Method for transmission and reception of signal and device for transmission and reception of signal

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: method for transmission/reception of signal and device for transmission/reception of signal. Device for transmission of signal includes coder with forward error correction (FEC), which executes FEC-coding of input data for detection and correction of data errors, interleaver, which interleaves FEC-coded data, and unit of symbols display, which displays interleaved data to data of symbol according to method of transmission.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of channel bandwidth use, increased speed of data transmission and increased distance of signal transmission, reduced cost of network development for signal transmission-reception.

15 cl, 33 dwg

 

The technical FIELD

The present invention relates to a method of transmitting/receiving signal and to the device for transmission/reception of a signal, and more specifically to a method for transmitting/receiving signal and to the device for transmission/reception of a signal, which can increase the speed of data transfer.

The level of technology

When the technology was developed digital broadcasting, it has become possible to transmit/receive the broadcast signal, which includes high-definition video (HD) and high quality digital sound. With the continuous development of compression algorithms and high performance hardware system digital broadcast is developing rapidly. Digital television (DTV) may receive digital broadcast signal and to provide users with a variety of additional services, as well as the video signal and the audio signal.

When digital broadcasting has become widely used, increased demand for services such as higher quality video and sound signal, and the amount of data or number of broadcast channels that users need, is gradually increased.

The INVENTION

Technical problem

However, the existing method of transmission/reception amount of transmitted/received data or the number Shiro is bestelesnyh channels cannot be increased. Accordingly, there is a need for a new method of transmission/reception of a signal, which can improve the efficiency of use of the channel bandwidth and reduce the cost of the network for transmission/reception of a signal by comparison with an existing method of transmission/reception of a signal.

The present invention is the provision of a method of transmitting/receiving signal and device for transmission/reception of a signal, which can increase the speed of data transfer and to use the existing network for transmission/reception of a signal.

Additional advantages, objectives and features of the invention will be formulated partly in the following description, and in part will become apparent to experts after studying the following description or can be learned from the practical application of the invention. The objectives and other advantages of the invention can be implemented and to provide a structure that is specifically stated in this description and in the claims, and accompanying drawings.

Technical solution

To achieve these objectives and other advantages and in accordance with the purpose of the invention, which is embodied and described in this paper provide a device for signal transmission. The device may include an encoder with direct error correction (FEC), the first paragraph is remedial, the unit display characters, the second interleaver, the encoder unit adding the pilot symbol and the transmitter. Encoder with direct error correction (FEC) performs coding with direct error correction (FEC) of the input data. The first interleaver punctuates the FEC-encoded data block display characters converts alternating with the data in the data symbols, and the second interleaver punctuates the data symbols. The encoder encodes the data symbols, interspersed by the second interleaver. Block add pilot symbol adds at least one pilot symbol in a data frame that includes the encoded data characters, and the transmitter transmits a data frame including pilot symbols and data symbols.

Block add pilot symbol adds at least one pilot symbol in the initial part of the data frame. The encoder performs the processing with multiple inputs and single output (MISO). The encoder receives sequentially the first and second symbols and encodes characters in such a way that Y_tx1 (t)=S0, Y_tx1 (t+T)=S1, Y_tx2 (t)=-S1* and Y_tx2 (t+T)=S0, where S0 represents the first symbol S1 represents the second symbol * represents complex conjugation, Y_tx1 is encoded symbols, which will transmit through the first antenna, Y_tx2 is coded symbols that will be transmitted via the second antenna, t represents time, the passed characters and T represents the period of time between transmission of the first and second symbols, respectively.

Also provide a device for reception of a signal. In the receiver device receives a frame of data including data symbols and at least one pilot symbol, and the analyzer analyzes the frame data symbols in a received data frame. The decoder decodes the analyzed data characters, the first departmental departmeat decoded data symbols and the block of the inverse display characters converts depechemiami data characters in the bitmap data. The second departmental departmeat converted bit data, and the decoder with direct error correction (FEC) performs decoding with direct error correction (FEC) depechemiami bit data.

At least the initial part of the data frame includes one pilot symbol. The decoder decodes the found character data according to the algorithm Alamouti.

In another aspect provides a method of signal transmission. The method involves performing encoding with a direct error correction (FEC) of the input data, interleaving the FEC-coded data, converting alternating data in the character data, interleaving the data symbols, the encoding intermixed character data, adding at least one pilot symbol in a data frame, including the store in itself encoded data characters, and the transmission of the data frame, which includes pilot symbols and data symbols.

In another aspect provides a method of signal reception. The method may include receiving a frame of data including data symbols and at least one pilot symbol, the analysis of data symbols in a received data frame and decodes the analyzed data characters, deteremine decoded character data conversion depechemiami character data into bit data, deteremine converted bit data and performing decoding with direct error correction (FEC) depechemiami bit data.

It should be understood that both the foregoing General description and following detailed description of the present invention are exemplary and explanatory and are intended to provide further explanation of the invention claimed.

