Composition to restore bioproductivity of clayey soils

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: sapropel and natural loosener are ploughed into soil at the depth of 10-15 cm. Natural loosener is represented by siftings of open pits of construction materials, at the following weight ratio of components, %: sapropel 8-12%; siftings of pits of construction materials 13-32%; upper layer of clayey soil - balance.

EFFECT: increased bioproductivity of soils and protection of recultivated soils against wind erosion.

1 cl, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to bioproductive compositions for reclamation of dumps clay soils: the return of disturbed land in the agricultural Fund and fixing dusty surfaces.

Known artificial soil (patent RF №2032319, IPC A01G 31/00, 1995), which consists of a zeolite in an amount of 15-33%, polymer, soluble in water (10-23%), condensed extract of plant (5-10%), blue-green algae Nostos Zinckia (0,03-0,06%), the rest of the sapropel. The disadvantages of this soil is the complexity of manufacturing components, the high content of silicates (zeolite).

Known artificial soil (patent RF №2032704, IPC SC 17/00, IPC A01G 31/00, 1995), which consists of sapropel, celebritysee non-toxic water-soluble polymer in an amount of 0.005-0,150% by weight of sapropel, condensed alfalfa extract in the amount of 1.5 to 15.0% by weight of sapropel. The disadvantages of such artificial soil is susceptible to wind erosion.

Known mineral-organic mixture on the basis of the creation of the quartz-glauconitic sand (RF patent No. 2193590, IPC SC 17/40, 2002), taken as a prototype, which contains quartz-glauconitic sand (70-80%) and sapropel (30-20%). The disadvantages of this structure are the ability to use only for sandy soils and uneconomical use of larger quantities of the fertilizer.

The technical result of the invention is to increase the biological productivity of soils, cheaper way of fixing dusty surfaces and the expansion of the scope.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that organic sapropel fertilizer and natural Ripper zamahivayutsya into the soil to a depth of 10-15 cm, according to the invention, in as natural a Ripper is used to filter out the quarries of building materials at the following mass ratio of components, %:

Sapropel8-12%
Screenings of the quarries of building materials13-32%
The top layer of clay soilrest

Also the technical result is achieved by the fact that as a natural Ripper uses non-toxic metal production waste.

Overlapping is carried out by production equipment used in the quarry (excavator, scraper, bulldozer), at a depth of 10-15 cm in the top layer of soil clay base.

Possible extraction of sapropel from the bottom of freshwater reservoirs using dredge and transport to the place of work.

Pre-sapropel drained otstoinykh to a moisture content of 50%. Mixing of sapropel with dropout quarries of building materials or toxic wastes of metallurgical production is payable directly on site remediation.

In the proposed structure to restore the biological productivity of clay soils contain significantly less sapropel, which does not affect fertility derived soils, but lowers the cost of conducting biological reclamation. Also sapropel is a bonding material that is necessary for effective protection of surfaces from wind erosion.

As clay soils were used palygorskite clay (quarry JSC "Athanasian quarry, Voskresensk). Clay mineral and consist of approximately equal amounts of the three clay minerals: palygorskite, montmorillonite and hydrology. As impurities (rare) presence of chlorite or kaolinite. Under the electron microscope palygorskite often presents a short, thin needles with a length of up to 2 microns, less long thin fibres and makoviney units length 6-7 mm. The size of the predominant inclusions palygorskite clay relate primarily to the group with the average, from 1 to 5 mm, and large, more than 5 mm, the inclusions.

Screenings of the quarries of building materials or toxic wastes of metallurgical production - spec m is lkie toxic waste their respective industries. For example, the dropout rate was used granite detail, with the following particle size distribution (table 1).

Table No. 1
The fraction size, mmNumber, %
<0,07110
≥0,071<0,146
≥0,14<0,259
≥0,25<0,6316
≥0,63<1,623
≥1,6<2,516
≥2,520

Table 2 presents the values of the biological productivity of different compositions for reclaiming clay inclusions.

