by increasing the reactive torque of the variator to generate a drive torque on the shaft RTO, while the variable-speed drive automatically compensates for the subsequent acceleration of the shaft RTO by changing the gear ratio.

10. The device according to claim 9, designed and made so that when this reactive torque and rotational speed of the engine torque output decreases with increasing rotation frequency at the output.

11. Device according to any one of claim 2 to 5, containing the coupling and separation of the functional connection between the input shaft and the shaft RTO.

12. The device according to claim 11, in which the reactive KRU is ASCII the time of the variator and the clutch is made with the possibility of hydraulic control thus means are provided for feeding the same hydraulic pressure to both.

13. The method of regulation of the power takeoff of the vehicle containing the shaft RTO, designed and made with the possibility of connection to a device with a mechanical drive, the input shaft, constructed and arranged to connect with the rotary actuator, and infinitely-adjustable transmission connected between the input shaft and the shaft RTO for the transmission of drive force between them, which regulate the reactive torque transfer and a change gear ratio of the transmission according to the changes of the rotational speed on the output caused by the application of torque to the release of the next transmission to the inertial load related to the shaft RTO, while reactive torque limit controller for avoid excess load on the engine, so that in response to excessive load applied to the shaft RTO, the regulator limits the reactive torque and slows the rotation of the shaft RTO due to the fact that the applied load is automatically compensated for by changing the gear ratio of the variator.

14. The method according to item 13, which include the transfer unit changes the gear ratio ("variator"), which has a rotational input of the variator and the rotational output of the variable-speed drive and constructed and arranged to control the reactive torque, which is defined as the sum of the torques at its input and output.

15. The method according to 14, which provide a quasi-neutral state by reducing the reactive torque of the variator to zero.

16. The method according to item 15, wherein at state provide in response to the user's request.

17. The method according to any of p-16, in which the trigger device connected with the RTO, from a static position, in which the reactive torque is set to zero by increasing the reactive torque to generate a drive torque on the shaft RTO and automatically changes the gear ratio of the variator to offset the subsequent acceleration of the shaft RTO.



 

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4 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: variator transmission consists of input shaft (18), input disk (10) installed on input shaft and rotating with it and output disk (12) facing input disk and coaxially rotating with it. Input and output disks (10, 12) form a toroid cavity between them. In the toroid cavity there are positioned only two rollers; also the first and the second rotating rollers are arranged on the first and the second roller carriages. Facility (34, 36) of end load holds rollers down to contact with the input and output disks for motion transfer. Two roller carriages are mounted on opposite sides from the axis of lever pivot. Pivot axis of the lever travels in one, preset radial direction relative to rotation axis of input and output disks.

EFFECT: simplified and inexpensive variator.

27 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system comprises gearshift element including rod and lever parts, gearshift fork parts, multiple rod elements of gearshift mechanisms jointed to said fork gearshift parts. Lever part move to select and shift gear and gets pressed against selected gearshift ledge element. Every said element comprises a separate tooth-like ledge. Said lever part moves to selection axis and rotates about the latter to exert force in gearshift direction on one side of selected element tooth-like ledge and to exert force in gearshift direction on opposite side.

EFFECT: reduced gearshift time interval.

5 cl, 14 dwg

Building vehicle // 2390679

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: vehicle consists of motor, of hydraulic pump, of running hydro-motor, of running wheel, of adjustment block, of vehicle speed measurement block. The adjustment block is designed to operate under mode of reduced slipping in the range of low speed, when speed of the vehicle is less or equal to specified speed. This is designed to reduce maximal speed of motor rotation, when speed of the vehicle decreases.

EFFECT: reduced hazard of slipping.

6 cl, 9 dwg

Transmission // 2374532

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: transmission comprises gear shift element (51) displacing towards gear shift and gear shift selection directions, gear shift lever (40) having a pair of fork parts (41) spaced apart in gear shift direction and gear shift fork (20-23) linked with gear shift lever via gear shifter (30). Aforesaid element (51) is moved to displace one of aforesaid fork parts to wards gear shifting to selectively move gear shift lever to make gear shifting with the help of gear shift fork and gear shifter rod. Aforesaid pair of fork parts (41) is arranged spaced apart towards gear shifting direction.

EFFECT: fast and efficient gear shifting.

4 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of motor transport machine building. System of automatic transmission control comprises pump, hydraulic distributor of modes having three positions, slide type pressure controller, hydraulic distributors of transmissions, pump filter, distributor filter, lubricating throttle, heat exchanger. In the first position hydraulic distributor of modes connects forward manifold and backward manifold to drain cavity. In the second position hydraulic distributor of modes connects forward manifold to the main manifold, and backward manifold to drain cavity. In the third position hydraulic distributor of modes connects forward manifold and backward manifold to the main manifold. Hydraulic distributors of transmissions are arranged as electromagnetic, and supply power fluid via control manifold to hydraulic cylinders of transmission control elements. Slide type pressure controller comprises stem with two pistons - left and right - that separate the stem into three sections. Pump filter is installed in supply channel between drain and controller drain channel. Distributor filter is installed in main manifold between pump and hydraulic distributor of modes. Lubricating throttle is installed in lubricating manifold, through which liquid is supplied to lubrication system. Heat exchanger is installed between lubricating system and lubricating throttle.