A beneficial effect of the invention

According to the method of transmitting/receiving signal and device for transmission/reception signal of the present invention, it is possible to provide a change in the system of transmitting/receiving signals using an existing network of transmission/reception signal, and reduce the value.

In addition, you can increase the speed of data transmission, so as to obtain improved SNR (signal to noise), and to estimate the channel relative to the spacecraft is Alu transmission, having property is a large spread in the delay, to increase the distance signal transmission. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the efficiency of transmission/reception of a signal in the transmission/reception.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

Fig. 1 is a schematic structural diagram showing a device for signal transmission according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is a schematic structural diagram that shows an encoder with direct error correction according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 3 is a view showing interleaver to interleave the input data according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 4 is a schematic structural diagram that shows a linear pre-coder according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 5-7 are diagrams that show the encoding matrix for the distribution of the input data according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 8 is a view showing the structure of the transmitted frame according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 9 is a structural diagram that shows the device transmit signal having mnogostupenchataya paths, according to another variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 10 to 14 are diagrams that show an example of the coding of the 2×2 matrix to explode the input symbols according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 15 is a view showing an example of the interleaver according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 16 is a diagram that show details of an example of the interleaver of Fig. 15 according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 17 is a view showing an exemplary coding method with multiple inputs and outputs according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 18 is a view showing the structure of the interval of the pilot symbol according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 19 is a view showing another structure of the interval of the pilot symbol according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 20 is a schematic structural diagram showing a device for receiving a signal according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 21 is a schematic structural diagram that shows an example of a linear decoder pre is sustained fashion encoding according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 22 is a schematic structural diagram showing another example of the linear decoder pre-coding according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 23 to 25 are diagrams that show examples of the coding matrices 2×2 to restore spaced symbols according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 26 is a schematic structural diagram showing a decoder with a direct error correction according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 27 is a structural diagram that shows an example of signal reception with multiple receive paths, according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 28 is a view showing an example of a method of decoding with multiple inputs and outputs according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 29 is a diagram that show details of the example in Fig. 28 according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 30 is a schematic structural diagram showing another example of the device for signal transmission according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 31 is a schematic structural diagram, to the Torah shows another example of the device for reception of a signal according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig. 32 is a sequence of operations showing the method of signal transmission according to a variant implementation of the present invention; and

Fig. 33 is a sequence of operations showing the method of signal reception according to a variant implementation of the present invention.

The PREFERRED embodiment of the INVENTION

The way the transmission/reception unit and a transmission/reception signal according to the present invention will be described in detail in relation to the accompanying drawings.

Fig. 1 is a schematic structural diagram showing a device for signal transmission according to a variant implementation of the present invention.

A device for signal transmission in Fig. 1 may be a system transmitting a broadcast signal for transmitting the broadcast signal including video data, etc. In Fig. 1, for example, will now be described a system of signal transmission according to the transmission system digital video (DVB). In the embodiment of Fig. 1 will be described transmission system signal, concentrating on the operation of the signal processing.

An implementation option in Fig. 1 includes an encoder 100 with direct error correction (FEC), the first interleaver 110, a block 120 of display characters, a linear pre-coder 130, the second interleaver 140,an encoder 150, with many inputs and outputs, the imaging unit 160 of the frame, modulator transmitter 170 and 180.

The encoder 100 FEC encodes the input signal and outputs the encoded signal. The encoder 100 FEC provides the system of the reception signal to detect an error that occurs in the transmitted data, and to correct this error. Data encoded using the encoder 100 FEC injected to the first interleaver 110. The example encoder FEC 100 shown in detail in Fig. 2.

The first interleaver 110 mixes the output of the encoder 100 FEC, at random positions, so that they become resistant package error that occurs in the data during data transfer. The first interleaver 110 may use a convolutional interleaver or a block interleaver, which can be changed according to the transmission system. Variant implementation of the first interleaver 110 shown in detail in Fig. 3.

Data intersected by the first interleaver 110, enter in block 120 of the display characters. The block 120 may be displayed displays the transmitted signal at the symbol according to the scheme such as the scheme is QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) or the scheme is QPSK (quadrature phase manipulation), with regard to signal transmission parameter and the pilot signal according to the transmission mode.

Linear pre-coder 130 distributes the input data symbol in several parts of the output symbol to reduce ver is arnosti loss of all information because of fading, when it is subjected to frequency-selective fading in the channel. A detailed example of a linear pre-coder 130 shown in Fig. 4-7.

The second interleaver 140 punctuates the symbol data output from the linear pre-coder 130. Thus, if the interleaving is performed by using a second interleaver 140, it is possible to correct the error that occurs when data symbols are subjected to the same frequency-selective fading in a certain position. The second interleaver 140 may use a convolutional interleaver or a block interleaver. Variant implementation of the second interleaver 110 is also shown in detail in Fig. 3.

