Method of defining of industrial explosive gaseous air pollutants

FIELD: explosives.

SUBSTANCE: in the proposed method there defined is the quantity of air supplied to the dead-end underground working ventilated by infusion method. EC charge with diametre not less than 50 mm and length not less than 6 charge diametres is blasted in steel shell with wall thickness not less than 5 mm in test room, which is created in the underground working by means of isolating cross-piece that has a hole for ventilating air output. After explosion ventilating air is exhausted and with the aid of gas-analyser there performed is constant measurement of toxic gases concentration till the decrease of their contents up to gas-analyser threshold response and gaseous air pollutants are calculated. Note that additionally at explosion moment there measured is EC charge detonation speed for detonation process completeness control.

EFFECT: provision of defining of explosives gaseous air pollutant at the places of their use.

1 tbl, 6 ex

 

The invention relates to explosive and can be used in the mining industry to determine the harmful gas industrial explosives), made on the ground of their consumption.

In the products of explosion of the explosive, made on the ground of their consumption, reported a significant quantity of toxic gases (usually oxides of carbon and nitrogen: CO, NO and NO2). This is because modern commercial EXPLOSIVES characteristic of nonideal detonation, due to incomplete decomposition of components in the reaction zone of the detonation wave. Gas hazard is the sum of the amounts of toxic gases in the products of the explosion, referred to the weight of CENTURIES, taking into account the coefficient of toxicity.

Known laboratory method for determining harmful gas by detonation of the explosive charge in the amount of 100 g, in a paper wrapper with a diameter of 36 mm in steel cylinder with a volume of 20 l with a hollow bottom and removable lid (Lowdose, Nesbakken, Ahirman. Industrial explosives. M.: Nedra. - 1988. - s-324).

Modern coarse CENTURIES have large critical diameter of the open charge and in paper shell with a diameter of 36 mm is not fully detonate, therefore, to organize a stationary detonation process, it is necessary to work with charges larger diameter, and hence the greater mass, which it is impossible to implement in the laboratory.

Closest to the claimed method for determining harmful gas CENTURIES is blasting explosive charge in the borehole in a labyrinth of underground development, ventilated by way of discharge (Paramonov P.A. study of the formation of toxic gases for blasting in coal mines // Proceedings McNeil, .XV. Issues of safety in coal mines. Gosgortechnadzor, 1963. - Pp.261-300). Before the explosion determines the amount of air coming into production for ventilation. Immediately after the explosion, specially trained master measurers at selected points, usually 100 m from the site of the explosion, waiting for the approach of the leading edge of the wave of explosive gases, and from that moment until their complete disappearance, in cross-section to produce produce air sampling. Sampling is carried out in pre-evacuated glass vessels at certain intervals of time. Then, according to chemical analysis in the laboratory, and measurements of the amount of air that went to the airing, calculate the volume formed by the explosion of toxic gases. Dividing the volume by the mass detonated explosive charge receive a specific quantity of toxic gases in l/kg Gas hazard calculated by adding the obtained values, taking into account the factor of 6.5 for oxides of nitrogen.

The disadvantage of this method is the need for the campus to establish the moment of the approach of the first wave of explosive gases and measurements are completed, the variability of the testing environment that does not allow to compare the results of the experiments, as well as a great danger for measuring masters.

The present invention is directed to solving the problem of determining the harmful gas modern industrial coarse CENTURIES, made on the ground of their consumption, in equal conditions, under which conditions blasting, comparable to breed array, with simultaneous control of the completeness of flow of the detonation process by measuring the velocity of detonation.

The problem is solved in that in the known method for determination of gas hazards explosives, including determining the amount of air coming in dead-end workings ventilated by way of the discharge, the blasting explosive charge known mass, the sampling of the air leaving the generation and calculation of harmful gas, according to the invention detonate the explosive charge with a minimum diameter of 50 mm and a length not less than 6 diameters of charge in a steel shell with a wall thickness not less than 5 mm in the test chamber, which is created in the development through an isolation jumper with a hole for exhaust ventilation, after the explosion air ventilation produced by the detector continuously measure concentration is AI toxic gases to reduce their content to the threshold detector, and additionally at the moment of explosion measure the velocity of detonation of the explosive charge to monitor the completeness of the detonation process.

