Gas turbine engine auxiliary mechanism drive

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: auxiliary mechanism drive of two-shaft gas turbine engine comprising high- and low-pressure shafts incorporates first mechanical transmission between high-pressure shaft and drive box, and hydraulic transmission between low-pressure shaft and drive box. Auxiliary mechanisms are arranged in drive box, while hydraulic transmission is mounted to allow auxiliary mechanism drive rpm being equal to high-pressure shaft rpm.

EFFECT: possibility to take off power from high- and low-pressure shafts without varying auxiliary mechanism rpm.

14 cl, 3 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the field of multi-shaft gas turbine engines used in aircraft, and its object is the means of selection of mechanical power on the shaft of the motor. In particular, this tool is intended to perform the function of the auxiliary drive mechanisms.

Typically, gas turbine engine includes an air compressor feeding, at least partially, by air to the combustion chamber. The gases leaving the combustion chamber, drive the one or more turbines, mechanically connected to the compressor, and ensure the creation of thrust. The two-shaft engine contains a compressor, called low-pressure compressor and coupled to the first shaft with a cascade of low-pressure turbines, while the whole complex forms a low pressure casing OD. It also contains the second case, called high pressure casing VD associated with the second shaft, is made concentric with the first shaft. Both rotor freely mechanically rotate relative to each other. Shaft VD directly communicates with the combustion chamber. Turbojet engines, particularly engines of civil aircraft contain the compressor rotor is driven by the shaft OD and providing a significant part of the thrust of the engine.

Part of the power produced by the aviation gasturb nimi engines is used to actuate the auxiliary themselves turbine engines and aircraft, the movement of which is provided by these engines.

Currently, multi-shaft motor this power is taken away, partially mechanically to the shaft of the high pressure stage for driving the input receiving shaft gearbox drives support mechanisms. This box call box AGB (from the Accessory Gear Box). In a turbojet engine with turbocharger this box set on the compressor crankcase. Typically, the input shaft is driven by a transmission shaft mounted in one of the structural pillars of the crankcase and connected via the angular gear box with a gear fixedly connected with the shaft of a high pressure. Various support mechanisms, such as generators and hydraulic oil pumps or fuel pumps installed on this box drives and are driven through a system of gears.

Another part of the process involves the pressurized air taken from the compressor high pressure to ensure, in particular, pressurization and air-conditioning the cabin of the aircraft or for de-icing.

Currently there is a trend to increase the share of mechanical power in the force sevasram the surrounding electrical means, which are more flexible in use. This is all the more manifest the need for electrical supply of the aircraft does not allow, due to operating conditions and characteristics of the engine mainly in the regimes of small gas, to take power only on the shaft VD. This PTO may cause surging of the compressor.

Tool to increase PTO for new needs in gas turbine engines, respectively, requires the selection of mechanical power on the shaft VD and OD of the engine.

However shafts VD and ND rotate independently from each other with different speeds and have different operating ranges. Between idling mode and full speed ratio of the speeds for the shaft VD is approximately equal to two; the rotation speed is changed, for example, from 10,000 rpm to 20,000 rpm. Shaft ND the speed ratio is approximately equal to five; its speed varies, for example, 900 rpm at idling conditions to 4500 rpm at full speed. In addition, auxiliary mechanisms installed on the box drives AGB, have a certain operating range, compatible with an operating range of the shaft VD.

As the prototype is set to French patent FR 2863312, in which is disclosed a means of increasing mixed selection of mechanical power and on the shafts VD and OD of the engine.

The present invention is to create a mixed selection of mechanical power on the shaft VD and ND when saving for a carton AGB speed range that is compatible with an operating range of support mechanisms that are installed in this box.

In accordance with the present invention, the device drive auxiliary shaft, in particular, the two-shaft gas turbine engine containing the shaft OD and the shaft VD, these mechanisms are installed in a box actuators, the device comprises a first mechanical transmission between the shaft of the DB and the said box, characterized in that it further comprises a hydraulic transmission between the shaft VD and the said box.

