Organic light-emitting diode

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) and can be used in designing alternative sources of light and new-generation displays and making a light-emitting diode which operates for a long period of time. The invention discloses an OLED consisting of a transparent electrode, a light-emitting layer and a metal electrode. A protective silver layer is sprayed onto the surface of the metal electrode and in the lower part of the housing there are capsules containing water, oxygen and impurity active absorbers.

EFFECT: design of an OLED which enables to make thin-film panel light sources and full-format displays which retain brightness, contrast and working capacity in a long period of time.

5 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of physics of organic semiconductors, in particular for multilayer organic light-emitting diodes, and can be used to create alternative sources of lighting and displays the new generation. The relevance of creating a fundamentally new light-emitting devices is determined by the need for highly effective and cheap sources of lighting, flat screen TV and small displays of the new generation.

An urgent task is to develop a multi-layered organic light-emitting diodes enhanced stability to create a flat panel lights, billboards and displays, which will provide significant savings of energy and resources and improving the ecological environment.

The economic effect of the new led lighting is difficult to calculate and to overestimate; preliminary estimates show that only savings on the creation of the electric capacity will be not less than 124 billion and will save 2500 MW·h of electricity.

Potential led market in the world is quite large. Today it is $ 3 billion. in the year, while the lighting market as a whole - 30 billion. in year. In the case of replacement lamps in different lights to LEDs to 2012 led lighting market will exceed $ 60 billion. in the year

Currently, however, the organic light-emitting diodes (osid) constitute only a small part of the market of light sources, and full-scale displays. One of the major challenges preventing widespread implementation of asid, is the low durability. Organic layers and metal electrodes of the active metals are highly reactive, quickly degrade, interacting with oxygen, water vapor and impurities. Thus the rate of degradation increases when passing an electric current.

Oxygen, water and impurities in the organic and metal layers acid through two main channels. The first channel is associated with the inert gas filling the internal volume of acid. The inert gas is available in today's technology boxes for Assembly of acid contains at least one-millionth volume fraction of oxygen and water. The second channel is connected by traces of oxygen, water and impurities, which are contained in high-purity compounds for sealing and/or penetrate through them into the body of acid during long-term operation.

The time between the flat TV screens on the basis of acid technology SONY is 15 thousand hours, which is 4 times less than that of television screens based on LCD technology. This hundred is the need exceeds the cost of LCD displays are identical in size 10 times.

Thus, increasing stability and service life of acid is of the utmost relevance.

At the present time to increase the service life of the products on the basis of acid technologies used two approaches. The first approach is to create a more stable and light-emitting layers of organic materials and the introduction in the design of asid additional protective layers. The second cleaning inert gas, organic layers and compounds from traces of oxygen, water and impurities.

The influence of oxygen and water on the characteristics and the lifetime of acid on the basis of different light-emitting materials were studied in detail. Acid based sexithiophene and Alq3with electrodes of aluminum and ITO were prepared by vacuum deposition in a high vacuum. In vacuum were removed current-voltage and spectral characteristics of the resulting multilayer structures. They were then placed in an air atmosphere. For both types of acid observed significant changes of the parameters in the transition from vacuum to air. The most critical time of life of acid on the air was a significant drop in current, which the authors associated with a decline in the mobility of charges [J.Laubender, L.Chkoda, M.Sokolowski and .Umbach. The influence of oxygen and air on the characteristics of organic light-emitting devices studied by in vacuo measurements. Synthetic Metals, Volumes 111-112, 1 June 2000, Pages 373-376].

One of the methods of the s seal is created on the surface of acid protective polymer film by photopolymerization method. For sealing the layered structure is created on the glass substrate, used photopolymerizable mixture consisting of pentaerythritol of triacrylate and photoinitiator HSP188. The mixture was applied to the surface of the multilayered structure of watering on a rotating substrate. After photopolymerization was carried out with the formation of three-dimensional sewn protective layer. The effectiveness of acid were evaluated for stability of the parameters of the electroluminescence before and after the formation of the protective layer. It was shown that the formation of a protective layer on the surface of the multilayer structure is not accompanied by changes in the characteristics of the electroluminescence spectra, but leads to a sharp increase in the lifetime of acid on the air. For acid covered with a protective film, there has been an increase in the lifetime ten times [Gi Heon Kim, Jiyoung Oh, Yong Suk Yang, Lee-Mi Do and Kyung Soo Suh. Encapsulation of organic light-emitting devices by means of photopolymerized polyacrylate films. Polymer, Volume 45, Issue 6, March 2004, Pages 1879-1883].

