Material for increasing colloidal stability of drinks

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to stabilisation of drinks. The invention discloses a material for filtering and stabilising drinks containing polyphenols and/or sensitive proteins, especially for stabilising beer. The material is a composite consisting of microcrystalline cellulose and one or more protein and/or polyphenol sorbents. Preferably, the protein sorbent is silica in form of silicic acid derivatives: sol, hydrogel (silica gel), xerogel and or mixture thereof. The polyphenol sorbent is preferably cross-linked polyvinyl pyrrolidone.

EFFECT: invention increases colloidal stability of drinks with low consumption of sorbents.

13 cl, 5 tbl, 21 ex

 

The technical FIELD

The invention relates to a material intended to enhance colloidal stability (stabilization) drinks containing proteins and/or polyphenols, and especially for the stabilization of beer.

The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY

Traditionally, fine cleaning of the beverage liquid is filtered through a layer of auxiliary filtering material. Most often used for this purpose diatomaceous earth (diatomite), however, it is considered to be a carcinogenic substance, and therefore, in recent years new methods of filtration: membrane filtration and its variant - "cross-flow" filtration. The turbidity of the drinks in this case is lower than kieselguhr filtration, almost completely removes harmful microorganisms, and accordingly, this process eliminates obespechivaushyi filtering. Membrane easily regenerated and costs when their use is lower or comparable to those of filtering through diatomaceous earth.

Unfortunately, drinks, contain proteins and polyphenols, moutput over time, regardless of the quality of filtration. This is due to the formation of colloidal particles (mainly compounds of polyphenols with sensitive proteins), most of which is formed after filtering. These drinks moutput during storage, which is accelerated by mechanical influences and, especially, PR is the temperature change. Therefore, only filtering not enough to improve the colloidal stability of the beverage partially remove polyphenols or sensitive proteins, or both, using different sorbents.

There are two methods of stabilization: in the first case the sorbent (sorbent) is added to the drink before it is fed to the filter, and the second stabilization is performed after the filtering process. The first method is simpler, gives good results when filtering through the precoat layer of diatomaceous earth, but there is no possibility of regeneration expensive sorbents. Regeneration of sorbents possible with membrane filtration, but in this case, this method of stabilization is ineffective.

The second method gives good results regardless of the method of filtration and allows you to regenerate the sorbents, but requires the installation of additional equipment and costs for the operation stabilization. In addition, a complete regeneration of the sorbents is impossible (there are always losses), requires special and therefore more expensive sorbents, and in many cases the costs of regeneration are economically disadvantageous.

In any case, to reduce the cost of reducing consumption of sorbents, which requires improving their sorption capacity.

According to this invention, was found effective and inexpensive material, and the use of which increases the sorption capacity of the sorbents as proteins, and polyphenols, and accordingly increases the colloidal stability of drinks even while reducing the consumption of sorbents. This material is a composite sorbents proteins and/or polyphenols with microcrystalline cellulose.

PROTOTYPES

Used in the manufacture of beverages sorbents proteins and polyphenols, both individually and jointly widely known in the art, however, in the available publications no data on their use in combination with microcrystalline cellulose as with self-stabilization, and stabilization, combined with the filtration process the drinks.

Filter materials based on cellulose has long been known and was widely used until it was replaced by diatomaceous earth, they are not suitable for fine filtration of beverages, because cellulose fibers are unable to hold fine material, and powdered cellulose pressed under high differential pressure in the filter layer. This also applies to microcrystalline cellulose, despite a number of papers and patents, it has not found industrial application as an independent filter material.