The term "box" refers to the housing for installation of auxiliary mechanisms, equipped with mechanical drive means such mechanisms from one or more of the resources of the PTO.

Thanks to the device in accordance with the present invention the shaft OD can participate in the drive mechanisms of the box depending on the mode of operation of the engine. Due to this reduced the PTO shaft to the DB during the phases when there is a problem with the operating modes of the engine. In addition, the hydraulic transmission allows to transmit power from the shaft OD, not for the Lord of the speed while the rotation of the box is mechanically transmitted from the shaft to the DB through the said first mechanical transmission, while the velocity at the inlet is controlled by the shaft speed VD. Thus, keep the speed control box is compatible with auxiliary mechanisms installed on this box.

According to the first embodiment perform the hydraulic transmission includes a hydrostatic variator with a hydraulic pump, connected to the shaft OD through the second mechanical transmission and is connected through a hydraulic circuit with a hydraulic drive, which in turn is connected with the said box through a third mechanical transmission.

In particular, the first and third transmission connected in parallel with the box. Depending on the pump the second transmission includes a speed reducer.

This alternative implementation is preferred because it provides greater flexibility in implementation; in particular, it is possible to position the pump and drive in different places, if necessary, remote from each other.

Preferably, at least the pump or the drive had a positive move and is preferably a variable working volume.

The hydraulic circuit includes a hydraulic accumulator at the outlet of the pump that allows you to control which of its pressure. Node bandwidth control, hydraulic drive allows you to adjust the additional power supplied to the shaft OD.

According to another variant the execution of the third mechanical transmission includes a differential mechanism with epicycle gear.

This solution allows to reduce the power transmitted by the hydraulic transmission, and, therefore, reduce the size of this part.

Epicycle transmission contains three steps: a casing, a planetary gear and drove satellites, for this application epicycle transmission has two input stage and output stage, which is determined depending on the gear ratio of the selected gear. The input stage is made in the form of a planetary gear epicycle gear, is connected with the fourth mechanical transmission with the shaft OD and the shaft of the hydraulic actuator mechanically connected to the other input stage - the case epicycle gear.

In particular, the shaft of the hydraulic actuator is connected to the input through the speed reducer and the output stage - drove satellites connected to the box.

According to the third variant of execution of the hydraulic transmission includes a hydraulic clutch that is connected, on the one hand, the second transmission shaft OD, on the other the part, a third transmission from the said box. Control of delivered power carried out by means controls fluid injection.

As in the previous cases, the invention allows to maintain the speed control box through the shaft VD compatible with operation of the engine and aircraft. It also allows you to transmit power to the auxiliary mechanisms from the shaft OD and to shorten the PTO shaft VD during the phase when problems arise associated with the operation modes of the engine.

The invention also allows you to limit the losses associated with hydrokinetic transmission, for regimes that allow 100%PTO shaft VD.

This alternative implementation is particularly preferred as it is easy to implement, even if the clutch itself is larger than the previous hydraulic technical solution.

Other distinctive features and advantages of the invention will be more apparent from the following description of embodiments with reference to the accompanying figures of the drawings, in which:

Figure 1 represents a schematic view of the first variant of execution.

Figure 2 - schematic view of the second variant of execution.

Figure 3 - schematic view of the third variant of execution.

An embodiment shown nafig, applies to two-shaft gas turbine engine; the figure shows only two shafts 1 and 3 gas turbine engine, one of which is the shaft OD and the other shaft VD. As we know from the preceding technical solutions that both shafts are concentric with and freely mechanically rotate relative to each other. During operation they can rotate either in the same direction or in opposite directions. The shaft OD is mounted on the respective support bearings inside the shaft VD. In the case of a turbojet engine it drives the compressor, for example, mounted on the front.