EFFECT: higher reliability of automatic transmission.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: machine engineering, namely stable-speed drives of subsidiary aggregates.

SUBSTANCE: drive includes planetary ball gearing 1000 with gradual variation of gear ratio; step motor, worm gearing. Planetary ball gearing includes planetary members having rolling contact with inner and outer raceways and it may gradually vary gear ratio in range 0.3 - 1.0. Inlet shaft of said gearing is joined with primary propeller such as crankshaft of transport vehicle engine through driving belt B1. Gearing includes at least one outlet shaft coaxial to inlet shaft. Processor analyzes revolution number of crankshaft and respectively varies gear ratio with use of step motor joined with worm gearing for keeping stable revolution number at outlet regardless of revolution number of crankshaft.

EFFECT: possibility for keeping stable revolution number of gearing regardless of revolution number of crankshaft of primary propeller.

21 cl, 18 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: infinitely variable gear box comprises a number of velocity governors. Driving disk (34), driven disk, and cylindrical bearing member (18) are in contact with the first, second, and third points on each of the velocity governors. Disk (60) of the thrust bearing transmits rotation to the driving disk. At least two generators of axial loading are interposed between the driven and driving disks and disk of the thrust bearing and can apply the axial loading to the driven disk.

EFFECT: improved structure.

62 cl, 27 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: friction toroidal variator comprises inlet disk (2) and outlet disk (3) provided with toroidal surfaces, friction roller (5), spider whose one axle is provided with roller (5), holder (8) of friction roller, control mechanism, and mechanism for control of gear ratio. The second axle of the spider is fit in holder (8) of the friction roller that can rotate around the main axle of the variator. The control mechanism and mechanism for control of gear ration are made of gear sector (9) that rotates on the second axle of the spider secured to the first axle of the spider and housing (12) by means of worm gearing and spring (15) secured in housing (12) and connected with holder (8) directly or through the reduction gear.

EFFECT: simplified control and control of gear ratio.

8 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: variator comprises rotating driving member (69), at least three power controllers, bearing member (18) for the friction contact with each of the power controllers, at least one platform (13a) and (13c), at least one unmovable base (5a) and (5c), and a number of shaft holders. Each shaft holder slides over the convex surface of platform (13a) and (13 c) and concave surface of unmovable base (5a) and (5c) and controls axis of rotation in response to the axial movement of the platform.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability and simplified structure.

73 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: mechanics.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method and system are peculiar in that motion transfer element (5) is selected with such a diametre which allows it to be located on preset first center-to-center distance from second motion transfer element (23) equal to said first center-to-center distance between first and second motion transfer elements (21, 23). Support holder (3) incorporates partially motion transfer element (5) and one intermediate element (37) arranged between flange (31) and gearbox (1).

EFFECT: simplified design to produce various gear ratios.

6 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: all-wheel drive vehicle power train incorporates the main and auxiliary transfer boxes with the auxiliary transfer box output shafts being linked, via drive lines, with the third and rear driving axle differential gears and the said box input shaft being connected with the main transfer box output shaft of the front driving axle differential gear drive. The main transfer box is arranged between the front and the third driving axles attached to the side member in the area of the medium traverse, while the auxiliary transfer box is located between the third and rear driving axles attached, at an angle to the side member, to the auxiliary transverse lower surface jointed to the side members, the said lower surface axis passing at an angle to the side members other than a right angle. All axles feature identical design and overall sizes. The rear driving axle differential gear is shifted towards one side member relative to differential gears of the other axles shifted towards the other side member. Note that all power train assembly units are arranged below the rectangular frame top surface.

EFFECT: higher performances.

1 dwg

FIELD: road machinery.

SUBSTANCE: proposed machine contains prime mover with cab and engine 3 which is connected with mechanical gearbox 4 through clutch 5 provided with clutch release pedal 6. Power takeoff box 15 is mechanically coupled with gearbox 4. Mounted equipment is provided with power coupling with gearbox 4. Said coupling is made in form of hydraulic system including hydraulic pump 17 driven by power takeoff box 15. To change over gearbox 4 of prime mover clutch 5 is released by pressing on pedal 6. This breaks mechanical coupling between engine 3 and gearbox 4. Simultaneously with release of clutch 5, bracket of pedal 6 closes electric switch of hydraulic valve 20, and power coupling between gearbox 4 and mounted equipment is interrupted after change over of gears, pedal 6 is returned in upper position and clutch 5 is engaged. Simultaneously, bracket breaks contacts of electric switch, thus restoring power coupling between gearbox 4 and mounted equipment.