Linear pre-coder 130 and the second interleaver 140 process the data, who will pass so that they become resistant to frequency-selective fading in the channel, and they can be called by the encoder for frequency-selective fading.

The encoder 150 with many inputs and outputs encodes data that is intersected by the second interleaver 140 so that the data is processed through multiple transmission paths. Device for transmission/reception of a signal can process the signal according to the mode with multiple inputs and outputs. In the future the way with many inputs and outputs includes a method with multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO), is a procedure with one input and multiple outputs (SIMO) and method with multiple inputs and single output (MISO).

As an encoding method with many inputs and outputs you can use the methods of spatial multiplexing and a method of spatial diversity. With the method of spatial multiplexing data with different information, transmit simultaneously using multiple transmitting and receiving antennas. Accordingly, data can be more quickly transferred without additional increase in the bandwidth of the system. With the method of spatial diversity data having the same information, is passed through multiple transmitting antennas so that it can be obtained the effect explode.

At this time, as the encoder 150 with many inputs and outputs, using the method of spatial explode, you can use space-time block coder (STBC), space-frequency block coder (SFBC) or space-time trellis encoder (SHANG). As the encoder 150 with many inputs and outputs, which method uses spatial multiplexing, the method of dividing the data stream into multiple transmitting antennas and data streams, you can use full-speed encoder with full diversity (FDFR), linear dispersive encoder (LDC), vertical layered space-time encoder laboratory Bella (VBLAST) and the and diagonal BLAST (D-BLAST).

The imaging unit 160 of the frame adds a pre-coded signal to a pilot signal in a predetermined position of the frame and forms a frame defined in the transmission/reception. The imaging unit 160 of the frame can accommodate a symbol interval data and the interval of the pilot symbol, which is the preamble symbol interval data in the frame. Accordingly, in a further driver 160 of the frame can be called a block, add a pilot symbol.

For example, the imaging unit 160 of the frame can accommodate the pilot signals, the positions of which are shifted and distributed in the time interval data. Shaper frame can accommodate repeated pilot signals whose position in time is fixed, the interval data.

The modulator 170 modulates the data using the method of multiplexing orthogonal frequency division (OFDM), so generate OFDM symbols. And the modulator 170 adds a guard interval in the modulated data.

Transmitter 180 converts the digital signal having the guard interval and interval data, which is output from the modulator 170, to an analog signal and sends this analog signal.

Fig. 2 is a schematic structural diagram that shows the FEC encoder shown in Fig. 1. The FEC encoder includes an encoder 102 Bose-Chowdhury-Hocquenghem (BCH) and the encoder 104 with low density Prov the rock on parity (LDPC) as an external encoder and external encoder, respectively.

Code LDPC code is error correction, which can reduce the likelihood that information will be lost. The encoder 104 LDPC encodes the signal in the state in which the length of the coding block is large, so that data transmitted resistant to transmission errors. In order to prevent the increase in the hardware complexity due to the increase of the block size, density parity bits is reduced to reduce the complexity of the encoder.

To prevent errors in the output of the receiver, the encoder 102 BCH attached before the encoder 104 LDPC as an additional external encoder. If negligible number of errors occurs even when using only the encoder 104 LDPC, the encoder 102 BCH can not be used. Alternatively, instead of the BCH encoder as external encoder, you can use other encoders.

When using two encoder with error correction, the control bits parity control bits parity BCH) BCH coding is added to the input frame data, and control bits parity control bits of the LDPC parity) for encoding LDPC add to the control bits of the BCH parity. The length of the control bits of the BCH parity added to the encoded frame of data may vary according to the length keywords LDPC and LDPC coding rate.

Dunn is e, which FEC-encode using the encoder 102 BCH and encoder 104 LDPC output to the first interleaver 110.

Fig. 3 is a view showing the first (second) interleaver shown in Fig. 1. As the first (the second) of the interleaver of Fig. 3, for example, can be used block interleaver.

The interleaver in Fig. 3 stores the input data in the memory areas having the form of a matrix in a predefined structure, and reads and displays the data in a structure different from the structure used to store data. For example, the interleaver in Fig. 3 has a memory area Nr × Nc, consisting of Nr rows and Nc columns, and entered into the data interleaver fill the position corresponding to the first row and first column of this memory area. The data stored at the first row and first column to the Nr-th row and the first column, and if the first column is filled, then save from the first row to the Nr-th row of the next column (the second column). In this sequence data can be saved to the Nr-th row Nc-th column (i.e. retain data in columns).

When reading the data stored as shown in Fig. 3, the data is read and output from the first row and first column to the first row and the Nc-th column. If all the data of the first line is read, the data is read and output from the first column to track the soup line (second line) in the direction of the Nc-th column. In this sequence data can be read and output to the Nc column Nr of rows (i.e. the data read line by line). At this time, the position of the high bit (MSB) of the data block is the left most top edge, and the position of the least significant bit (LSB) of the data block is the right bottom.