Each of the two shafts includes gear, respectively 1A and 3A, the rotation of the transmission shafts. The first shaft 5 forming a first mechanical transmission and containing at one end a means 5A PTO, for example, a pinion on the shaft VD, is located radially with respect to the axis of the engine, limited by two shafts 1 and 3. Through the gear 5b, it passes at its other end rotational movement of the input shaft 7a of the box 7 drives. Detailed description this box is also omitted because it is not relevant to the present invention. It contains a frame equipped with a gear connected with one or more PTO shafts. The elements of the set n the box depends on its client engine. In particular, when the engine is a gas turbine engine with a turbocharger for use in civil aircraft, the box is fixed to the crankcase and the transmission shaft 5 set radially in the front design of the sump.

In accordance with the invention and according to this first embodiment perform the input shaft 7a rotates the hydraulic transmission means 10, which is a hydraulic variable speed drive from the shaft OD. The tool 10 is mechanically connected to the second mechanical transmission 10r1with the shaft 1. In this case we can talk about gear meshing with the pinion gear fixedly connected with the shaft 1. It could also be about the speed reducer, if you want it. Through the shaft 10b of the tool 10 are mechanically connected to the input shaft 7a of the box, in this case through the speed reducer, forming a third mechanical transmission 10r2. The hydrostatic transmission includes a pump 11, a mechanically rotating shaft 10A. Gearbox 10r1allows you to adapt the speed of the input shaft to the speed of the pump. Preferably we are talking about the pump with positive displacement and variable displacement of the cylinder. Alternatively, this type of pump includes a platform with adjustable tilt. The tilting pad IU yet the piston stroke of the pump and its working volume. The working volume is regulated by the node 13 management. The pump feeds the hydraulic fluid to the hydraulic actuator 15 with a variable working volume of the cylinder through the pipe 17. Hydraulic accumulator 19 is installed in parallel to the pipe 17 at the outlet of the pump. It should be noted that in this system the hydraulic circuit does not depend on other hydraulic circuits.

Management of the PTO shaft OD is carried out by the control pump 11 and the actuator 15 by means of the control device 13, in particular, depending on the speeds of the shafts 10A and 10b and the pressure provided by the pump.

The speed of the hydraulic motor depends on the speed of rotation of the shaft 7a, kinematically associated with the shaft VD. It follows that, whatever the mode of engine, gearbox drives installed on the units and rotates with a speed which is in the same operating range as the shaft VD.

During phase multiple of the sampling device operates as follows.

According to the first variant of the working pressure of the pump 11 maintain a constant, for example: Δ=350 bar. Operation of the actuator 15 is carried out by changing its displacement. Indeed, the power transmitted by the actuator, is determined by the relation:

Driving power = speed drive × working volume × Δ

Because the ku drive speed depends on the speed of the shaft VD, and maintain a constant pressure by means of a pump, the drive power is proportional to the volume passing through it liquid and, therefore, the working volume of the cylinder.

According to the second variant the working volume of the drive support maximum, and in this case, the transmitted power is proportional to Δ. The hydraulic circuit pressure is carried out by changing the effective volume of the pump.

The advantage of the proposed solution is that this system does not involve any kinematic connection between the two shafts ND and VD.

In addition, clicking on a specific mode, the shaft VD is in the working conditions, enabling him to convey the power box. In this case, the system of mixed PTO can be switched off. For this purpose, the control system 13 sends the command cancellation pressure and flow rate on the pump and actuator. In the pump and the actuator is mounted a vacuum to reduce losses and efforts of the resistance.

Similarly, during startup, if he is using the box, power passed from the starter directly on the shaft VD, disabling the hydrostatic transmission. Ground pump and drive are adjusted so as to obtain the minimum working volume. Indeed, the run takes place by rotation of only one shaft VD.

On Phi is .2, related to the second option run, shows the elements corresponding to the elements in figure 1, with the addition of 200 to the digital positions. This figure also shows the shaft 201 ND and the shaft 203 HP twin-shaft gas turbine engine, not shown in the drawing. The shaft 203 is connected with box 207 AGB drives auxiliary mechanisms by means of a first mechanical transmission 205, in this case, transmission shaft, gear 205A which is engaged with the gear a shaft VD, with both gears form an angle gear.