Table No. 2
No.Screenings %Sapropel, %The content of clay soilGermination herbal mixture, %Color sprouts (70-day) The maximum height of sprouts, cmTime life-DN
10010090-450
2739092yellow1075
31648097dark green17160
42287097dark green18165
528126080yellow-green 15115
634165075-1065
740204070-650

The table shows that the optimal ratio of components to obtain the highest biological productivity have compositions No. 3, 4 of the mixture.

The use of this composition to restore the biological productivity of clay soils can improve fertility clay soils or potentially fertile soils with clay inclusions, while enhancing protection rekultiviruemye land from wind erosion.

1. Composition to restore the biological productivity of clay soils containing organic sapropel fertilizer and natural cultivator, zapahivaya into the soil to a depth of 10-15 cm, characterized in that as a natural cultivator is used to filter out the quarries of building materials at the following mass ratio of components, %:

Sapropel8-12%
Screenings of the quarries of building materials13-32%
The top layer of clay soilrest

2. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that as a natural Ripper uses non-toxic smelter.



 

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FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and may be used to reduce soil acidity, improve its structure and fertility. Method implies soil application of deoxidiser, which is a mixture of organic and mineral components with a deoxidising agent. Peat of 30-70% decay degree and pH 3.5-4.5 is used as organic component, borogypsum is used as mineral component and 53% alkaline solution (potassium hydroxide) is used as deoxidising agent. Ratio of components (kg per 1 tonn of resulting deoxidiser) is as follows: peat of 30-70% decay degree and pH 3.5-4.5 1200-1230, 53% potassium hydroxide solution 48-49, borogypsum 70-74. Deoxidising agent is applied in amount of 2-3 t per 1 ha.

EFFECT: reduced soil acidity, improved structure and fertility.

4 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

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51 cl, 15 dwg, 3 tbl, 11 ex

FIELD: agriculture, in particular improvement of soil physical, biological and agronomic characteristics.

SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes introducing of carbonate-containing material into soil, wherein as said material bergmeal containing (mass %): calcite 13-19; zeolite 18-25; glauconite; and balance: clay and silicate material is used. Bergmeal is introduced into soil in amount of 1.5-5 t/hectare.

EFFECT: enhanced assortment of ameliorants; improved soil agronomic characteristics and productivity.

9 tbl

FIELD: production of filled gel-like composition with viscoelastic properties.

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EFFECT: new viscoelastic composition of improved quality.

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FIELD: production of filled gel-like composition with viscoelastic properties.

SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains (vol.pts): 0.5-2.0 mass % sodium tetraborate aqueous solution 1-2; 1.0-8.0 mass % polyvinyl alcohol aqueous solution 1-5; 1.0-8.0 mass % carboxymethyl cellulose aqueous solution 1-5 or 1.0-8.0 mass % polyacrylamide aqueous solution 1-2; and filler 1-3. Composition has dynamic viscosity of 642-2467.87 mPa.s; elasticity modulus of 61.12-81.12 N/m2, and adhesion of 53.76-86.79 N/m2. As filler sand with particle size of 0.23-0.5 mm; lavsan or propylene fiber of 70-100 mum in diameter and filament length of 3-6 cm, or Teflon granule at most 1 mm in diameter. Composition of present invention is useful in production of petroleum industry, oil line purification, as anticorrosion, biocide and wear resistant coatings.

EFFECT: new viscoelastic composition of improved quality.

FIELD: agriculture, in particular improvement of soil physical, biological and agronomic characteristics.

SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes introducing of carbonate-containing material into soil, wherein as said material bergmeal containing (mass %): calcite 13-19; zeolite 18-25; glauconite; and balance: clay and silicate material is used. Bergmeal is introduced into soil in amount of 1.5-5 t/hectare.

EFFECT: enhanced assortment of ameliorants; improved soil agronomic characteristics and productivity.

9 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: binding composition for processing material of solid particles with formation of solid aggregated matrix is prepared including the following stages: blending of polar solvent and additional quantity of urea; addition of emulsified bitumen; addition of ureaformaldehyde precondensate; addition of other binding promotors in order to enhance bonding between the binding composition and solid particles; addition of sugar into weak organic acid; addition of weak organic acid mixed with sugar with formation of the binding composition; blending of binding composition with solid particles, which harden during over 30 minutes while mixing with above mentioned material of solid particles, besides weak organic acid is being chosen to ensure pH value of binding composition from 2.0 to 5.3.