The size of the memory block, the structure of saving and structure reading of the interleaver are only examples and can be modified according to the modalities for the implementation of the implementation. For example, the size of the memory block of the first interleaver may be changed in accordance with the block size when FEC coding. In the example of Fig. 2, the number of Nr rows and Nc columns of the block, which determine the size of the block, intersected by the first interleaver, may vary according to the length of the block LDPC code. If the length of the block LDPC code increases, the length of the block (for example, the length of the string block) can be increased.

Fig. 4 is a schematic structural diagram that shows a linear pre-coder shown in Fig. 1. Linear pre-coder 130 may include a series-parallel Converter 132, the encoder 134 and parallel-to-serial Converter 136.

Serial-to-parallel Converter 132 converts the input data into parallel data. The encoder 134 distributes values converted couples who lennyg data across multiple pieces of data through the operation of the coding matrix.

Encoding matrix developed by comparing the transmitted symbol from the received symbol in such a way as to minimize the pairwise error probability (PEP), when these two characters differ from each other. If the encoding matrix designed in such a way as to minimize the PEP, the increased diversity and coding gain obtained through linear pre-coding, make the maximum.

If the minimum Euclidean distance linearly pre-coded symbol make maximum through the encoding matrix, then the probability of error can be minimized when the receiver decoder uses maximum likelihood (ML).

Fig. 5 is a view showing an example of the coding matrix used by the encoder 134, i.e. the coding matrix for the distribution of the input data. Fig. 6 shows an example of the coding matrix for the distribution of the input data in several parts of the output, which is also called the matrix Vandermonde.

The input data can be sorted in parallel along the length (L) of the output.

The matrix θ can be expressed by the following equation and can be defined in other ways. If the matrix Vandermonde is used as the coding matrix, the matrix element can be determined according to m thematic formula 1.

Coding matrix mathematical formula 1 rotates the phase of the input data using equation 1, in accordance with the input data and produces output data. Accordingly, the values entered according to the characteristics of the matrix of a linear pre-coder, you can distribute at least two output values.

Mathematical formula 1

In mathematical formula 1, L denotes the number of outputs. If the group of input data input to the encoder of Fig. 4, is x, and the data group, which encode and output using the encoder 134 using matrices in mathematical formula 1, y is, y is expressed in accordance with the mathematical formula 2.

Mathematical formula 2

Fig. 6 shows another example of the coding matrix. Fig. 6 shows another example of the coding matrix for the distribution of the input data into multiple pieces of output data, which is also called the Hadamard matrix. The matrix in Fig. 6 is a matrix that has the usual form in which L expand on the 2k. In this case, L denotes the number of output symbols that will be used to distribute input symbols.

The output symbols of the matrix in Fig. 6 can be obtained by using addition and subtraction L input symbols. In other words, the mi, the input symbols can be allocated to the L output symbols, respectively.

Even in the matrix of Fig. 6, if the input group input on the encoder 134 in Fig. 4, is x, and the data group, which encode and output using the encoder 134 using the above matrix is y, then y is the product of the above matrix and x.

Fig. 7 shows another example of the coding matrix for the distribution of the input data. Fig. 7 shows another example of the coding matrix for the distribution of the input data into multiple pieces of output data, which is also called the matrix of the Golden code. The matrix of the Golden code is a matrix of 4×4, which has a special form. Alternatively, you can use two different 2×2 matrix.

C in Fig. 7 indicates the encoding matrix of the Golden code, and x1, x2, x3 and x4 in the coding matrix represent character data, which can simultaneously be entered in the encoder 134 in Fig. 5. Constants in the coding matrix can determine the characteristics of the encoding matrix, and the values of rows and columns, calculated using these constants the coding matrix and the input data symbol can be expressed using the output data symbol. The sequence of output data of a character can vary according to the options exercise of the. Accordingly, in this case the parallel-to-serial Converter 136 in Fig. 4 can convert parallel data into serial data in accordance with the sequence of the items of data in a parallel data set, the output of the encoder 134, and output serial data.

Fig. 8 is a view showing the structure of the transmitted frame encoded using the data channel of the above embodiments of Fig. 1-7. The transmitted frame formed according to the present variant implementation, may include a pilot symbol comprising information of the pilot signal, and the symbol data, including the information data.

In the example of Fig. 8 frame includes M (M is a natural number) intervals, and it is divided into M-1 intervals of data characters and the interval of the pilot symbol, which is used as a preamble. The blocks having the structure above, are repeated.

Each symbol interval includes information carrier using multiple OFDM subcarriers. Information the pilot signal interval of the pilot symbol consists of random data to reduce the peak to average power (PAPR). The autocorrelation value of the information the pilot signal has a pulse shape in the frequency domain. The correlation value between the characters supporting file can be close to 0.

