Sound-absorbing elements of premises
SUBSTANCE: in sound-absorbing elements of a premise, containing profiled and perforated walls, between which there is a layer of sound-absorbing material, besides, one of walls is arranged as smooth, and sound-absorbing material is arranged in two layers, one of which, more rigid one, is arranged as solid and profiled, and the other one, soft one, is arranged as interrupted and is located over surfaces of the first layer. Sound-absorbing elements of premises comprise frame, window, door openings, openings to locate lamps and acoustic barriers, arranged in the form of rigid and perforated walls, between which there is a sound-absorbing material arranged in two layers. One layer, a more rigid one, is arranged as solid and profiled, of complex profile, made of inclined faces, directed downwards and joined with horizontal faces, where resonant holes are provided, and the other one - soft one, is arranged as interrupted and is located under sound-reflecting surfaces of the first layer. Besides, solid profiled layer of sound-absorbing material is made of material, sound reflection coefficient of which is higher than coefficient of sound absorption.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of sound absorption.
The invention relates to acoustics, in particular to broadband samohlasen, and can be used in all sectors of national economy under the maximum sound attenuation functions of production equipment by the method of absorption.
The closest technical solution to the technical essence and the achieved result is shumopogloshchenija panel by A.S. USSR N348755, CL F01N 1/04, 1970 , comprising a perforated wall and an absorbent layer, in which the side walls are made of a pyramidal cell with vertices facing the inside of the layer.
The disadvantage of the prototype is relatively low effectiveness of sound attenuation due to partial reflection of sound waves from the absorber and relatively narrow (very high frequency) the range of noise control.
The technical result - increasing the efficiency of absorption by extending the frequency range and the secondary absorption of the sound waves reflected from the absorber.
This is achieved by the fact that the sound-absorbing elements of the room containing shaped and perforated walls, between which is placed a layer of sound absorbing material, and one of the walls is made smooth, and the sound-absorbing material is in two layers, one of which, more rigid, made a solid and profile is included, and the other, soft, made discontinuous and is located beneath the surface of the first layer, sound-absorbing elements of the premises contain a frame, window, door openings, openings for placement of lamps and acoustic enclosures are made in the form of a rigid and perforated walls, between which is located an absorbent material located in two layers, one of which, more rigid, made a solid and profiled, complex profile, consisting of inclined faces that are directed downward and connected to the horizontal edges, which are made of resonant holes, and the other, soft, made discontinuous and is located under the sound-reflecting surfaces of the first layer and solid profiled layer of sound-absorbing material made of a material whose coefficient of reflection of sound is greater than the coefficient of sound absorption.
Figure 1 shows a diagram of the premises, figure 2 - design sound absorbing acoustic fencing areas, figure 3 - element design of the absorber above the most noisy equipment.
Sound-absorbing elements of the premises contain the skeleton of a plant (not shown), window 2 and 8, the door 9 openings, the openings 5 for placing lamps and acoustic enclosures 1, 3, 4, 10, 12 (1). Acoustic enclosures (figure 2), done is installed in the form of a rigid 13 and perforated walls 14, between which is located an absorbent material located in two layers, one of which, more than 20 hard, made a solid and profiled, complex profile, consisting of inclined faces 15 and 17, directed downward and connected to the horizontal edges 18, which is made of resonant holes 19, and the other, a soft 16, made discontinuous and is located under the sound-reflecting surfaces of the first layer 20.
Solid profiled layer of sound-absorbing material 20 made of a material whose coefficient of reflection of sound is greater than the coefficient of sound absorption.
Items 6 and 7 of the absorber above the most noisy technological equipment 11 contain a frame 21 which is hooked over the hooks 22, for example, wires (not shown), or directly attached to a rigid wall or ceiling industrial premises. The frame 21 is covered with the outer side of the foil, preventing the deposition of dust. To the bottom 23 of the frame with the inner side of the fixed reactive resonance box 24, separated by partitions 25 and 27, with the holes 26 and 28 that performs the functions of the necks of Helmholtz resonators installed in this case series. The active part of the elements of material is a filled with sound-absorbing material 29 of the cavity between the frame of the meters 21 and the insert 24. Filling exercise absorbent non-flammable material (for example, Vinprom, fiberglass) with a protective layer 30 of glass, preventing the loss of absorbent material. The shape of the frame 21 and the insert 24 can be any (for example, round or polyhedral shape), and the frame 21 may be perforated to increase the surface absorption.
