Polymeric composition for moulding biodegradable articles form molten mass
SUBSTANCE: composition contains polyethylene production and/or household wastes, beet pulp and bentonite as a processing additive.
EFFECT: disclosed composition has rheological characteristics which meet requirements for polymeric materials for their possible processing on conventional equipment, as well as required operational characteristics, including biodegradability.
4 ex, 2 tbl
The invention relates to the production of plastics based on industrial and domestic waste polyethylene used in the manufacture of various termoformovannyh products, films, used for the national economy (aprons for flower and vegetable seedlings, film for mulching and weed control with the effect of warming up), etc.
In severe ecological situation in the world, the use of biologically erodible polymeric materials for manufacture of products of mass consumption is a key priority to reduce the amount of solid waste, as will ensure their rapid decomposition under the action of climatic factors and microorganisms.
One of the possible ways of obtaining biologically decomposable material is a modification of traditional polymers. The combination of a synthetic polymer with natural active filler can give the material a new set of properties.
Such materials are filled system, where as the active filler is starch. Known low - and high-filled starch composition. The most important quality of these compositions is their ability to degradation under the influence of natural environmental factors: light, heat, microorganisms. Known biologically times usemy packaging material based on starch (France, 2691467, CL 5 08J 5/18, 65D 1/10, 65/46, 08L 3/20).
In the last time there was a significant number of patents and scientific publications containing information about the use of starch as a filler for imparting polymer compositions biological destructible
(U.S. patent 5248702, 08J 9/12, publ. T, No. 4;
U.S. patent 5208267, 08J 9/02, 9/12, publ. 03.05.2004 volume 1150, No. 1,
patent RU 2095379, publ. 30.06.98;
patent RU 2180670, publ. 06.01.2000;
patent RU 2174132, publ. 23.06.2000;
patent 1338405 EPO, MLK VS 67/24. 08J 5/06, publ. 27.08 2003;
U.S. patent 6054510, MPK7 08L 63/00, publ. 25.04.2000).
Company Archer Daniels Midland, USA, developed the concentrate of the brand PolyClean on the basis of polyethylene to obtain biodegradable films. The concentrate contains 40% starch and oxidized additive; the amount of starch in the final product is 5...6%. The disadvantage of this composition is that biological destruction undergoes only the starch component.
Closest to the technical essence and the achieved result of the present invention is the composition according to the patent of Russian Federation №2180670:
|Product copolycondensation caprolactam,|
A composition for the prototype requires the use of a plasticizer (water-glycerol mixture).
If the composition of the water processing technological scheme requires additional site drainage, increasing energy consumption.
The proposed solution simplifies the manufacturing technology of thermoplastic by excluding the use of liquid components, significantly reduces the cost of the finished product as a raw material for thermoplastic serve waste polyethylene (industrial and consumer).
In addition, it helps to protect the environment because the waste is not recycled and used again for the manufacture of various products.
The objective of the invention is the creation of a thermoplastic composition using biodegradable filler (waste of sugar industry), the product of which collapse under the action of light, moisture and soil microflora.
This is achieved by the fact that biologically erodible t is moplastic composition for products according to the invention contains waste polyethylene (60...89 wt.%), biodegradable filler, which is used as waste from the sugar industry, the sugar beet pulp (10...30 wt.%) and bentonite (1...10 wt.%).
According to the invention as a biodegradable filler, stimulating the process of biological destruction of the final products made from waste polyethylene, sugar beet pulp is used in an amount of 10 to 30 wt.%.
Used for filling the sugar beet pulp (rugged in chips insoluble desugared mass beet) has the following characteristics:
- pectin 50%;
- of cellulose and hemicellulose 47%;
mass fraction of moisture, %, not more than 14.0;
- mass fraction of crude protein, %, not less than 7.0.
Technological additive was chosen to reflect the necessity of creating a homogeneous system. Bentonite is used as a dispersant, a substance that facilitates a uniform distribution of components in a polymer matrix by mixing (processing Technology of plastics and elastomers in the manufacture of polymeric film materials and artificial leather. Gpetrova, Closah, Justitie, M., "Kolos", 2008, 367 S.).