Accordingly, the int, the tearing of the pilot symbol, used as the preamble allows the receiver to quickly recognize the frame signal shown in Fig. 8, and it can be used to adjust and synchronize with the frequency deviation. Since the interval of the pilot symbol represents the start of frame signal, it is possible to set the transmission system to provide the ability to quickly synchronize the received signal. The driver of the frame forms a spacing character data and adds the interval of the pilot symbol intervals before the data symbols, thus forming a transmitted frame.

If the individual interval that includes information of the pilot signal present in the transmitted frame, as shown in Fig. 8, the intervals of the symbol data may not include information of the pilot signal. Accordingly, it is possible to increase the information capacity. In DVB, for example, as the percentage of pilot signals in all allowable bearing is approximately 10%, the amount of increase in the information capacity is expressed in accordance with the mathematical formula 3.

Mathematical formula 3

In mathematical formula 3 Δ denotes the value of the increase, and M denotes the number of intervals, which includes the frame.

Fig. 9 is a structural diagram showing the transmission device with the persecuted, which processes signals using a variety of transmission paths, according to another variant implementation of the present invention. Further, for convenience of description, assume that the number of transmission paths is two.

An implementation option in Fig. 9 includes an encoder 700 direct error correction (FEC), the first interleaver 710, block 720 display characters, a linear pre-coder 730, the second interleaver 740, the encoder 750 with many inputs and outputs, the first imaging unit 760 of the frame, the second shaper 765 frame, the first modulator 770, the second modulator 775, the first transmitter 780 and the second transmitter 785.

The encoder 700 FEC, the first interleaver 710, block 720 display characters, a linear pre-coder 730, the second interleaver 740 and encoder 750 with many inputs and outputs perform the same functions as the blocks in Fig. 1.

The encoder 700 FEC includes the BCH encoder and an LDPC encoder. The encoder 700 performs FEC FEC decoding of the input data and outputs the coded data. The output alternating with the first interleaver 710 so that the sequence of data flow changes. As the first interleaver 710 can be used convolutional interleaver or a block interleaver.

Block 720 display characters displays the transmitted signal at the symbol according to the scheme QAM or QPSK with the drove of transmission parameter and the pilot signal according to the transmission mode. For example, if the signal display on the symbol to generate 128QAM, the symbol may include 7-bit data, and if the signal to display the symbol for the generation of 256QAM, the symbol may include 8-bit data.

Linear pre-coder 730 includes a serial-to-parallel Converter, encoder and parallel-to-serial Converter. Encoding the encoding matrix using linear pre-coder 730 shown in Fig. 10-14.

The second interleaver 740 punctuates the symbol data output from the linear pre-coder 730. As a second interleaver 740 you can use convolutional interleaver or a block interleaver. The second interleaver 740 punctuates the data symbol so that the symbol data, which distributes the output of the linear pre-coder 730, not subjected to the same frequency-selective fading. The way interleave can be changed according to the options of implementation of the implementation.

If using a block interleaver, the length of the interleaver may vary according to the options exercise of the. If the length of the interleaver is less than or equal to the length of the OFDM symbol, the interleaving is performed only in one OFDM symbol, and if the length of the interleaver is greater than the length of the OFDM symbol, the alternation can the imp who take on multiple characters. Fig. 15 and 16 show details of the way interleave.

Intersected with the data outputted by the encoder 750 with many inputs and outputs, and the encoder 750 with many inputs and outputs encodes the input symbol and outputs the coded data so that the data are transmitted through multiple transmission antennas. For example, if there are two transmitting tract, the encoder 750 with many inputs and outputs outputs pre-coded data to the first imaging unit 760 frame or the second imaging unit 765 frame.

With the method of spatial diversity data having the same information, output by the first imaging unit 760 frame and the second shaper 765 frame. If the encoding performed by the method of spatial multiplexing, different data is output to the first imaging unit 760 frame and the second shaper 765 frame.

The first shaper 760 frame and the second shaper 765 frame form a frame in which added pilot signals so that the received signals modulate the OFDM method.

The frame includes one interval of the pilot symbol and M-1 (M is a natural number) of intervals of data characters. If the transmitting system of Fig. 9 performs the encoding using multiple antennas with multiple inputs and outputs, the structure of the pilot symbol can be defined in such a way that p is amnic distinguishes between transmission paths. The example encoder 750 with many inputs and outputs in Fig. 9 shown in Fig. 18 and 19.

The first modulator 770 and the second modulator 775 modulate the output from the first imaging unit 760 frame and the second shaper 865 frame so that the modulated data are transmitted to the OFDM subcarriers, respectively.

The first transmitter 780 and the second transmitter 785 convert a digital signal having a guard interval and a data interval, which is output from the first modulator 770 and the second modulator 775, into analog signals, and transmit the converted analog signals.

Fig. 10 to 14 are views that show examples of the coding matrices 2×2 for the distribution of the input symbols, as an example of an encoding matrix of the linear pre-coder. Encoding matrix in Fig. 10-14 distribute two pieces of data entered in block coding, linear pre-decoder 730, two parts of the output.