Therefore, powdered cellulose is used only as a Supplement to the diatomaceous earth, for example, as described in the article: J.Speckner, H. Kieninger, Cellulose als Filterhilfsittel, Brauwelt Nr. 46 (1984) 2058, and also in WO/1986/05511, US4910182, US 6712974 to strengthen the filtering layer, especially in filters with vertical filtering surface. Supplements as microcrystalline cellulose are used to reduce the permeability of the filter layer (for example, WO/1999/39806). It should be stressed that microcrystalline cellulose is a fibrous material than is fundamentally different from cellulose fibers and products obtained by mechanical grinding of the pulp and preserving the fibrous structure, such as powdered cellulose, microfibrillated cellulose, etc. Accordingly, since the above sources, speaking of cellulose and cellulose powder, not to mention microcrystalline cellulose, we are talking about a fundamentally different material. In addition, as shown below, the ability to improve the sorption properties of the sorbent inherent microcrystalline, not powdered cellulose.

The use of sorbents, in particular PIT, in combination with synthetic polymers as described in WO 02/32544 (EN 2309005) and WO 03/084639 (EN 2339689), in contrast to the microcrystalline cellulose has no effect increase their sorption properties. In addition, these composites are used only when upstream filter and cannot be used to stabilize the drinks in the membrane filtration process.

Composite microcrystalline cellulose and silica is described in the publications WO/1996/021429 and WO/2004/022601 for use as a filler in tablets of drugs. Also identified an extensive list of hypothetical applications of this material, but does not specify its use as a stabilizer of drinks.

Thus, not found a source that indicates when the beverage microcrystalline cellulose in combination with sorbents proteins and/or polyphenols, and in particular, with such common sorbents, as polyvinylpyrrolidone or a derivative of silica. Also there is no evidence of synergistic effect of increasing the sorption properties of the sorbent as proteins and polyphenols in the presence of microcrystalline cellulose.

A DETAILED DESCRIPTION of the INVENTION

Increase the colloidal stability of drinks (stabilization), which is the aim of the present invention, based on previously unknown synergistic effect:

the increase in the sorption capacity of a mixture of sorbents proteins and polyphenols in combination with microcrystalline cellulose with low sorption capacity with respect to proteins and polyphenols. This is particularly important for stabilization, combined with the filtration process used with the eat membranes, when in contrast to kieselguhr filtration self-stabilizing actions sorbents is not enough.

According to this invention, the composite material contains the following substances:

- microcrystalline cellulose,

- material that can adsorb proteins,

- material that can adsorb polyphenols.

Microcrystalline cellulose is partially depolimerizovannogo cellulose, obtained by chemical degradation of cellulose-containing materials, and known since 1875 called hydrocellulose. Currently used different names of this material, in particular hydrolysis of cellulose and cellulose with the utmost degree of polymerization (LODP-cellulose). In connection with the destruction in the first place, amorphous sites in the cellulose and increase the crystallinity of the final product, this material is often referred to as microcrystalline cellulose. Traditionally, it has to be obtained by acid hydrolysis of cellulosic materials with an aqueous solution of mineral acid. But for the purposes of this invention are also suitable microcrystalline cellulose produced in other ways, such as alcoholysis, alkaline hydrolysis, the hydrolysis of Lewis acids, the treatment of cellulose-containing materials with acidic reagents or oxidizing agents with simultaneous mechanical who is actvie etc. There are no restrictions and methods of washing, bleaching and drying used microcrystalline cellulose.

Of sorbents polyphenols preferably crosslinked polymers or copolymers of N-vinylamides first and foremost, polymers of N-vinylation, and more preferably the use of crosslinked polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), both commercially available and therefore the most accessible of the sorbent.

Of sorbents proteins, it is desirable to use silica in various forms and its derivatives, although the preferred derivatives of silicic acid sols, hydrogels, xerogels and silicates selectionne metals.

Together with microcrystalline cellulose can be used as one or two types of sorbents, it is determined, mainly, by beverage type and availability of special equipment. So, microcrystalline cellulose in combination with sorbent protein and sorbent polyphenols (for example, silica gel and PVP) can be applied for stabilization of drinks containing both proteins and polyphenols (e.g., beer). Microcrystalline cellulose in combination with sorbent polyphenols can be used for stabilization of beverages containing small amounts of proteins (e.g., wine). If there is equipment for regeneration of the sorbent polyphenols (usually regenerated PVP), Celes the figurative use of microcrystalline cellulose with sorbent proteins for stabilization filter, and the sorbent polyphenols in combination with microcrystalline cellulose for additional stabilization after filtering.