As the polymer binder used waste polyethylene production and household, having the following characteristics: particle (grit) different colors without mechanical note is this, the number of inclusions is not more than 10%mass fraction of moisture not more than 2%.
This composition has rheological characteristics that meet the requirements of materials for recycling on traditional for plastics equipment (extruder, molding).
Articles of the proposed compositions have specified performance characteristics, including biological destruction.
The choice of the optimal proportions of polymer and filler due to theoretical limit of the filling, which is determined by the strength of the interaction at the phase boundary.
According to the invention is optimal ratio of beet pulp - waste polyethylene" (10-30:60:89). The proposed composition is made as follows.
30 mass parts of the beet pulp is mixed with 60 mass parts of waste polyethylene and 10 mass parts of bentonite in speed turbomachine within 5 minutes. The resulting mixture is fed to the extruder for homogenization. The temperature of the melt at the exit 140-160°C. the resulting Assembly is cooled by a stream of cold air and cut into granules with a size of 4-6 mm From the obtained pellets in the extruder with a slot die is used for the film or sheet from which molded articles of various sizes and thermop is statemate - different containers.
The preparation of the composition of example 1. The number of sugar beet pulp, 10 wt.%. Waste polyethylene 89 wt.%, bentonite 1 wt.%.
The preparation of the composition of example 1. The number of sugar beet pulp, 20 wt.%, waste polyethylene 70 wt.%, bentonite 10 wt.%.
The compositions according to the examples shown in table 1. In the examples given their optimal number.
Table 2 shows the methods for the determination of properties, providing objective of the invention.
|№№ p/p||Name indications||Test methods|
|1.||The melt flow index of the composition (MFR) at a temperature of 120°C, g/10 min||GOST 11645-73|
|2.||The temperature of the processing composition, °C||GOST 11645-73|
|3.||Water absorption, % 24 HR||GOST 4650-80|
|4.||Microbiological stability||GOST .053-75|
Biologically erodible thermoplastic composition for products, characterized in that it contains waste polyethylene production and household, biodegradable filler, which is used as sugar beet pulp, and technological additive, which is used bentonite, in the following ratio, wt.%:
SUBSTANCE: invention describes a composition for a wood-polymer composite material containing the following, wt %: furfural-acetone resin 14-20, benzene sulphonic acid 3-5, andesite flour 47-57, technical soot 2.5-5.7, wood chips 16-20, broken glass or loose glass yarn 0.3-0.5, modified low molecular weight styrene-containing copolymer based on still bottoms from distillation of recycled solvent from production of polybutadiene 2.0-6.0 wt % maleic acid 1-5, and polyatomic alcohol 0.3-1.5.
EFFECT: composition enables to obtain wood-polymer composite material with high strength and frost resistance.
2 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of vegetable lignocelluloses raw material to produce plate construction materials to be used in construction and furniture production. Vegetable lignocelluloses raw material with high content of lignin and hemicelluloses is treated for 15 s - 10 min by water steam at not over 1 MPa and 150-250°C. Treatment by water steam is instantly terminated. Said vegetable lignocelluloses raw material thus treated is mixed with untreated fibrous vegetable lignocelluloses raw material. Content of vegetable lignocelluloses raw material treated by water steam in produced mix makes 2-60 wt %. Produced mix is formed into mats. Water is extracted from said mats. Vegetable lignocelluloses raw material treated by water steam can be dried to moisture content of 5-10%. Resultant matter is mixed with untreated vegetable lignocelluloses raw material. Mats are produced from obtained mix and subjected to hot pressing. To produced solid plate material.
EFFECT: lower production costs.
5 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of plate materials based on cellulose-containing particles impregnated with glue base on carbamide-formaldehyde resin to be used woodworking industry. Cellulose-containing particles are mixed with glue based on carbamide-formaldehyde resin and acid solidifier. Said cellulose-containing particles represent flax boon. Note here that said glue comprises additionally modifier butanol-1 in amount of 1.4…1.6% of carbamide-formaldehyde resin weight.
EFFECT: production of new structural material with increased physical and mechanical properties.