The matrix in Fig. 10 is an example of a matrix Vandermonde described in relation to Fig. 5, in which L is equal to 2. In the matrix of Fig. 10 put the first input data and second input data, the phase of which rotate 45 degrees (), two parts of the input data, and output the first output. Then put the first input data and second input data, the phase of which the enemy is up to 225 degrees ( ), and output the second output. The output is divided intofor zooming.

Coding the matrix in Fig. 11 is an example of a Hadamard matrix.

In the matrix of Fig. 11 put the first input data and second input data from the two parts of the input data, and output the first output. Then the second input is subtracted from the first input, and output a second output. The output is divided intofor zooming.

Fig. 12 shows another example of the coding matrix for the distribution of the input symbols. The matrix in Fig. 12 is an example of the coding matrix that is different from the matrix described in relation to Fig. 5, 6 and 7.

In the matrix of Fig. 12 put the first input data, the phase of which rotate 45 degrees (), and the second input data, the phase of which rotate by -45 degrees (-), two parts of the input data, and output the first output. Then the second input data, the phase of which rotate by -45 degrees is subtracted from the first input, the phase of which rotate 45 degrees, and output the second output. The output is divided intofor zooming.

Fig. 13 shows another example of the coding matrix for the distribution of the input symbols. Mat the Itza in Fig. 13 is an example of the coding matrix that is different from the matrix described in relation to Fig. 5, 6 and 7.

In the matrix of Fig. 13 put the first input data is multiplied by 0.5, and the second input data, and output the first output. Then the second input data is multiplied by 0.5, is subtracted from the first input, and output a second output. The output is divided intousing the interleaver 740 transmitting device. Fig. 14 shows another example of the coding matrix for the distribution of the input symbols. The matrix in Fig. 14 is an example of the coding matrix that is different from the matrix described in relation to Fig. 5, 6 and 7. "*" in Fig. 14 denotes complex conjugation of the input data.

In the matrix of Fig. 14 put the first input data, the phase of which rotate 90 degrees (), and the second input of the two parts of the input data, and output the first output. Then fold the complex conjugation of the first input and the complex conjugation of the second input, the phase of which rotate at -90 degrees (-), and output the second output. The output is divided intofor zooming.

Fig. 15 is a view showing an example of a method of alternation through the Yu interleaver. The way interleave in Fig. 15 is an example of the interleaver OFDM system, having a length of N symbols, which can be used in the second interleaver 740 transmitting device shown in Fig. 9.

N denotes the length of the interleaver, and i is a value corresponding to the length of the interleaver, i.e. an integer from 0 to N-1. n denotes the number of allowable bearing transmission in the transmission system.denotes the permutation obtained by control operations modulo N, and dn is the value of, which is located in the allowable bearing transmission, excluding the value of N/2 in the sequence. k denotes the index of the actual carrier transmission. N/2 is subtracted from dn in such a way that the center of the bandwidth of the transmission becomes DC. P denotes the constant permutation, which may vary according to the options of implementation of the implementation.

Fig. 16 is a view showing a variable that changes according to the way interleave in Fig. 15. In the example of Fig. 16 the length of the OFDM symbol length N of the interleaver is set in 2048, and the number of allowable bearing transmission installed in 1536 (1792-256).

Respectively, i is an integer from 0 to 2047, and n is an integer from 0 to 1535. dn denotes the permutation obtained by OPE the emission control module 2048. dn has a value ofgiven 256 ≤≤1792, excluding the value of 1024 (N/2) in the sequence. k denotes the value obtained by subtracting from the dn 1024. P has a value of 13.

Using interleaver according to the above method, the data corresponding sequence i of input data can be changed in the sequence of k intersected with data in relation to the length N of the interleaver.

Fig. 17 is a view showing an example of the encoding method of the encoder with multiple inputs and outputs. An implementation option in Fig. 17 - STBC, which is one way of coding with multiple inputs and outputs and can be used in the transmitting device shown in Fig. 9.

In the example encoder STBC T denotes the period of the transmission symbol s denotes an input character, which will pass, and y denotes the output symbol. * denotes complex conjugation, and the first antenna (Tx #1) and second antenna (Tx #2) denote the first transmitting antenna and the second transmitting antenna 2, respectively.

In the example of Fig. 17, at time t the first antenna Tx #1 transmits s0, and the second antenna Tx #2 transmits s1. At time t+T the first antenna Tx #1 passes-s1*, and the second antenna Tx #2 transmits s0*. Transmitting antennas transmit data having the same information s0 and s1 the periods of transmission. Accordingly, the receiver can get the effect of spatial separation, using the signals output from the encoder with multiple inputs and outputs according to the method shown in Fig. 17.

The signals transmitted by the first antenna and the second antenna shown in Fig. 17, are examples of coded signals with multiple inputs and outputs. When Fig. 17 describe from a different point of view, the signals transmitted by the first antenna and the second antenna, you can pass a method with many inputs and one output.