The charge is mixed coarse explosives manufactured at the place of its application, with a diameter of not less than 50 mm, placed in a steel shell that detonates completely at a speed appropriate to the stationary detonation process, far exceeding the critical diameter of detonation. The use of the charge diameter less than 50 mm, even in a steel shell does not achieve stationarity detonation, as evidenced by the low process speed, close to deflagration burning.

Use as shell seamless pipes with wall thickness not less than 5 mm reduces the critical diameter of detonation of the test CENTURIES and simulates blasting surrounded by rocks. The use of shell wall thickness less than 5 mm does not ensure the development of stationary detonation process that produces the maximum energy release of the explosion.

The use of shell length of at least 5 diameters of charge allows the measurement of harmful gas in the conditions when the detonation of the charge occurs in a stationary mode, and the properties of the intermediate detonator does not affect the velocity of detonation of IP is libimage CENTURIES.

Create an isolated test chamber in a labyrinth of underground development allows to accurately determine the amount of air entering into the chamber for ventilation. And, in addition, allows you to produce air ventilation with the products of the explosion only through the hole, into which is inserted the probe detector for continuous sampling of the air with their simultaneous analysis.

Measurement of velocity of detonation allows control of the flow of the detonation process, stationarity, which is the maximum release of energy with the minimum content of toxic products of the explosion.

The essence of the proposed method and the achieved results can be more clearly explained by the following examples.

When implementing the method as a wrapper used seamless steel pipe with an inner diameter d, in which the explosive charge is placed sensors to measure the velocity of detonation. The boundary surface between the explosive charge and the intermediate detonator take over the plane of initiation. Before the explosion calculate the amount of air in m3/s coming into the test chamber for ventilation and determine the mass of the explosive charge in kg Then the charge in the shell is placed in the camera, plug located therein sensors for measurement of velocity of detonation and produce an explosion of the interview. Immediately after the explosion include intake fan that delivers air to ventilate working, close the isolating wall, the hole where the inserted probe detector for sampling. After airing the weight of explosive, the amount of air that went for ventilation, and certain quantities of toxic gases calculate their relative quantity in l/kg as a test subject using composite EXPLOSIVES local manufacturing granulite-5MP. The amount of air entering the ventilation output, - 2.3 m3/s Gas hazard is calculated by adding specific amounts of detectable gases, taking into account factors toxicity: for carbon monoxide - 1, for oxides of nitrogen - 6.5.

Example 1.

In the test chamber is placed a tube diameter of 50 mm, wall thickness 5 mm with the explosive charge length 500 mm (~10 d), which at a distance of more than 5 d from the plane of the initiation of the placed sensors to measure the velocity of detonation.

The mass of the explosive charge 883,

Speed of detonation 3650 m/S.

Specific quantity WITH 11,7 l/kg

Specific quantity of NO 7,6 l/kg

The amount of NO20.6 l/kg

Gas hazard 65,0 l/kg

Example 2.

In the test chamber is placed a pipe with a diameter of 64 mm, with wall thickness 5 mm with the explosive charge length 750 mm (~11,5 d), in which at a distance of more than 7 d from PL is Scoti initiating placed sensors to measure the velocity of detonation.

The mass of the explosive charge 2604,

Speed of detonation of the explosive charge 3700 m/S.

The specific number of 12.6 l/kg

Specific quantity of NO 7.3 l/kg

The amount of NO20.4 l/kg

Gas hazard 62,65 l/kg

Example 3.

In the test chamber is placed a pipe with a diameter of 98 mm, with wall thickness 5 mm with the explosive charge length 500 mm (~5 d), which at a distance of 4 d from the plane of the initiation of the placed sensors to measure the velocity of detonation.

The mass of the explosive charge 3770,

The detonation speed of 4200 m/S.

The specific number of 12.1 l/kg

Specific quantity NO of 7.1 l/kg

The amount of NO20.4 l/kg

Gas hazard 60,9 l/kg

Example 4.

In the test chamber is placed a pipe with a diameter of 98 mm, with wall thickness 5 mm with the explosive charge length 850 mm (~9 d), which at a distance of 4 d from the plane of the initiation of the placed sensors to measure the velocity of detonation.

The mass of the explosive charge 5767,

The detonation speed of 4200 m/S.

Specific quantity WITH 11,9 l/kg

Specific quantity of NO 7.0 l/kg

The amount of NO20.5 l/kg

Gas hazard 60,65 l/kg

Example 5.