1 cl, 2 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: aqueous solution of the product of reacting a composition used for products made from recycled wood material, essentially consisting of an acid source with pKa in water ranging from 2 to 8, a base source with pKb in water ranging from 2 to 6 and urea, in which the composition contains from 0.1 to 70 wt % acid, from 0.1 to 50 wt % base and from 1 to 55 wt % urea, where the rest is water, is effective for enhancing polymerisation of urea-formaldehyde resin. The composition which is capable of hardening urea-formaldehyde resin can contain urea-formaldehyde resin which is capable of hardening and the above described composition and can be obtained by mixing the resin with the said composition. A panel made from recycled wood material can be made by mixing crushed lignocellulosic material and the said urea-formaldehyde resin which is capable of hardening and hardening the resin. The concentrate for preparing the polymerisation enhancing composition used for products made from recycled wood material contains an acid source with pKa in water ranging from 2 to 8, a base source with pKb in water ranging from 2 to 6 and urea.
EFFECT: increased resistance to breaking up of the plates during hot piling and further hot pressing.
19 cl, 6 ex, 9 tbl
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in mechanical engineering for fabrication of big size bearing and sliding elements of light and medium loaded friction units operating with organic lubricant. Here is disclosed antifriction wood-polymer material made out of composition containing crumbled wood, polymer binding - mixture of polyethylene and polypropylene, modifier of polymer binding - maleic anhydride, lubricant - mixture of mineral oil and polyethylene wax and additionally - fly ash.
EFFECT: raised impact strength and tribo-resistance at wear, reduced water absorption of antifriction material.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to wood-working, furniture and construction industry. In order to develop non-toxic plate material, it is proposed to use moulding material from plant raw material without using synthetic binders. Moulding material in the form of plant raw material particles containing cellulose, lignine, easy- and difficult-to-hydrolyse polysaccharides and carboxyl groups is obtained by means of cavitation treatment of plant raw material; at that, it contains easy- and difficult-to-hydrolyse polysaccharides 13-18% and 28-37%, correspondingly, cellulose with copper index of 1.7-2.9 g/100 g - 53-58 %, lignine (Komarov) 31-37% and carboxyl groups 0.6-4.9 %.
EFFECT: cheap plate materials having high ecological and physic and mechanical properties are obtained from moulding material.
6 cl, 1 ex, 5 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of composite materials on the basis of lignocellulose materials, in particular to press-compositions, and may be used in wood processing and construction. Composite material is produced from binder - acetylated wood of aspen with additional introduction of additive - powdery inorganic substance from the following group: Al, AlCl3*6H2O, Al(OH)3, at the following weight ratio of components, wt %: Lignocellulose binder - from 30 to 70, additive - the rest.
EFFECT: invention assists in increase of composite materials compositions, increase of strength, heat resistance and water resistance of composites.
4 ex, 2 tbl, 3 dwg
FIELD: oil-and-gas production.
SUBSTANCE: invention related to oil-and-gas production, can be used for boring reagent fabrication. At oxidation stage of lingosulphanate with sol of chrome hexad, at pH 1-1.5, production waste, generated at main product drying stage, additionally added into reaction zone. Production waste is lingosulphanate water solution, which includes residual amount of chrome elements at different oxidation stages.
EFFECT: injection of a waste flow into reaction zone allow to use lingosulphanate of different types and maintain the process at the stage of components active interaction, also increase boring reagent diluting factor and decrease sodium dichromate losses.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the polymer compositions intended for production of biodegradable articles such as films and thermoforming parts in the form of consumer packaging. The composition contains industrial and household polyethylene waste, oligomer dye, titanium dioxide and rice peeling as biodegradable filler.
EFFECT: invented composition possesses rheological properties corresponding to the requirements specified to the polymer articles for providing the possibility of their processing on the traditional equipment as well as necessary performance characteristics including biodegradability after service life 18 months.
3 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to wood and wood preservation and more particularly to timber treatment, wood composition materials, veneer-based products and constructional timber materials in production in order to protect from destruction by wood-destroying organisms such as termites, beetles and borers. Glue to fight pests which damage wood or timber products, contains resin and biphentrin composition, in which biphentrin is present in form of particles with size 1 mcm or more. Method of preservation of timber product lies in application of said glue for joining timber product subcomponents. Biphentrin added to glue is efficient for preventing destruction of products made from timber by termites.