In the example of Fig. 17 it can be assumed that two consecutive time signal s0 and-s1* enter the path of the first antenna, and the signals s1 and s0* enter the path of the second antenna. Accordingly, when the signals s0 and-s1* sequentially output to the first antenna, and the signals s1 and s0* output to the second antenna, it can be assumed that the output symbols convey the way with many inputs and one output. Fig. 17 shows a simple example using two antennas. Signals can be transmitted according to the method shown in Fig. 17, using more antennas.

Thus, when the example of Fig. 17 describe the way with many inputs and one output, the first and second symbols consistently served on many inputs, and simultaneously output minus the complex conjugation of the second symbol and the complex conjugate is E. the first character. Characters with multiple inputs can be encoded according to the algorithm Alamouti, and encoded characters can be displayed.

Encoder with multiple inputs and outputs can transmit signals alternating with a second interleaver in the frequency domain, by the way with many inputs and one output. This method with many inputs and outputs (which includes many inputs and one output), as shown in Fig. 17, cannot be applied to the interval of the pilot symbol shown in Fig. 18 and 19, and can only be applied to the interval of the symbol data.

Fig. 18 is a view showing the structure of the pilot signals in the intervals of the pilot symbol generated by the first and second shapers of the frame of Fig. 9. The intervals of the pilot symbol generated by the imaging unit frame in Fig. 9 can be displayed, as shown in Fig. 8.

The pilot signals, which include frames, the output from the first and second shapers frame output to the first and second antennas, respectively. Respectively, Fig. 18 shows the corresponding pilot symbols generated by the first and second shapers of the frame, as the signals output from the first and second antennas.

In the respective intervals of the pilot symbols output from the first and second shapers frame on Phi is. 9, the pilot signals with an even number and the pilot signals with an odd number, respectively, alternating, as shown in Fig. 18, and alternating signals can be output to the first and second antennas #1 and #2.

For example, the interval of the pilot symbol generated by the first imaging unit frame includes only information of pilot signals with an even number of the generated pilot signal, and transmit through the first antenna #1. The interval of the pilot symbol generated by the second imaging unit frame includes only the information of the pilot signal with an odd number of the generated pilot signal, and it is passed through the second antenna. Accordingly, the receiver can distinguish between transmission paths, using indexes bearing for intervals of the pilot symbols received via two signal path. The structure of the interval of the pilot symbol in Fig. 18 may be used when coding with multiple inputs and outputs so as to have two transmission path, as shown in Fig. 11.

In the embodiment of Fig. 18 channel corresponding subcarrier half of the frame, can be estimated from the symbol. Accordingly, high efficiency channel estimation can be obtained with respect to the transmission channel, with a short period of coherence.

Fig. 19 is a view, on which anywayt another structure of the pilot signals in the intervals of the pilot symbol, formed by using the first and second shapers of the frame of Fig. 9. Even in the example of Fig. 19, different pilot signals passed at intervals of the pilot symbol in relation to the paths according to the encoding method with multiple inputs and outputs.

The structure of the transmission pilot signals for intervals of the pilot symbol shown in Fig. 19, called the structure of the transmission pilot signals of the Hadamard-type. In the embodiment of Fig. 19 Hadamard transform is performed in units of symbol intervals, to distinguish between the two transmitting tract. For example, the pilot signals obtained by combining two pieces of information the pilot signals for transmitting circuits, pass in a symbol interval with an even number, and the difference between the two pieces of information the pilot signal is passed to the symbol interval with an odd number.

This can be explained together with the intervals of the pilot symbol, which includes intervals with an even number and spacing with an odd number. In intervals with an even number of antennas #0 and #1 share the same pilot signals, respectively, and in the intervals with an odd number of antennas #0 and #1 transmit pilot signals, phases of which are opposite. The receiver can use the sum and difference pilot signals, respectively, transmitted through two tract.

In this embodiment, it is possible to estimate to the cash, corresponding to all subcarriers, and the length of the estimation of the delay spread of the channel, which can be processed using each of the transmitting tract, you can extend the length of the symbol.

The example of Fig. 19 shows to ensure that differences between the two pieces of information, pilot signal, and it shows two pieces of information the pilot signal in the frequency domain. In the symbol interval with an even number and the symbol interval with an odd number of pulses of the two pieces of information the pilot signal are at the same point frequency.

Embodiments of Fig. 18 and 19 are examples of two transmitting circuits. If the number of transmission paths is greater than 2, then the information of the pilot signal can be split to her distinguished using the transmitting tract, similar to Fig. 18, or it may be subjected to Hadamard transform in units of symbol intervals, and the converted information can be transmitted similarly to Fig. 19.

Fig. 20 is a structural diagram showing a device for receiving a signal according to another variant implementation of the present invention. Device for transmission/reception of the signal may be a system for transmitting/receiving a broadcasting signal according to the DVB system.