The relative amount of the components can vary within wide limits and depends on the properties of the materials used (degree of size reduction, sorption capacity, and so on), as well as from the conditions of their application and varieties of the drink, and should be individualized in each case. In principle, the content of each of the main substances should be not less than 1 mass% of their total number. This value is determined by the minimum effective amount of a substance that gives a mixture of useful properties, however, it is preferable that the content of each substance was not less than 5 mass%.

In addition to the above components in the inventive material can be used other substances. These include abrasive additives used for grinding microcrystalline cellulose, and other materials, but their presence should be considered in each case separately. Importantly additives and impurities must be healthy and must not degrade the quality of the drinks.

The average particle size of the used components is not critical, but there are still some limitations. Thus, the use of materials with middle the m particle size less than 1 μm increases the resistance of the filtering layer in the process, combined with kieselguhr filtration, if the average particle size is too large (>500 µm), the stabilization effect will be low. Especially important to a particle size of at stabilization, combined with membrane filtration, when very small particles clog the pores of the membranes, and a large hammer their transport channels. In most cases, however, suitable materials with an average particle size of from 10 to 100 μm, and therefore meet the requirements of most products commercially available for stabilization of drinks.

You should pay attention to the method of application and preparation of the material. The most simple is to add to the drink (in the storage tank or in the pipe before the filter) single component or a composite material obtained by dry mixing. This leads to positive results, but is not an effective method because the mixing of the components occurs in the equipment and piping in low concentrations, resulting in low efficiency of their interaction.

The most effective is the pre-mixing the components in the presence of a small amount of water or aqueous liquid (drink) with the active mechanical action, preferably to carry out the subsequent drying of the resulting composite. Such joint treatment the components leads to their active interaction, that is impossible at a dry mixture of materials. This is due to the surface properties of microcrystalline cellulose and sorbents is their particles have a developed surface with many active groups. Between dispergirovannykh in an aqueous liquid particles are formed hydrogen bonds. A part of these connections occurs directly between the particles, and include other intermediate molecules or chains of water molecules. Accordingly, there is not only physical, but also physico-chemical binding of the particles of microcrystalline cellulose and sorbents, and thus increase their useful properties.

In the preparation of the material content of the dry components in the mixture may range from 1 to 75% by weight. The lower limit is determined by the minimum concentration at which there is a real interaction between particles, and the upper limit is determined by the ability of the wet mixture to resist mechanical stress without the use of special equipment complexity. In practice, it is more preferable to apply with a mixture of dry components in the range from 10 to 40% by mass.

In addition, the joint processing microcrystalline cellulose sorbents changes the distribution of particle size. Usually microcrystalline cellulose immediately after its receipt available the t particles with size from tenths of a micron to 1000 microns. When using precoat filters particle size is not so important, but the presence of large particles are not desirable in membrane filtration. Joint processing of materials in the aquatic environment leads to a reduction in the number of large particles of microcrystalline cellulose thus obtained, the average particle size of the microcrystalline cellulose is governed by the duration of joint processing. This effect is particularly evident for substances having a higher hardness compared with cellulose, such substances are most inorganic sorbents and, in particular, the silica gel.

As the illustration on the accompanying graph shows the distribution of particle size:

for silica gel to joint processing - dotted line,

for microcrystalline cellulose to joint processing - dashed line,

to a mixture of microcrystalline cellulose and silica gel (1:1 by weight) after joint processing for 10 minutes solid line.

It is seen that the result of the joint processing are destroyed practically all particles of microcrystalline cellulose larger than 100 μm, and the content of fine particles (less than 1 micron) increases slightly.