The equipment 11 is installed on the vibration-insulating supports (not shown), the window openings 2, 8 contain a vacuum insulating glass units, and as a sound-absorbing material acoustic fencing areas and elements of the heat sinks used ceramics with porosity in the range of optimal values: 30...45%, or element is used in the form of layer-by-layer and cross-winding of the porous yarn wound on acoustically transparent frame, for example the wire frame (not shown) or an item from a rigid porous sound-absorbing material, such as metalloboranes or stone, shell (drawing not shown).
Sound-absorbing elements are as follows. Sound waves propagating in the production area interact as follows. Sound energy from equipment 11 in the room, passing through perforirovannoi wall 14 of acoustic enclosures 1, 3, 4, 10, 12, gets on the layers of soft absorbent material 16 (e.g., made of basalt or glass fiber), which is made discontinuous and is located under the sound-reflecting surfaces of the first layer 20. The transfer of sound energy into heat (dissipation, the dissipation of energy occurs in the pores of the material, which represents a model of Helmholtz resonators, where energy losses occur due to friction oscillating with the frequency of excitation of the mass of air in the mouth cavity, the walls of the cap, having a form of an extensive network of pores of the material. The ratio of the perforation of the perforated wall is equal or greater than 0.25. To prevent rashes soft absorbers provided by the fiberglass, for example, type E3 effects-100, located between the absorber and the perforated wall.
Items 6 and 7 of the material with the reactive and the active elements are as follows. The absorption at low and medium frequencies is due to the acoustic effect based on the principle of Helmholtz resonators formed by the resonant cavities in the insert 24 with the openings of the resonators in the form of holes 26 and 28. Various amounts of the resonant cavities are used to suppress sound waves in the sound range frequent the t, typically, large amounts of noise reduction at low frequencies and small - in the region of medium and high frequencies.
The interaction of sound waves with active cavities filled with non-combustible absorbent 29 leads to samohlasen in the high frequency range, and by performing these cavities inclined increases the surface absorption and, consequently, increases the sound absorption coefficient. A resonant cavity can also be completely or partially filled with material depending on the desired frequency range of the noise.
An advantage of the invention is its versatility for different production areas, with a variety of noise characteristics. It should be noted the relative ease of tuning of an acoustic panel to the desired frequency range of the noise and its economical efficiency (meaning the reduction of noise to sanitary and hygienic norms). In addition, the coating of body parts foil prevents the deposition of dust on acoustic fencing and execution of non-combustible absorbent materials makes it fireproof.
The sound design elements of the room is an effective way is Orby with industrial noises.
Sound-absorbing elements of the room containing shaped and perforated walls, between which is placed a layer of sound absorbing material, and one of the walls is made smooth, and the sound-absorbing material is in two layers, one of which, more rigid, made a solid and profiled, and the other, soft, made discontinuous and is located beneath the surface of the first layer, with sound-absorbing elements of the premises contain a frame, window, door openings, openings for placement of lamps and acoustic enclosures are made in the form of a rigid and perforated walls, between which is located an absorbent material located in two layers, one of which, more rigid, made a solid and profiled, complex profile, consisting of inclined faces that are directed downward and connected to the horizontal edges, which are made of resonant holes, and the other is soft, made discontinuous and is located under the sound-reflecting surfaces of the first layer, and a continuous profiled layer of sound-absorbing material made of a material whose coefficient of reflection of sound is greater than the coefficient of sound absorption, and elements of material over the most noisy technological equipment contain a frame which is hooked over the hooks, e.g. the measures on cables either directly attached to a rigid wall or ceiling industrial premises, and the frame is covered with the outer side of the foil, preventing the deposition of dust, and to the bottom of the frame with the inner side of the fixed reactive resonance box, separated by partitions, with holes that act necks of Helmholtz resonators arranged in series, and an active part of the elements of material is a filled with sound-absorbing material in the cavity between the frame and insert the filling is made of absorbent non-combustible material, such as viviparum, fiberglass, with a protective layer of glass, which prevents loss of sound absorbing material, and the shape of the frame and the insert can be round or polyhedral, and the frame may be perforated to increase the surface absorption, characterized in that the ratio (H/W) the parameters of the production premises to the thickness H1acoustic fencing lies in the optimal interval 0,0007...0,006, and the ratio (H/W) room height and width to the ratio (N2/R) of the thickness of the material to its height suspension lies in the optimum range of values of 0.27...to 0.68.