In the test chamber is placed a pipe with a diameter of 40 mm, wall thickness 5 mm with the explosive charge length 500 mm (~13 (d), which at a distance of 7 d from the plane of the initiation of the placed sensors to measure the velocity of detonation.

The mass of the explosive charge 65,

The detonation speed of 2900 m/S.

The specific number of 15.2 l/kg

Specific quantity of NO 8.8 l/kg

The amount of NO21.3 l/kg

Gas harmfulness of 80.9 l/kg

Example 6.

In the test chamber is placed a pipe with a diameter of 56 mm, wall thickness 3 mm with the explosive charge length 560 mm (~10 d), which at a distance of 6 d from the plane of the initiation of the placed sensors to measure the velocity of detonation.

The mass of the explosive charge 1241

Detonation of the charge is not complete, the detonation speed is not measured.

Specific quantity WITH 48,1 l/kg

Specific quantity of NO 14,7 l/kg

The amount of NO25,5 l/kg

Gas hazard 179,4 l/kg

Example 7.

In a dead-end production, ventilated by way of discharge, place a pipe with a diameter of 98 mm, with wall thickness 5 mm with the explosive charge length 900 mm (~9 d), which at a distance of 6 d from the plane of the initiation of the placed sensors to measure the velocity of detonation. The probe detector installed at a distance of 100 m from the explosion. After the explosion, the system analyzer does an automatic sampling and analysis of samples for the quantitative content of toxic gases.

The mass of the explosive charge 6359,

Speed of detonation 3950 m/S.

Specific quantity WITH 1.7 l/kg

Specific quantity of NO 0.6 l/kg

The amount of NO20.1 l/kg.

Gas harmfulness of 6.3 l/kg

Example 8 (what about the prototype).

In the hole is 3.5 m in length, diameter 105 mm, drilled in the underground stub generation, charge explosive and produce blasting. After the explosion on the selected measuring station 100 m from the blast, trained professionals-master measurers using the security features of the respiratory system and eyes, take samples of the air in the section of production in selected intervals of time. Samples for nitrogen oxides originate in pre-evacuated glass vessels, a further analysis is carried out in the laboratory. The concentration of carbon monoxide WITH define expressive linear-colour method since the approach of the leading edge of the wave of explosive gases prior to their complete disappearance. According to chemical analysis, measuring the amount of air and, knowing the mass detonated EXPLOSIVES, get a specific quantity of toxic gases.

The mass of the explosive charge 13120,

Speed of detonation 3950 m/s

The specific number WITH a 10.1 l/kg

The amount of NOx6,2 l/kg

Gas harmfulness of 50.4 l/kg

As follows from the above Examples 1-4,8 (table), the proposed method allows to determine the gas harmfulness of coarse CENTURIES in conditions where the conditions blasting, comparable to breed array with simultaneous control of the completeness of flow of the detonation process. Gas hazard DL the test granulite-5MP is 60-65 l/kg, speed of detonation 3650-3950 m/s, which corresponds to the explosives of this type.

The length of the charge, ~dWall thickness, MMThe charge diameter, mmThe mass of the charge, gSpeed of detonation, m/s /at a distance d from the plane of initiation/Gas bitchiness, l/kg
1105508803650/>5 d65,0
21256421703700/>5 d62,65
3559833904200/<5 d60,9
4959857704200/<5 d 60,65
5135405002900/>5 d80,9
6103561240detonation is not complete179,4
79510063603950/>5 d6,3
829the hole in the rock excavation105294003950/>5 d50,4

Method for determination of gas hazards explosives, including determining the amount of air coming in dead-end workings ventilated by way of the discharge, the blasting explosive charge (CC) of a known mass, the sampling of the air leaving the generation and calculation of harmful gas, characterized in that explode the explosive charge with a minimum diameter of 50 mm and length is the Eney 6 diameters of charge in a steel shell with a wall thickness not less than 5 mm in the test chamber, created in development through an isolation jumper with a hole for exhaust ventilation, after the explosion, the air ventilation produced by the detector continuously measure the concentration of toxic gases to reduce their content to the threshold detector, and additionally at the moment of explosion measure the velocity of detonation of the explosive charge to monitor the completeness of the detonation process.



 

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1 tbl, 12 ex

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1 tbl, 12 ex

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Grenade tester // 2387948

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