In accordance with the invention between the shaft OD 201 and the frame 207 is made of a hydraulic transmission. This transmission is part of the hydro-mechanical transmission, which will be described below.

As in the previous solution, the hydrostatic portion of the transmission includes a hydrostatic variator 210. It contains hydraulic pump 211 and the hydraulic actuator 215, interconnected by a hydraulic circuit 217. Both units 211 and 215 are of variable working volume that is shown by arrows 211' and 215', respectively. On the circuit 217 in parallel is the hydraulic battery designed to control pump pressure. The node 213 receives control parameters speed of each of the shafts 210A and 210b of both units, the pressure of the circuit, and the set values and healthy lifestyles the em control signal for changing the effective volume of the actuator 216 and/or pump, as in the first embodiment.

Drive shaft 210A pump 211 is connected to the second mechanical transmission 210r1with the shaft OD. In particular, we are talking about the speed reducer to match the two speeds.

Shaft 210b, rotate the actuator 215, connected with box 207 using third mechanical transmission 220.

This transmission includes a differential 221 with epicycle gear. It contains planetary gear 222, the satellite gear with the planet carrier 223 and the housing 224. Planetary gear 222 is connected to the fourth transmission with the shaft 230 ND, which in this case is the transmission shaft, which engages with the shaft 201. Between the shaft 210b hydraulic actuator 215 and the housing 224 differential 221 third transmission 220 further comprises a reducer 210r2. Drove 223 satellites connected to the input shaft of the box 207.

In this embodiment, the mounting shaft OD transmits power directly to the entrance, formed by a planetary gear 222 epicycle transmission 221, and indirectly to the input formed by the housing 224, through hydrostatic variator. The output of the epicycle transmission 221 formed by the planet carrier 223 satellites, connected with box AGB.

Speed on the input and output of the epicycle transmission 221 are respectively the shaft OD through fourth mechanical transmission 23 and a box 207, connected with the shaft VD first transmission 205. The speed of the hydraulic actuator 215 is set in this case, the epicycle gear ratio of the transmission.

Its final drive ratio epicycle transmission is chosen in such a way as to minimize the power passing through the hydrostatic transmission, and to reduce the loss in maximum performance mode.

The device works in the same way as in the first embodiment.

Work during phase multiple selection

According to the first variant of the working pressure of the pump 211 maintain a constant, for example: Δ=350 bar. Operation of the actuator 215 is carried out by changing its volume.

Since the drive speed is set shaft speed VD, and maintain a constant pressure by means of a pump, the drive power is proportional to the volume passing through it liquid and, therefore, the working volume of the cylinder.

According to the second variant the working volume of the actuator cylinder support maximum, and in this case, the transmitted power is proportional to Δ. The hydraulic circuit pressure is carried out by changing the effective volume of the pump.

Clicking on a specific mode, the shaft VD is in the working conditions, enabling him to convey the power box. In this case, the system is Sanogo PTO can be switched off. For this system 213 management submits a command cancellation pressure and flow rate on the pump and actuator. In the pump and the actuator is mounted a vacuum to reduce losses and efforts of the resistance.

Similarly, during startup, if he is using the box, power passed from the starter directly on the shaft VD, disabling the hydrostatic transmission. Ground pump and drive are adjusted so as to obtain the minimum working volume. Indeed, the run takes place by rotation of only one shaft VD.

Figure 3 relating to the third variant of execution, shows the elements corresponding to figure 1, with the addition of 300 to digital items.

The figure shows the first and second shafts 301 and 303, respectively. These shafts are respectively the shafts ND and VD twin-shaft gas turbine engine, not shown in the drawing. These two shafts are equipped with the appropriate gear 301a and a for PTO. First gear allows the PTO using the input shaft 310a transmission device 310, which in this case is a hydrokinetic. The second gear a allows the PTO using gear a transmission shaft 305, forming a first transmission means. Between the gear 301a and the input shaft 310a con is Matrena second mechanical transmission 310r 1made in the form of speed reducer.