EFFECT: binding composition was prepared for processing of materials of solid particles.

51 cl, 15 dwg, 3 tbl, 11 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and may be used to reduce soil acidity, improve its structure and fertility. Method implies soil application of deoxidiser, which is a mixture of organic and mineral components with a deoxidising agent. Peat of 30-70% decay degree and pH 3.5-4.5 is used as organic component, borogypsum is used as mineral component and 53% alkaline solution (potassium hydroxide) is used as deoxidising agent. Ratio of components (kg per 1 tonn of resulting deoxidiser) is as follows: peat of 30-70% decay degree and pH 3.5-4.5 1200-1230, 53% potassium hydroxide solution 48-49, borogypsum 70-74. Deoxidising agent is applied in amount of 2-3 t per 1 ha.

EFFECT: reduced soil acidity, improved structure and fertility.

4 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: sapropel and natural loosener are ploughed into soil at the depth of 10-15 cm. Natural loosener is represented by siftings of open pits of construction materials, at the following weight ratio of components, %: sapropel 8-12%; siftings of pits of construction materials 13-32%; upper layer of clayey soil - balance.

EFFECT: increased bioproductivity of soils and protection of recultivated soils against wind erosion.

1 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of recultivation of damaged soil in conditions of the Far North and may be used when restoring the soil and vegetation layer disturbed by industrial and economic human activities. The method of recultivation of damaged soil is described, including introduction into the ground of bentonite clay, seeds of perennial grasses, fertilisers, humic compounds and binder, and the bentonite clay is inserted as part of the waste mud, followed by stirring the top layer of soil. Then the fertiliser, humic compounds and seeds of perennial grasses are inserted, and then a binder is inserted, which is used as a solution of xanthan gum.

EFFECT: invention provides a more efficient process of recultivation, expansion of the scope of application on the surface of soils with different steepness.

2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

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EFFECT: low content of salt in the composition and lower consumption rate of the composition.

9 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to soil and ground chemical propping methods and can be used in agriculture against water and wind erosion, as well as in construction of roads and other earth structures. The method involves mixing aqueous solutions of an anionic polyelectrolyte and a cationic polyelectrolyte and a water-soluble salt. The polyelectrolytes are mixed with their total initial concentration ranging from 1 to 10 wt % in a ratio at which content of charged links of one polyelectrolyte is equal to 5-50% of the content of charged links of the other polyelectrolyte and concentration of at least one salt, selected from a group comprising an alkali metal salt, an ammonium salt, a calcium salt and a magnesium salt, ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 wt %.

EFFECT: low content of salt in the composition and lower consumption rate of the composition.

7 cl, 7 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to soil and ground chemical propping compositions and can be used in agriculture against water and wind erosion, as well as in construction of roads and other earth structures. The disclosed aqueous soil and ground propping composition contains 0.90-4.62 wt % of a charged polyelectrolyte complex and 0.08-0.87 wt % of a salt of an alkali metal or ammonia. The charged polyelectrolyte complex in said composition is a product of reacting water-containing solutions of a cationic polyelectrolyte, which contains chloride and bromide counter-ions, and an anionic polyelectrolyte from a group which includes a sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose, an alkali metal or ammonium salt of a polyacrylic acid or polymethacrylic acid, taken in a ratio where content of charged links of one polyelectrolyte ranges from 51% to 60% of the content of charged links of the other polyelectrolyte.

EFFECT: compared to the closest counterpart, the disclosed composition provides efficient soil and ground propping from wind erosion while reducing content of salt in the composition from 1,5-3,7 wt % to 0,08-0,87 wt % and consumption of the composition from 1-2 l/m2 to 0,3-0,45 l/m2.

9 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

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EFFECT: low toxicity of soil and expenses on amelioration.

1 tbl, 1 ex

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