In the absence of necessary use in the composition of the claimed material sorbents with high solid fuel is the weal, for grinding MCC may be introduced above the neutral abrasive additives, which may use different minerals such as alumina, kaolin, calcium carbonate (calcite), etc.

The presence of microcrystalline cellulose gives the material the ability to form granules, which in some cases is more convenient to use. These granules rapidly disintegrate in water or in drink, so their size doesn't matter and is determined only by the ease of use.

The TECHNICAL RESULT

The technical result of the application of this invention is to improve the colloidal stability of drinks and accordingly increase the guaranteed shelf life, resistance to conditions of transportation and storage. The use of the claimed inventive stabilization material in all cases reduces sorbents, which is especially important for such expensive material, as PIT.

Also of note is the additional positive effect of the use upon stabilization of drinks microcrystalline cellulose in all cases there is a slight decrease in turbidity and a significant decrease in the content of dextrins (oligoprimers of amylose and amylopectin).

Moreover, industrial experiments showed slower growth of different the social pressure on membrane filters using stabilization material according to this invention in comparison with the use of sorbents in the absence of microcrystalline cellulose. As a result, 10-30% extended duration of the cycle of operation of the membranes, which reduces the consumption of expensive reagents for regeneration membranes and increases the productivity of the equipment.

EXAMPLES

In all experiments was used microcrystalline cellulose, obtained by treatment with gaseous hydrogen chloride waste cotton-gauze production. As sorbent polyphenols were used PIT Divergan® production BASF, as a sorbent proteins silica gel Cöstrosorb® production CWK. For membrane cross-flow filtration was applied equipment BMF-RX 300 QS company NORIT.

Material for examples 1-14 was prepared as follows: the dispersion of microcrystalline cellulose in water (mass ratio of water: the ICC was 3:1) were mixed using a high speed mixer (5000 rpm) for 5 minutes to form a creamy mass, then added sorbents with additional amount of water (ratio of water: silica gel was 1:1, the ratio of water: PIT was 3:1), the resulting mixture was mixed for 10 minutes, then dried.

In the examples presented data obtained for different commercial batches of the same beer, but paired comparative experiments (in the presence and in the absence of microcrystalline cellulose) probabilitis beer from the same batch.

The turbidity of the beverage (in this case beer) was determined in units of turbidity of the EBU (European Brewery Convention). To characterize the colloidal stability of beer used two basic test, to determine the colloidal stability of the beverage and to predict its storage warranty:

- cold dimness in the process of testing the beer is aged at a temperature of minus 4°C for 40 minutes, resulting in the precipitation of protein-polyphenol complexes, record colloidal stability of beer is changing its turbidity (Δ) after cooling.

- cold turbidity in the presence of ethanol test is conducted similarly to the test on a cold dimness, but adding ethyl alcohol, which reduces the solubility of protein-polyphenol complexes and accelerates their deposition, the addition of alcohol is 5 ml per 100 ml of beer.

Also tests were conducted, which does not allow to accurately estimate the colloidal stability of the drink, but provide additional information, on the basis of which to assess the effectiveness of sorbents:

- sensitive proteins change in turbidity of beer (Δ) after adding 10 mg of tannin to 100 ml of beer, the test allows to evaluate the content-sensitive protein in the drink.

- limit the deposition of a saturated solution of ammonium sulfate (SASPL) - adding saturated R is the target of ammonium sulfate, causes deposition as meteorismus (sensitive)and foaming proteins.

- taneity - indirect determination of the content of active polyphenols in beer due to their binding polyvinylpyrrolidone.

The content of residual dextrins were determined by the standard technology - change optical density of the solution (wavelength 578 nm) at colouring them with a solution of iodine. Data are presented as iodine number in conventional optical units. For normally osaharennogo wort and, as a consequence, for beer long term storage it is desirable that the iodine number was less than 0.3 od units.

Examples 1 and 2.