SUBSTANCE: method for recovery of sealing and heat insulation of wall panels in finished buildings includes filling cavities in these panels with sealing foam. At the same time in area of cavities through holes are drilled in wall panels with pitch of 30-100 cm, and filling of cavities with sealing foam is carried out by feeding sealing foam through at least one of holes until this foam starts coming out through neighbouring holes. Then each hole is plugged.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability.
SUBSTANCE: spacing holder (7) is intended for fixation of object (2) on base (3) having insulating layer (4) with the help of anchor bolt (8) and spacing bushing (9) screwed onto anchor bolt (8). According to invention, spacing bushing (9) has cutting accessory (14) at its external perimetre, besides spacing bushing (9) has narrowing (15) of external diametre at the end facing against anchor bolt (8).
EFFECT: spacing holder may be applied at high loads and may be simply installed.
9 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: plate for fixation of facing slabs comprises back wall, shelf and pairs of tabs arranged symmetrically relative to axis of plate and made of upper and lower tabs, besides planes of upper and lower tabs are parallel to plane of back wall. Shelf is arranged in the form of bend from back wall, and pairs of tabs are arranged in the form of bends from shelf. Upper or lower tab of each pair of tabs is made of body of according lower or upper tab of the same pair of tabs, for instance by means of stamping. Shelf is arranged at a specified angle versus back wall, besides this angle depends on thickness of facing slab and radius of upper tan bending, and is set so that edge of lower end of facing slab installed on shelf adjoins plane of upper tab not below ending of upper tab bending radius.
EFFECT: simplified design, improved reliability and bearing capacity of plate, manufacturability of its making, reduced material intensity and prime cost of item.
7 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of industrial and civil construction. Method for detection of air temperature dependence inside closed object with fencing structures on time whenever system of specified air temperature maintenance inside object is disconnected, in which air temperature detector is installed inside closed object to register air temperature in process of cooling. Temperature detectors are installed near all external surfaces of object fencing structures, and fan heater is installed inside object, which is used to heat air inside object until it exceeds its temperature by more than 10°C, simultaneously with heating air temperature is registered by all installed detectors, then fan heater is disconnected, and air temperature is registered by all installed detectors until it lowers by more than 5°C, afterwards, using system of heat balance equations, they calculate air temperature inside object depending on time and thermal parametres of object, after performed calculations they select those values of object thermal parametres, at which calculated air temperature inside object is most close to measured air temperature inside object, then based on selected parametres, dependence of air temperature inside closed object on time with disconnected system of specified air temperature maintenance inside object is built, using system of heat balance equations and arbitrarily setting air temperature inside object at the moment of disconnection of system for specified air temperature maintenance inside object and air temperature near all external surfaces of object.
EFFECT: invention provides for accurate detection of time when specific closed object may remain with disconnected system of specified air temperature maintenance inside closed object, not being damaged.
2 tbl, 5 dwg,1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns building construction, maintenance and repair. Method of sealing and heat insulation recovery for interpanel joints involves joint filling with construction foam and sealant layer application onto external surface of joint seal and panel surface areas adjoining the joint. Through holes are drilled in joint seal along the length of joint at the pitch under 100 cm. Cavities in seal are filled with construction foam is performed by construction foam injection over at least one hole till the foam shows out of neighbouring holes. Each hole is stopped by plug to form external surface of joint seal under sealant layer.
EFFECT: reduced terms of works on heat insulation and sealing recovery of interpanel joints.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to production of mineral wool items, mostly multi-layer ones. Method includes production of mineral wool carpet, its displacement, longitudinal cut of carpet into strips along width, changing shape and size of strips cross section, laying of strips on top of each other, their mutual displacement, hardening. Prior to strips laying on top of each other every strip is turned around its longitudinal axis by angle of 180 degrees, with variation of displacement direction by angle of 180>α>0 degrees.