As in the previous cases, box 307 drives made in relation to the actuator, is driven by these two means. The first tool 310 includes a shaft 310b, torque shaft a through the gearbox 310r2speed, forming a third mechanical transmission. Shaft a also provided in the rotation shaft 305 via a corresponding gear 305b.

Hydrokinetic transmission itself known; it contains hydraulic clutch 311, also called a hydraulic torque Converter connected to the system 312 control by partial discharge. System 312 includes a pump discharge and pumping, managed node 313 management. As is known, hydraulic coupler includes a first rotor equipped with blades and forming a pump installed in front of the second rotor forming a turbine. When the rotor is in rotation, the vanes pump hydraulic fluid on the blades of the second rotor forming a turbine, and bring it in motion. Changing the amount of liquid between the two rotors, also change the power transmitted from one rotor to the other, accordingly as the speed of the second rotor set speed gearbox 301r2. As in the first embodiment, the advantage of this system is that it does not use nick is Oh kinematic connection between the shafts ND and VD.

The gear ratio of both gears is chosen in such a way as to create a positive displacement speed between the pump and turbine hydrokinetic transmission in range of both of the shafts of the gas turbine engine. The speed of rotation of the turbine system is set by the rotation speed of the box, which itself is kinetically connected with the shaft VD. When this box causes the rotation of the units with the speed of the same operating range as the range of the shaft VD.

The power transmitted by the transmission 310 is proportional to the speed of rotation of the pump and the fluid flow. This fluid flow is governed by the system, carrying out partial filling of the transmission 310 and managed depending on the speeds of the shafts ND and VD. This management system allows the desired PTO shaft OD.

Clicking on a specific mode, the shaft VD is in the working conditions, enabling him to convey the power box. In this case, the system power can be turned off. To do this, remove the liquid from the system 310 and creates a vacuum to reduce losses and efforts of the resistance.

1. Drive auxiliary two-shaft gas turbine engine containing a shaft of the low pressure shaft high pressure, these support mechanisms established in the Kingdom is ke actuator, the device contains a first mechanical transmission between the shaft of the high pressure and the said box, characterized in that it further comprises a hydraulic transmission between the shaft of the low pressure and the said box, and a hydraulic transmission is set so that the speed of the auxiliary drive mechanisms in a box was in the same range as the speed of the shaft high pressure.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the hydraulic transmission includes a hydraulic variator with a hydraulic pump connected to the second transmission shaft low pressure and connected by a hydraulic circuit with a hydraulic actuator connected to the third mechanical transmission with the mentioned box.

3. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that the third transmission and the first transmission connected in parallel with box.

4. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that the second transmission includes a speed reducer.

5. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that at least the pump or the drive may have a positive move.

6. The device according to claim 3, characterized in that the pump and/or drive will have a variable working volume.

7. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that the circuit includes a hydraulic accumulator mounted on the output of the pump.

8. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that it contains the node bandwidth control, hydraulic drive.

9. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that the third mechanical transmission includes a differential mechanism with epicycle gear, consisting of three stages: housing, planetary gear and drove satellites.

10. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that the input stage, for example a planetary gear epicycle gear, connected to the fourth transmission shaft low pressure.

11. The device according to claim 10, characterized in that the hydraulic actuator is connected to the other input stage, for example, the case epicycle gear.

12. The device according to claim 11, characterized in that the shaft of the hydraulic actuator is connected to the input of the epicycle gear via the speed reducer.

13. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that the output stage, for example, drove satellites, connected to the box.

14. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the hydraulic transmission includes a hydraulic coupling connected to one side of the second mechanical transmission with the shaft of the low pressure and the other side of the third mechanical transmission with the mentioned box.

15. The device according to 14, characterized in that the hydraulic coupling includes a tool driven by the I-fluid injection.



 

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