In these laboratory experiments beer after the separator was applied to the filter with a pre-deposited layer of diatomaceous earth. In the flow of beer in front of the filter was dotirovala diatomaceous earth and sorbents (examples with the letter "a") or diatomaceous earth, and pre-prepared composite sorbents with microcrystalline cellulose (examples of the letter "b") and powdered cellulose (example 2-b). The results are given in Table 2. Analysis of the data shows the effectiveness of microcrystalline cellulose in combination with silica gel and combined with silica gel and PVP. The combined use of the materials in both cases has led to increased colloidal stability of beer. Example 6-b and 6-in IDNA, the use of powdered cellulose unlike microcrystalline cellulose does not improve the colloidal stability of the final product.

Table 1
The effectiveness of the stabilization process, combined with the process of filtration through diatomaceous earth (the results of laboratory experiments).
The name of the substanceNumber example
12
andbandbin
Dosage in grams per hectoliter of beer
Diatomaceous earth110110110110110
Silica gel3030303030
PIT- -202020
Microcrystalline cellulose-10-10-
Powdered cellulose----10
The results of the tests
Cold dimness, Δ0,50,40,10,00,1
Cold turbidity in the presence of ethanol, Δa 4.93,70,80,50,8
Sensitive proteins, Δ0,10,10,30,10,3
SASPL, ml / 100 ml of beer2325 232523
Taneity, mg PVP / l of beer5239141414
Iodine number, opt. units0,120,080,120,060,11
Turbidity N, EMU0,750,560,730,610,75

Examples 3-7. In these laboratory experiments beer after the separator has been on the membrane filter in the flow of beer in front of the filter was desirables sorbents (examples with the letter "a") or by transesterification with microcrystalline cellulose (examples with the letter "b"). From the analysis results shown in Table 2, it is seen that the method of stabilization according to this invention significantly improves the colloidal stability of beer even with reduced consumption of sorbents.

Table 2
The effectiveness of the stabilization process, combined with the process of membrane filtration (results of laboratory experiments).
The name of the substanceNumber example
34567
andbandbandbandbandb
Dosage in grams per hectoliter of beer
Silica gel--5030--50304040
PIT----25202520 20*20*
Microcrystalline cellulose-10-10-10-10-10
The results of the tests
Cold dimness, Δ22192,91,41,20,92,51,51,71,4
Cold turbidity in the presence of ethanol, Δ--8,74,3the 4.72,37,94,34,4a 3.9
SASPL, ml/100 ml121424 17111218221921
Sensitive proteins
Δ2,92,11,31,44,84,12,30,61,41,1
Taneity, mg PVP/l54484734221928231513
Iodine number, opt. units0,120,040,09/td> 0,020,080,020,050,020,070,02
Turbidity N, EMU0,770,750,480,440,430,410,730,710,570,51
* Stabilization regenerated PIT after filtering.

Examples 8-10. In examples 9 and 10 sorbents in the absence and in the presence of microcrystalline cellulose (example 8 - control) was desirables in circulating through the installation of the membrane (cross-flow) filtering the flow of beer. From the analysis results, which are shown in Table 3, it is seen that the application of pure sorbents gives almost no stabilizing effect, while the use of them even in smaller quantities, but together with microcrystalline cellulose dramatically increases the colloidal stability of beer, and increases the duty cycle of the membranes (in this case, 24%).

Table 3
The effectiveness of the stabilization process, combined with a process of "cross-flow" filtration (the results of industrial tests).
The name of the substanceNumber example
8910
Dosage in grams per hectoliter of beer
Silica gel-5040
PIT-2520
Microcrystalline cellulose--10
The results of the tests
Cold dimness, Δ22151,6
SASPL, ml/100 ml of beer121312
The growth differential pressure, bar/hour 0,110,240,19
The duration of the working cycle
membranes hour10,756,2
Iodine number, opt. units0,070,070,05
Turbidity N, air force0,770,720,53

Examples 11-14. In these experiments, beer, filtered through diatomaceous earth treated sorbents in the absence (examples with the letter "a") and in the presence (examples with the letter "b") microcrystalline cellulose. The data presented in table 4 clearly demonstrate the presence of a synergistic effect - the increase in the sorption capacity of a mixture of microcrystalline cellulose with sorbents in comparison with the individual substances. In these examples, observed "the experiment" - excluded the effect of filtering materials on the sorption process.