EFFECT: simplified technology of multi-layer mineral wool products making.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to production of mineral wool products, mostly strips and boards. Method includes formation of mineral wool carpet of fibers, introduction of binding agent, displacement of mineral wool carpet in horizontal plane, mashing and hardening. During displacement mineral wool carpet is turned by 180 degrees, around its longitudinal axis with simultaneous change of its displacement by angle 180≥α>0 degrees, in horizontal plane.
EFFECT: higher quality of mineral wool boards and strips.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to production of mineral wool products, namely to methods for production of multi-layer mineral wool boards. Method includes compaction of primary mineral wool carpet, its horizontal longitudinal cutting into layers by thickness of the first cut layers of primary carpet, which is equal to thickness of the first board layer, the second layer of primary carpet is additionally compacted to density of the second board layer, shaping of double-layer carpet, supply of binding agent, thermal treatment. Thickness of the second layer of the primary carpet is arranged as equal to where h3 is thickness of the second layer of board, ρ1 is density of the first board layer, ρ3 is density of the second board layer.
EFFECT: increased quality of mineral wool boards.
SUBSTANCE: multilayer acoustic panel contains a frame with arranged inside its internal cavity noise-attenuating insert. The frame is made as a parallelepiped, formed by the front and back walls of the panel, each whereof is flat-topped. On the front wall there is a slatted perforation. Walls of the panel are fixed against each other with vibration damping covers. Perforation coefficient of the front wall is accepted equal to or more than 0.25. Noise-attenuating insert is made integral or consisting of, at least, two layers of noise-attenuating panels, each whereof is perforated at an angle of α=50°-80° against its surface. Axes of perforation openings of adjoining panels are arranged at a 1.5 α angle against each other. Front and back walls of the frame of noise-attenuating elements are made of stainless steel or galvanised sheet of 0.7 mm thick with polymeric protective-decorative coating of 50 mcm or 25 mcm thick, or of aluminium sheet of 1.0 mm thick and with the coating of 25 mcm thick. Ration of the height h of the frame to its width is within the optimal values ratio: h/b=1.0-2.0. Ratio of the value of the frame thickness s' in full assembly to its width b is within the optimal values ratio; s'/b-0.1-0.15. Ratio of the value of the thickness s of noise-attenuating material to the thickness of the fame in full assembly s' is within the optimal values ratio: s/s'=0.4-1.0.
EFFECT: improved noise-attenuation characteristics of the panel.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to production of mineral wool products, mostly strips and plates with combined structure. Method includes preparation of mineral wool carpet with horizontal position of fiber with binder, carpet displacement, its corrugation, arranging of corrugations, longitudinal cutting of carpet along width in parts, installation of carpet parts on above another, hardening. Carpet corrugation is realised by means of single-sided crumpling. Longitudinal cutting of carpet is carried out into two parts. Prior to installation one above another both parts of carpet are turned around their longitudinal axes for angle of 180 degrees, with change of the first carpet part displacement direction by angle 180>α>0 degrees, and the second carpet part - by angle of 360>γ>180 degrees. The second part of carpet is additionally turned around its longitudinal axis at the angle of 180 degrees, with change of direction of its displacement by angle (γ+α) in reverse direction and is laid under the first part of carpet. Corrugation of mineral wool carper is carried out at sharp angle β in direction of its displacement.
EFFECT: simplified technology and increased quality of mineral wool strips and plates with combined structure.
6 dwg, 2 cl
FIELD: building units, particularly for heat insulation.
SUBSTANCE: article comprises layer of heat-insulation material and mineral fiber material having opposite sides, two major surfaces and thickness defined by above surfaces. Article includes fastening means to provide article fixation. Fastening means extends from the first article end in the first direction substantially parallel to one major surface. The first and the second ends of fastening means adjoin corresponding layer side. Fixing means may be increased in length to secure article to building structure so that fixing means may extend outwards from article sides. Length increase is carried out by applying pulling force to fixing means end.
EFFECT: provision of article adjustment in length and shape, possibility to connect article to itself, to adjoining sheets, to structure to be insulated and so on.
26 cl, 6 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: aircraft construction, building industry and mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: panel comprises sheeting and filler of corrugated sheet material. Corrugation walls extend at an angle to horizontal plane, in which projections and valleys alternate in zigzag order.
EFFECT: reduced noise due to sound wave dissipation.
FIELD: building units, particularly laminated articles of vegetable material providing high acoustic properties and adapted to be used in rooms, electromechanical audio transmitters, musical instruments and the same objects.