Research of process of sealing method of laminating the layered structure has shown the ability to create long-lived of acid on plastic substrates. In this work, we used multi-layer protective layers consisting of polyacrylate adhesive layer thickness of 15 microns and pestiviruses an aluminum layer of a thickness of 185 μm. We compared the rate of degradation of the active the layers and the intensity of the electroluminescence of asid design in the presence and absence of pestiviruses layer. It turned out that the lamination process has little effect on the characteristics of electroluminescence, but leads to a significant (dozens of times) increase of the life time of the products. When the current 27.45 mA/cm2the intensity of the electroluminescence of asid design, protected by a method of laminating, decreased in two times for 229 hours from the initial intensity 1840 CD/m2[Gi Heon Kim, Jiyoung Oh, Yong Suk Yang, Lee-Mi Do and Kyung Soo Suh. Lamination encapsulation process for longevity of plastic-based organic light-emitting devices. Thin Solid Films, Volume 467, Issues 1-2, 22 November 2004, Pages 1-3].

The closest technical solution (prototype) of the proposed light-emitting device is of asid design developed by Fraunhofer IZM [Germany, Gustav-Meyer-Allee, 2513355, Berlin, http://www.izm.fraunhofer.de]. On the website of the company published a handout with a description of the method of sealing acid and characteristics of the obtained products.

The development of acid technologies at the company accompanied by the development of methods for sealing multi-layer structures, in order to prevent penetration of products of oxygen and water. The firm conducted an extensive screening of commercial and developed sealants, allowing to evaluate their protective properties and stability in air under conditions of high humidity and high temperatures.

Evaluation of the protective properties of sealants in the construction of acid developed by the company was conducted with the use of the test on the stability of films of calcium (electrode). Degradation of films of calcium was evaluated by the change of its optical transmittance due to the formation of oxide and calcium hydroxide. The results showed that the diffusion of oxygen and water for 10,000 hours of active layers of acid, protected by a thin layer of sealant, dissolved in 20%. Increasing the thickness of the protective layer, the use of zeolites as sorbents water and barrier layers of the type SiOx, SiN leads to further increase stability and life time of acid structures.

Methods have been developed for sealing acid were tested under conditions of high temperature and high humidity. For example, long-term stability coated with sealant films of calcium was compared with the stability of acid designs developed by the partners of the Fraunhofer IPMS and Fraunhofer IAP.

It is shown that a fairly good protection against oxygen and water can be achieved using commercial sealants. For example, the calcium electrode is protected by the sealant at a temperature of 60°C and a humidity of 90% is destroyed by 10% for 500 hours. In the absence of sealant this process dozens of times faster.

Published results show that increasing the durability of acid through the use of sealants and create on its surface a thin protective polymer films explicitly weeks is enough to create a flat panel light sources and displays, preserving working for more than 15,000 hours.

The problem solved by the invention is the design of acid that allows you to create thin-film panel lights and full-length displays, keeping the brightness, contrast, and working for a long time.

The problem is solved as follows.

Circuit design and horizontal sections of acid is shown in figure 1.

The scheme of the construction of the upper and lower part of the body of OID shown in figure 2. In figure 1, 2 and in the text the following notation.

The proposed design asid, including comprehensive protection of organic layers and metal electrodes from oxygen, water and impurities (figure 1, 2, position 11, 14-16). In the proposed design uses a multi-layered light-emitting element placed in filled with inert gas plastic case. The housing consists of two parts. In the upper part of the body is placed a glass coated with a transparent film of indium-tin oxide (ITO) (item 4), which are applied organic layers (items 5-9) and a metal electrode, which are protected from oxidation and hydrolysis naneseny on the surface of the layered structure with a layer of silver of a thickness of 30-100 nm (item 11). In the lower part of the body are capsules with p is politely water, oxygen and impurities (items 14-16) and the conductive pressure contact (position 21). All structural elements of acid pre vacuumized. Prefabrication of acid products is carried out in a box filled with argon, by connecting the upper and lower part of the body, followed by sealing.