Table 4
The effectiveness of sorbents for stabilization of filtered beer (after filtration through diatomaceous earth).
The name of the substanceNumber example
11121314
andbandbandbandb
Dosage in grams per hectoliter of beer
PIT--2015--2015
Silica gel----30153015
Microcrystalline of all the vine -5-5-5-5
The results of the tests
Cold dimness, Δ2,32,31,80,30,80,60,30,0
Cold opacity
the presence of ethanol, Δ6,96,43,72,84,23,11,40,2
SASPL, ml /100 ml of beer101315 18202126
Sensitive proteins, Δ4,13,60,60,40,40,10,40,1
Taneity, mg PVP/l of beer6359121063541411
Iodine number, opt. units0,120,080,080,020,110,030,100,02
Turbidity N, EMU0,850,790,660,600,750,550,650,54

Examples 15-21. In these experimentative, filtered through diatomaceous earth, treated with different sorbents other than silica gel and PVP, in the absence (examples with the letter "a") and in the presence (examples with the letter "b") microcrystalline cellulose.

4,5
Table 5
Effect of microcrystalline cellulose on the effectiveness of different sorbents for stabilization of filtered beer (after filtration through diatomaceous earth).
The name of the substanceNumber example
15161718192021
andbandbandbandbandbandb
Dosage in grams per hectoliter of beer
The xerogel
silicic acid-2015----------
Silicasol---5030--------
Aerosil -----4030------
Bentonite-------3020----
Magnesium silicate
(chrysotile asbestos)---/td> ------4030--
Sulfonated
the agarose-----------2010
Microcrystallites-
Kaya
cellulose--5-10-10-10-10-5
The results of the tests
Cold
turbidity Δ2,30,70,50,60,42,0 1,81,61,42,01,20,40,2
Cold opacity
the presence of ethanol,the
Δ5,64,12,94,32,5a 4.94,24,53,23,50,90,5

Examples 22-30. In these experiments, in beer, filtered through diatomaceous earth, under stirring was added composite sorbents with microcrystalline cellulose, past various pre-processing. The data presented in table 6 clearly demonstrate the efficiency of the composite at activation processing.

Table 6
The influence of the intensity of pre-treatment of the composite sorbents with microcrystalline cellulose to the stabilization effect of the drinks.
Number exampleDosage in grams per hectoliter of beerThe preparation method of the compositeThe pre-processing, minutesCold pomocne-
tion, ΔEBC
Cold turbidity in the presence of standard ΔEBC
PITSilica gelMCC
22- --filtered beer-2,77,4
232030-sorbents without processing-0,61,8
24202510components without processing-0,31,3
2515205manual mixing200,31,2
2615205laboratory stirrer, 60 rpm200,20,7
2715155 mixer, 3000 rpm100,10,5
2815155mixer, 5000 rpm100,10,5
2915155ultrasonic disperser30,10,4
3015155mixer, 5000 rpm, drying100,00,4

1. Material to enhance colloidal stability (stabilization) drinks containing proteins and/or polyphenols, processing beverage sorbents and their subsequent removal, characterized in that in conjunction with one or more sorbents proteins and/or polyphenols contains microcrystalline cellulose.

2. The material according to claim 1, where the term drinks means of a liquid food or medical purposes, the floor is aimie from plant material by digestion, extraction, extraction, fermentation and similar methods, and these liquids generally include tinctures, extracts, juices, wines and alcoholic beverages, especially beer and similar products.

3. The material according to claim 1, in which the sorbent polyphenols is cross-linked polymer or copolymer of N-vinylacetate and, preferably, crosslinked polyvinylpyrrolidone.