SUBSTANCE: laminated article comprises outer layer made of wooden material, namely of wood veneer, and inner layer comprising dried plant stems and made as chips or bars of dried burdock stems. The inner layer is active acoustic layer. The article has modulus of elasticity in static flexure of 2.63×1010N/m2, density of 190-215 kg/m3 and ratio between modulus of elasticity and density of (138.4 - 122.3)×106 m2/s2.
EFFECT: extended range of technical means for article production.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to turbounits of gas-transfer set and gas-turbine power stations. Proposed noise-absorbing shell of gas-turbine plant has load-bearing skeleton, outer housing and inner panels with noise absorbing material placed in between. Upper cover of housing is made detachable. For this purpose edges of cover form flange with holes on which longitudinal elements are installed at angle forming faces of truncated pyramid, and inner panel is secured on smaller base of pyramid. Guides with surfaces are made on mating part of skeleton equidistant to faces of truncated pyramid. Elastic gasket is arranged between flange and skeleton, and flange is fastened on skeleton, for instance, by means of screws.
EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of shell owing to possibility of taking out engine from top of shell.
FIELD: food-stuff refrigerators.
SUBSTANCE: proposed refrigerator includes refrigerating chambers equipped with outer and inner guards and provided with detachable shields mounted along walls and ceiling of refrigerating chambers and cooling units. It is provided with heat-reflecting coat over entire surfaces of walls and ceiling of refrigerating chambers; shields are rigidly mounted at some distance from inner surfaces of walls and ceiling and are secured by means of wooden bars; they are made in form of thin-walled mounting plates covered with heat-reflecting coat on side of inner surfaces of walls and ceiling of refrigerator.
EFFECT: maximum reduction of effect of radiation heat flows on food-stuff kept in refrigerator practically excluding drying-up of frozen food-stuff.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises feeding the fiber of mineral slag to the conveyor, introducing a binder into the fibers to form a plate or strip of sheet material, and passing the product through two conveyors arranged in series to provide crumpling.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
13 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: construction, superstructures.
SUBSTANCE: principle applies to construction, partly to facilities meant for protection from sound waves (noise), and other wave emission and its absorption and can be used in noise protection screens. A noise absorbing panel consists of a perforated panel, hollow panel, sound absorbing element between the above mentioned panels. The perforated panel is made with openings in the form of fissure traps with reflectors turned in the direction of the sound absorbing element. The perforated panel contains, at least, two fissure traps, whose reflectors are inclined at different angles to the panel plane. The noise absorbing element has a thickness from 30 mm to 100 mm and placed in a polyethylene sheath of thickness 0.1 mm to 3 mm. The technical result consists of increasing the absorption capability of the panel.
EFFECT: increasing the absorption capability of a panel.
SUBSTANCE: invention deals with technological process of manufacture of foam plastics in general and oriented texture collagenic reticular foamed plastics in particular. The foamed plastics specified are to be used as heat-insulating, thermostatic and sound-proofing materials.
EFFECT: ensuring a useful effect more pronounced than in case of alternative materials usage.
SUBSTANCE: plate for fixing a lining panel of a building consists of locking tabs fitted vertically in pairs and spring-loaded lining plates. The upper and lower tabs are immovable and cavated and forward bent from the panel. The lower tab has a rectangular shape. The root of the upper tabs is broached into an isosceles trapezium, on the upper base of which there is a superstructure, broached into a rectangle, or some other shape. The clearance for the tabs has a larger width than the tabs on the value of the rounded radius of clearance angles.
EFFECT: more effective fixing of lining panels of buildings.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: plate for fastening of building facing panel installed in power belt that is arranged on the building bearing wall is arranged with slots and contains fastening L-shaped grips, which spring-load facing panels, at that grips are installed vertically in pairs, and top grip of every pair is installed motionlessly. There are slots in groove that allow vertical moving of bottom grips in case of temperatures differences during building operation, and forges for spring-loading of facing panels and their tight abutment. Forges are made thicker than thickness of bottom grips by thickness in order to provide guaranteed clearance and freedom of bottom grips movement.
EFFECT: provision of even and tight laying of facing panel, heat and moisture insulation of building wall and ventilation.
2 cl, 6 dwg