Sink water, oxygen and impurities using three groups of materials. The first group includes a pre-heat treated in vacuum molecular sieves. The second group includes heat treated in vacuum porous carbon materials. And finally, the third group includes alkali metals and ORGANOMETALLIC compounds deposited on the surface of a porous inert polymeric material. Application of alkali metals on a porous surface can be carried out by the method of vacuum deposition or through the solution followed by removal of solvent. A large part of the specific products of the above three groups is by sinks of water, oxygen and impurities at the same time. However, their activity in relation to water, oxygen and impurities varies in a wide range. Therefore, in the proposed design asid uses all three types of sinks.

Molecular sieves and porous carbon materials are long-term sinks, preserving the activity is ü during the entire service life of acid. On the other hand, the reactivity of alkali metals and ORGANOMETALLIC compounds exceeds the chemical activity of organic layers and metal electrodes.

Thus, until the water sinks of oxygen and impurities retain their activity, oxidation, hydrolysis and degradation of light-emitting material and a metal electrode of acid does not occur. This allows to achieve the maximum possible for the selected light-emitting material life time of acid.

Organic layers (items 5-9), a metal electrode (item 10) and a protective layer of silver (item 11) consistently napylyaetsya on the surface of the coated ITO glass in the vacuum chamber of the post, located in a box filled with argon. Coated ITO glass (item 3) pre-fixed in the upper part of the body with sealant. Thus, after deposition of all the necessary layers in the vacuum chamber of the post is formed in the upper part of the body together with multi-layered acid structure, covered with a protective film of silver. After disconnecting vacuum collected upper part of the body is transferred to the box filled with argon, and placed in a container for connection with the lower part of the body.

The sinks of water, oxygen, and impurities are placed in special capsules (items 14-16), permeable to traces of water, it is of Sloboda and impurities, but preventing accidental destruction and the contact pieces of the absorbers on the surface of multilayer acid patterns. Capsules are prepared in vacuum and transferred to a box filled with argon, in special canisters. In Boxing they are fixed on the surface of the lower shell.

At the final stage of Assembly of the upper and lower housings are joined in a special case, after which the connecting seam is sealed with epoxy or acrylic sealant.

1. Organic light emitting diode comprising a transparent electrode, a hole-conducting layer, light emitting layer and a metal electrode sequentially deposited on the glass surface, mounted in a plastic housing, wherein on the surface of the metal electrode napisana protective film of silver, and in the lower part of the body are capsules containing the active absorbers of water, oxygen and impurities.

2. Organic light-emitting diode according to claim 1, characterized in that sink of water and impurities using molecular sieves.

3. Organic light-emitting diode according to claim 1, characterized in that sink of water, oxygen and impurities using porous carbon materials.

4. Organic light-emitting diode according to claim 1, characterized in that as the active absorbers KIS is Orada and water use alkali metals.

5. Organic light-emitting diode according to claim 1, characterized in that as the active oxygen absorbers and water use ORGANOMETALLIC compounds of metals of the first, second and third groups.



 

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6 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg, 6 ex

The invention relates to securities with protective elements as a base, made of paper and is provided with at least one integrated circuit