4. The material according to claim 1, in which the sorbent proteins is silica in various forms or derivatives of silica and preferably derivatives of silicic acid: Sol (silicasol), hydrogel (silica gel, xerogel or silicate electoralnogo metal.

5. The material according to claim 1, in which the content of each component is not less than 1 mass% and preferably not less than 5 mass%.

6. The material according to claim 1, in which the average particle size of each component is in the range from 1 to 500 μm and preferably in the range from 10 to 100 microns.

7. The material according to claim 1 produced by a method of dispersing its components in water or in an aqueous liquid (drink), and the content of the dry components in the mixture is from 1 to 75% and preferably from 10 to 40% by mass.

8. The material according to claim 1 in the form of granules.

9. The method of stabilization of beverages, characterized in that the applied material according to claim 1.

10. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the stabilization Prov is implemented simultaneously with the filtration process.

11. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that the used membrane filters.

12. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that the filters are installed upstream type.

13. The method according to item 12, characterized in that the material according to claim 1 is applied in addition to the main filter material, in particular to the diatomaceous earth.



 

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The invention relates to food industry, in particular alcoholic beverage industry, and can be used when cleaning vodkas from aldehydes

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection and can be used for treatment of natural and artificial ponds, effluents and industrial liquid wastes. Proposed method comprises treating modified silica gel by huminic acids. Silica gel (0.1-0.5 mm-fraction) is modified by poly(hexamethylene guanidine), rinsed and treated by huminic acids, i.e. peat water-soluble fraction, re-rinsed and dried at 70-80°C in air, or at 40-50°C and 700-730 mm Hg in rotary evaporator.

EFFECT: high-porosity mechanically strong material with high specific surface to absorb oil products and organic contaminants.

2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to extraction of platinum group metals from industrial effluents and can be used for analytical definition of said metals by sorption-atomic-absorption method. Proposed method comprises bringing solution in contact with sorbent. The latter represents dispersion of collagen produced on mixing three parts of formalin with half the part of protein hydrolyzate extracted from leather production wastes, and 7.5 parts of hydrogen sulphide, mix neutralising, filtration, drying and fine-crushing.

EFFECT: high sorption capacity and selectivity, reduced costs.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to applied ecology and can be used in chemical industry, metallurgy and various braches of machine building for cleaning industrial effluents from heavy metal ions and oil products. Proposed method comprises treating saw dust by modificators and drying. Bentonite clay makes said modificator. Treatment comprises mixing said bentonite clay, water and saw dust in the ratio of 1:2:1, drying obtained mix at 115-125°C for 3.5-4 h, powdering to fractions of 3-15 mm, and thermal treatment at 145-155°C for 2-2.5 h.

EFFECT: expanded applications, reduced process time and costs.

2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of making sorbents based on an organometallic structure, which can be used for gas adsorption, storage and separation of gases, as well as catalyst carriers. The method of making an organometallic sorbent involves reacting zinc nitrate with n-dicarboxybenzoic acid in the presence of an acetylacetone solvent while stirring and heating in a closed autoclave, addition of water with crystal settling, separation of the crystals, washing and drying.

EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a sorbent with an elastic structure, whose sorption capacity can increase when amount of sorbate increases.

1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to oil absorbent materials. A method is proposed for preparing oil binder having granular structure with open pores and a ceramic silicate matrix in accordance with which 35-60 wt % clarified residue containing 70-85 wt % water, 25-55 wt % reduced paper material containing 35-55 wt % water, 10-25 wt % clay and optionally 1-3 wt % zeolite, 1-2 wt % burnt lime and/or up to 3 wt % ash dust are uniformly mixed. The obtained material is processed into particles with average diametre of 4-6 mm, after which the particles are dried and burnt at 950-1050°C. The obtained oil binder has apparent density of 0.4-0.75 kg/l, as well as binding capacity ranging from 0.7 to 10 l of oil per kg of the oil binder.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of the method, obtaining a quality product.