EFFECT: ensuring protection against destruction by wood-destroying organisms, for instance, termites, beetles and borers.
18 cl, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: composition with multimodal distribution of molecular weight has density between 0.94 and 0.95 g/cm3 at 23°C and melt flow index (MFI190/5) between 1.2-2.1 dg/min in accordance with ISO 1133. The composition contains 45-55 wt % low molecular weight homopolymer A of ethylene, 30-40 wt % high molecular weight copolymer B of ethylene and another olefin containing 4-8 carbon atoms, and 10-20 wt % ultrahigh molecular weight copolymer C of ethylene and another olefin containing 4-8 carbon atoms. The composition has high processibillity and resistance to mechanical loads and breaking, especially at temperatures below 0°C.
EFFECT: flawless coating for steel pips has mechanical strength properties combined with high hardness.
10 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to multilayer microporous polyethylene membrane and storage battery made thereof. Proposed membrane has at least two microporous layers. One layer (a) of polyethylene resin A contains high-density polyethylene A with 0.2 and more end vinyl groups per 10 000 carbon atoms defined by IR-spectroscopy. Second microporous layer (b) of polyethylene resin B contains high-density polyethylene A with smaller than 0.2 end vinyl groups per 10 000 carbon atoms defined by IR-spectroscopy. Said membrane is produced by two methods. First method comprises simultaneous extrusion of solutions of polyethylene resins A and B through spinneret, cooling of extrudate, removing of solvent and laminating. Second method comprises extrusion of said solutions through different spinnerets. Said membrane is used to produce storage battery separator.
EFFECT: well-balanced characteristics of melting and cutting-off, good forming property of film and separator and anti-oxidation properties.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: moulding method involves heating thermoplastic material higher than melting point, forcing the obtained melt through a die at 10-100°C higher than melting point of the thermoplastic material and cooling the product to temperature lower than melting point. The composition of thermoplastic material includes a thermoplastic polymer and a complex additive for improving moulding. The complex additive used is a reactive composition containing at least one polyether polyol and at least one thickening component selected from a group comprising polybasic organic acids, anhydrides of polybasic organic acids, fatty acids containing 8-18 carbon atoms, as well as mixtures thereof.
EFFECT: method cuts on induction time, increases rate of flawless moulding thermoplastic material, reduces power consumption and moulding temperature, lowers pressure in the equipment when moulding high molecular weight polymers, simplifies and lowers the cost of moulding articles from thermoplastic polymer materials.
12 cl, 11 dwg, 14 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing composite nanomaterials for antifrictional purposes. The materials can be used in systems working under high deformation loads and in friction assemblies. The method involves mechanical activation of powder filler in form of sheet silicate in a ball mill in high-speed mode. Further, the powder filler is then mixed with powdered ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene for 10-60 minutes in a high-energy mill combined with mechanical activation.
EFFECT: obtained mixture is starting material from which articles with improved tribological characteristics, high mechanical strength and elasticity are moulded.
2 cl, 9 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polymer materials meant for making articles via rotational moulding. The rotational moulding polymer material contains particles of a thermoplastic polymer or a mixture of thermoplastic polymers on whose surface there are silicon oxide particles whose size ranges between 1 and 1000 nm in amount of 0.001-0.1% of the total weight of the polymer material.
EFFECT: obtained material cuts on moulding time without considerable overheating of the molten mass with simultaneous removal of bubbles, as well as high mechanical strength of the articles.
5 cl, 36 dwg, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: rubber mix is prepared from butadiene-nitrile rubber BNKS-18 AMN with addition of powdered ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) in the following ratio of components, wt %: BNKS-18 AMN butadiene-nitrile rubber 40-46.3; SKMS-10 RKP rubber 19.0; stearine 0.54; zinc white BT-M 1.63; sulphur 0.54; diaphene FP 0.54; paraffin 0.54; dibutylphthalate 3.2; technical rubber P-701 25-31.3; UHMWPE 1.63; sulfenamide T 0.54; thiuram 0.54.