EFFECT: improved reliability of gearbox.

2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power takeoff for vehicle auxiliaries. Proposed power takeoff has case, hollow drive shaft, drive gear made integral with drive shaft or secured on said shaft, idler gear, driven shaft and driven gear made integral with driven shaft or secured on said shaft, and engagement mechanism. Front end of drive shaft is connected with engine flywheel by means of splined and flexible disk. Clutch mechanism is installed on rear end of drive shaft, said mechanism being installed in power takeoff case.

EFFECT: provision of reliable and simple design power takeoff, simplified of gearbox and clutch.

1 dwg

Clutch // 2291791

FIELD: mechanical engineering; transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to tractors and it can be used in mechanisms provided with clutch with power takeoff to transmission and power takeoff shaft or other auxiliary mechanism. Clutch has cover plate secured on flywheel, pressure plate connected with cover plate by tangential plates, driven disk with hub connected to said disk which is installed between pressure plate and flywheel, diaphragm spring installed on cover plate, and coupling plate with hub. Coupling plate has radial lobes and it is arranged between diaphragm spring and pressure plate, being connected by ends of lobs with cover plate. Lobes of coupling plate are arranged in posts made in cover plate.

EFFECT: reduced axial size of clutch, improved manufacturability and facilitated centering of hub of coupling plate.

6 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed transmission 3 for amphibian vehicle contains engine 12, gearbox 14 and differential 16. Axis of crankshaft of engine 12 can coincide with longitudinal axis 32 of vehicle or it can be parallel to longitudinal axis. Gearbox 14 is installed crosswise relative to engine perpendicular to engine. Gearbox can be manual, with successive change of gear ratio, automated, manual automatic or stepless. Drive shaft 42 of transmission set into motion by engine crankshaft drives propulsion unit 48 of vehicle, and gearbox 14. Engine can be displaced from central line of vehicle.

EFFECT: provision of transmission for amphibian vehicle in which conventional cross automobile transmission is used adaptable for amphibian vehicle.

10 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed power gear train includes engine, transmission located in line with it and intermediate power takeoff unit located between engine and transmission; output of power takeoff unit may transmit power to unit of drive working during motion on water; it is mounted in rear part of transport facility by means of shaft. Transmission output is designed for transmission of power to differential mounted in rear part of transport facility. Power takeoff unit is located behind transmission and shaft passes below or through engine oil sump.

EFFECT: enhanced arrangement of power gear train.

10 cl, 2 dwg

Power train // 2268167

FIELD: transport engineering; amphibian vehicle power train.

SUBSTANCE: proposed power includes engine with crankshaft, clutch or fluid coupling and transmission installed in line with engine crankshaft. Transmission has input shaft set into rotation from flywheel. Moreover power train contains additionally power takeoff unit designed to drive power takeoff shaft which is made for transmission of power to propulsion set intended for moving vehicle over water. Power takeoff unit has drive device secured on end of crankshaft on which flywheel is mounted. Drive device is made for transmission of power to power takeoff shaft.

EFFECT: improved layout of power train.

19 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: power takeoff case in all-wheel-drive vehicles is mounted in separate housing, being installed on chassis frame on its own suspension brackets between gearbox and transfer case and is connected through propeller shaft with flange of gearbox drive shaft and through second propeller shaft, with transfer case. According to second designed version, power takeoff case is also mounted in separate housing and installed on chassis frame on its own suspension brackets between gearbox and rear axle of vehicle, being connected by propeller shaft with flange of gearbox main shaft and by second propeller shaft, with rear axle of vehicle. Drive shaft of power takeoff case is made sectional and is provided with engagement clutch connecting members of shaft. And clutch for connection of driven gear with shaft is arranged on output shaft.

EFFECT: improved reliability and simplified design of power takeoff mechanism.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to vehicles, preferably, tractors, equipped with power takeoff mechanism with independent drive. Proposed power takeoff mechanism contains drive shaft, bushing connected with drive shaft and arranged in groove of vehicle engine crankshaft, and pins installed in holes and connecting bushing with crankshaft. Novelty is that holes for pins are made in place of contact of bushing and crankshaft groove and are formed by longitudinal recesses on contact surfaces of bushing and groove. Engine flywheel is secured directly on end face of crankshaft.

EFFECT: simplified design of mechanism, improved manufacturability and reduced overall dimensions.

2 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to vehicles, preferably, tractors, equipped with power takeoff mechanism with independent drive. Proposed power takeoff mechanism contains drive shaft, bushing connected with drive shaft and arranged in groove of vehicle engine crankshaft, and pins installed in holes and connecting bushing with crankshaft. Novelty is that holes for pins are made in place of contact of bushing and crankshaft groove and are formed by longitudinal recesses on contact surfaces of bushing and groove. Engine flywheel is secured directly on end face of crankshaft.

EFFECT: simplified design of mechanism, improved manufacturability and reduced overall dimensions.

2 dwg

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