7 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves treating silica porous carrier having hydroxyl groups on its surface with an aqueous solution of nickel chloride, evaporation, drying, treatment with acetyl acetone in an acidic medium, filtration, drying nickel acetyl acetone obtained on the carrier at low pressure, washing with chloroform, treatment with polymethylsiloxane to obtain a monomolecular layer of a polymer film on the surface of the sorbent and drying in an air or inert gas stream at 50-60°C until evaporation of the solvent.

EFFECT: thermally stable sorbent which works efficiently in polar solvents.

2 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a novel chemical compound - 4-(2-hydroxyethyloxy)-4'-cyanoazoxybenzene which can be used as a liquid crystal stationary phase for gas chromatography.

EFFECT: given compound has higher structural selectivity than structural isomers of lutidine.

1 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to analytical chemistry, chemical engineering, ecology, specifically to methods of preparing sorption materials and their use in extracting ions of different metals from aqueous solutions. Proposed is a complexing sorbent and a method of preparing said sorbent, which involves immobilisation of an organic complexing reagent which is pre-treated with an aqueous solution of polyhexamethylene guanidine on an inorganic oxide carrier, where the organic complexing reagent is selected from: 4,7-dimethyl-1, 10-phenanthroline disulphonic acid, 2-9-dimethyl-4,7-phenanthroline disulphonic acid, nitroso-R-salt, 4,5- dioxynaphthalene-2,7-disulphonic acid (chromotropic acid) and its derivatives, 8-hydrooxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid.

EFFECT: obtaining a universal complexing sorbent with high sorption capacity of a wide range of aliovalent ions in weakly acidic, neutral and weakly alkaline media, and capable of separate and group extraction of elements.

3 cl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: sorbent of the hydrocarbon and lipids contains fine water absorbing material with siloxane fragments fixed on its surface and having the general formula whereat R: O; Ra: CH3, O-,; Rb: CH3, H; Rc: CH3, O-; n ≤ 50. The method of its preparation lies in modification of fine material particles with organosilicone liquid selected from the group: solutions of hydride siloxane liquids in non-polar solvents, water emulsions of hydride siloxane liquids, water solutions of alkali metals siliconates. The said modification is carried out by stepwise sorbent loading and mixing in the reactor at temperature 20-500oC during 15-60 min with rate of stirrer rotation providing the turbulence mode with following drying during 3-4 hrs. at temperature 150±25°C with rotation rate selected according to condition : Re=2000÷12000 whereat Re is Reynolds number.

EFFECT: reducing of sorbent cost and water absorption, decrease of the time of sorbent binding with extracted substances, providing of the one-stage method implementation.

9 cl, 26 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of nanohybrid sopbent for organic substances separation is claimed. The said method includes obtaining of the metal nanoparticles adsorbed on the carrier by the way of said particles mixing with carrier, following filtration and washing and their modification with sulphur-containing organic substances (thiols and bisulphides). The obtained sopbent contains the carrier with adsorbed metal nanoparticles and ligands based on sulphur-containing organic substances covalently fixed on the surface.

EFFECT: method provides reproducible obtaining of stable sorbents allowing separation of the wide range of organic substances; enhancing of the obtained sorbents selectivity.

4 cl, 4 dwg, 7 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: iron hydroxide and fine carbon material are put into a granular load layer with clean washing water before washing the load is completed. After the filtering cycle and washing the granular load layer the mixture of iron hydroxide, carbon material and iron sulphide formed in the load layer is extracted together with dirty washing water, aerated, separated from it, mixed again with clean washing water and filled together with the expanded granular load layer before completion of the next washing. Catalytic action of the carbon material increases the rate of oxidation of hydrogen sulphide and sulphides with atmospheric oxygen dissolved in the purified water before feeding it into the granular load layer. Carbon material is used as the granular load or its part. Part of fine carbon material and iron hydroxide, in the layer of granular material, including sulphide obtained from oxidation through aeration, is mixed with purified water before filtration through the granular load layer after separation from dirty washing water.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of filtering works and reduced cost of purifying water or sewage water.

4 cl

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