FIELD: organic chemistry, chemical technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to novel derivatives of fullerenes comprising organic amines and hydrogen atoms bound to fullerene-C60 molecule by 6,6-double bonds of the general formula: C60Hn(R1R2N)n wherein R1 means -C6H5CH2; R2 means -C6H5CH2; n = 4 (tetra-(dibenzylaminohydro)[60]fullerene); R1 means -C5H9; R2 means hydrogen atom (H); n = 3 (tri-(cyclopentylaminohydro)[60]fullerene). Also, invention relates to using derivatives of fullerenes, in particular, (tetra-(benzylaminohydro)[60]fullerene, (tetra-(dibenzylaminohydro)[60]fullerene, tri-(cyclopentylaminohydro)[60]fullerene, 2-(azahomo[60]fullereno)-5-nitropyrimidine, 1,3-dipropyl-5-[5'-(azahomo[60]fullereno)pentyl]-1,3,5-triazin-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione, O,O-dibutyl-(azahomo[60]fullereno)phosphate as acceptors of electrons in composites polymer/fullerene designated for photovoltaic cells. Also, invention relates to photovoltaic device comprising mixture of poly-conjugated polymer and abovementioned fullerene derivative or their mixture as an active layer. Also, invention relates to a method for synthesis of derivatives of fullerenes comprising aromatic amines and hydrogen atoms bound to fullerene-C60 molecule by 6,6-double bonds. Method involves interaction of C60 with the corresponding organic amine in solution, and this reaction is carried out in aromatic solvent medium in amine excess at temperature 25-70°C for 2-5 days followed by evaporation of solution and precipitation of the end product by addition of alcohol.

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6 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg, 6 ex

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FIELD: physics.

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4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

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FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to new chemical compounds, particularly to complexes of scandium with heterocyclic ligands tris[2-(1,3-benzox(ti/imid)azol-2-yl)phenolate-O,N]scandium of general formula , where X - is oxygen, or sulphur, or NH, which can be used as an electroluminescent (emission) layer in organic light-emitting diodes (OLED). Invented also is an organic light-emitting diode, in which the emission layer is made from tris[2-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl)phenolate-O,N]scandium.

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6 cl, 3 ex

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6 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in manufacturing organic light-emitting diodes, liquid-crystal displays, plasma display panel, thin-film solar cell and other electronic and semi-conductor devices. Claimed is element, including target of ionic dispersion, where said target includes processed MoO2 plate of high purity. Method of such plate manufacturing includes isostatic pressing of component consisting of more than 99% of stoichiometric MoO2 powder into workpiece, sintering of said workpiece under conditions of supporting more than 99% of MoO2 stoichiometry and formation of plate which includes more than 99% of stoichiometric MoO2. In other version of said plate manufacturing component, consisting of powder, which contains more than 99% of stoichiometric MoO2, is processed under conditions of hot pressing with formation of plate. Method of thin film manufacturing includes stages of sputtering of plate, which contains more than 99% of stoichiometric MoO2, removal of MoO2 molecules from plate and application of MoO2 molecules on substrate. Also claimed is MoO2 powder and method of said plate sputtering with application of magnetron sputtering, pulse laser sputtering, ionic-beam sputtering, triode sputtering and their combination.

EFFECT: invention allows to increase work of output of electron of ionic sputtering target material in organic light-emitting diodes.

16 cl, 5 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to macromolecular compounds with a nucleus-shell structure. The invention discloses macromolecular compounds with a nucleus-shell structure, whereby the nucleus has a macromolecular dendritic and hyperbranched structure based on carbon or based on silicon and carbon is bonded to at least three, in particular at least six external atoms through a carbon-based coupling chain (V) which is selected from a group consisting of straight and branched alkylene chains with 2-20 carbon atoms, straight or branched polyoxyalkylene chains, straight or branched siloxane chains or straight or branched carbosilane chains, with straight chains based on carbon oligomeric chains (L) with conjugated double bonds on the entire length. Conjugated chains (L) in each separate case are bonded at the end opposite the coupling chain (V) to one more, specifically, aliphatic, arylaliphatic or oxyaliphatic chain (R) without conjugated double bonds. The chains (V), (L) and (R) form the shell. The invention also discloses a method for synthesis of the said compounds.

EFFECT: novel organic compounds which can be synthesised using conventional solvents and have good semiconductor properties.

16 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) and can be used in designing alternative sources of light and new-generation displays and making a light-emitting diode which operates for a long period of time. The invention discloses an OLED consisting of a transparent electrode, a light-emitting layer and a metal electrode. A protective silver layer is sprayed onto the surface of the metal electrode and in the lower part of the housing there are capsules containing water, oxygen and impurity active absorbers.

EFFECT: design of an OLED which enables to make thin-film panel light sources and full-format displays which retain brightness, contrast and working capacity in a long period of time.

5 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg

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