EFFECT: high oil and moisture resistance and frost resistance of cushion pads.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polymer moulding compositions meant for moulding screw fitments. The composition contains a copolymer of ethylene and 1-hexene with density between 0.947 and 0.962 g/cm3 and melt index between 2 and 8 g/10 min and another copolymer of ethylene and 1-hexene with density between 0.912 and 0.932 g/cm3 and melt index between 0.25 and 6 g/10 min. Difference in density of the two polyethylenes is equal to or greater than 0.03 g/cm3. Selection of the components enables to obtain polymer compositions which have sufficient resistance to cracking and impact strength at low production expenses and without loss of other necessary operational properties.
EFFECT: screw fittings made from the said composition have strength which conforms to requirements for maintaining pressure, particularly in bottles with carbonated drinks, as well as plasticity for providing an airtight seal without need for lining and without change in taste or smell of the contents of the bottle.
9 cl, 4 ex, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to bands made from polyethylene, specifically to synthetic turf made from such bands. The pigmented band contains 75-99.5 wt % non-pigmented polyethylene having density between 928 and 940 kg/m3 and melt flow index MI2 not less than 0.3 g/10 min and up to 25 wt % pigmented polyethylene. Total amount of pigment in the band is not less than 0.5 wt %.
EFFECT: pigmented band for making synthetic turf has better balance between softness and elasticity compared to that of existing types of turf.
10 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polyethylene and articles made by injection moulding polyethylene. Polyethylene contains homopolymers of ethylene and/or copolymers with ethylene with molecular weight distribution Mw/Mn between 3 and 30, density of 0.945 - 0.965 g/cm3, average molecular weight Mw between 50000 g/mol and 200000 g/mol, high-load melt index (HLMI) between 10 and 300 g/10 min. The polymer contains 0.1-15 branches/1000 carbon atoms, where 1-15 wt % polyethylene with the highest molecular weight has degree of branching greater than 1 branch of side chains with length greater than CH3/1000 carbon atoms.The polyethylene is obtained using a catalyst composition which contains at least two different polymerisation catalysts, where A) is at least one hafnocene-based polymerisation catalyst (A2), and B) is at least one polymerisation catalyst based on an iron component, having a tridentate ligand which contains at least two ortho-, ortho-disubstituted aryl radicals (B). The disclosed polyethylene can be subjected to processing treatment on standard injection moulding apparatus.
EFFECT: articles obtained through injection moulding is uniform and can further be improved by increasing rate of injection moulding or high melting point.
9 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of preparing a polyethylene based composition capable of peroxide cross-linking, which is meant for making articles for various purposes at the end of the cross-linking process, e.g. cable insulation, machine housings, semiconductor protective screens and tubes. The method involves pre-mixing a liquid organic peroxide, a liquid antioxidant and a liquid light stabiliser. The obtained liquid mixture is then added to polyethylene powder at room temperature and stirred intensely, preferably at mixer rotational speed of 800-1500 rpm. The light stabiliser used is at least one liquid sterically hindered amine.
EFFECT: using simple technology to prepare a peroxide cross-linked polyethylene composition, which can be stored for up to four or more days at room temperature with preservation of its activity.
4 cl, 2 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermoplastic polymeric compositions for making carpet backing. The composition contains a naturally crystalline or semicrystalline thermoplastic polymer and a nucleating agent - ground glass, glass powder, broken glass or mixtures thereof, in amount of 10-70% in terms of the total weight of the composition and without reinforcing fibre. The composition has properties selected from a group comprising MT4 value less than approximately 0.125 and CT4 value less than approximately 0.1, measured through AACHEN test; time after which surface stickiness disappears less than approximately 1 hour; time for attaining rigidity of the backing less than approximately 75 hours; ignition time greater than approximately 13 seconds and self-extinction time less than approximately 60 seconds.
EFFECT: invention has better processing properties, high fire resistance and enables to make carpet backing with high stability of dimensions and improved crystalline structure.
20 cl, 2 tbl, 4 ex