An implementation option in Fig. 20 includes a receiver 1300, block 1310 synchronization demodulator 1320, Ana is isator 1330 frame, the decoder 1340 with many inputs and outputs, the first departmental 1350, linear decoder 1360 pre-coding block 1370 reverse display characters, the second departmental 1380 and decoder 1390 direct error correction (FEC). An implementation option in Fig. 20 will be described, focusing on the process of signal processing using the system of the reception signal.

Receiver 1300 converts with decreasing frequency the frequency range of the received RF (radio frequency) signal, converts the signal into a digital signal and outputs the digital signal. Block 1310 synchronization determines the timing of the received signal output from the receiver 1300 in the frequency domain and in time domain, and outputs the synchronization. Block 1310 synchronization can use the offset in the frequency domain data output from the demodulator 1320 to determine the synchronization signal in the frequency domain.

The demodulator 1320 demodulates received data output from block 1310 synchronization, and removes the guard interval. The demodulator 1320 may convert the received data in the frequency domain and obtain the data values distributed subcarriers.

The analyzer 1330 frame can output data symbol interval of the symbol data, excluding the pilot symbol according to the structure of the frame signal, demodulating with OMU demodulator 1320.

The analyzer 1330 frame can analyze the frame using at least one of the scattered pilot signals, the positions of which are shifted in time in the interval data, and the existing pilot signals, the position of which is fixed in time in the interval data.

The decoder 1340 with many inputs and outputs receives the data output from the analyzer 1330 frame, decodes the data and outputs the data stream. The decoder 1340 with many inputs and outputs decodes the data stream received via the multiple transmit antennas according to the mode which corresponds to the transfer method of the encoder with multiple inputs and outputs shown in Fig. 1, and outputs the data stream.

First departmental 1350 departmeat data stream output from the decoder 1340 with many inputs and outputs, and decodes the data in the sequence data as it was before interleaving. First departmental 1350 departmeat data stream according to the mode which corresponds to the way interleave the second interleaver shown in Fig. 1, and restores the sequence of the data stream.

Linear decoder 1360 preliminary coding performs a reverse process with respect to the data distribution process in the device for signal transmission. Accordingly, the data is distributed in accordance with the linear pre-the encoding, you can restore the data as they were before distribution. An implementation option linear decoder 1360 pre-coding shown in Fig. 21-22.

Block 1370 reverse display characters can recover the coded data symbol outputted from the line decoder 1360 pre-encoding, the bit stream. Block 1370 reverse display characters performs a reverse process to the process display characters that uses the unit display characters.

The second departmental 1380 departmeat data stream that is output from the block 1370 display characters, and restores the data in the sequence data as it was before interleaving. The second departmental 1380 performs inverse interleaving data according to the mode which corresponds to the way interleave the first interleaver 110, shown in Fig. 1, and restores the sequence of the data stream.

The decoder 1390 FEC performs FEC decoding data in which the recovered sequence of data stream, detects an error in received data, and corrects the error. The example decoder 1390 FEC is shown in Fig. 26.

Fig. 21 is a schematic structural diagram that shows an example of a linear decoder preliminary coding shown in Fig 11. Linear decoder 1360 preliminary coding includes a serial-to-parallel Converter 1362, the first decoder 1364 and parallel-to-serial Converter 1366.

Serial-to-parallel Converter 1362 converts the input data into parallel data. First 1364 decoder can recover the data that are linearly pre-encode and distribute parallel data as the original data through a decoding matrix. A decoding matrix to perform decoding is the inverse matrix from the coding matrix device for signal transmission. For example, when the device for signal transmission performs an encoding operation using the matrix Vandermonde, the Hadamard matrix and the matrix of the Golden code, which is shown in Fig. 5, 6 and 7, the first decoder 1364 restores distributed information as the original data using the inverse matrix from the data matrix.

Parallel-to-serial Converter 1366 converts parallel data received by the first decoder 1364, serial data, and outputs the serial data.

Fig. 22 is a schematic structural diagram showing another example of the linear decoder preliminary coding. Linear decoder 1360 pre-coding on the includes serial-to-parallel Converter 1361, the second decoder 1363 and parallel-to-serial Converter 1365.

Serial-to-parallel Converter 1361 converts the input data into parallel data, a parallel-serial Converter 1365 converts parallel data received from the second decoder 1363, serial data, and outputs the serial data. Second 1363 decoder can recover the original data that are linearly pre-encode and distribute parallel data output from the serial-to-parallel Converter 1361, using the decoding method of maximum likelihood (ML).

The second decoder 1363 is the ML decoder for decoding data in accordance with the method of transmission of the transmitter. The second decoder 1363 performs ML decoding received data symbol in accordance with the transfer method and restores the data based on parallel data in the source data. Thus, the ML decoder performs ML decoding received data symbol in accordance with the encoding method of the transmitter.

Fig-25 are diagrams that show examples of the coding matrices 2×2 to restore the distributed character. Encoding matrix on Fig-25 show the inverse matrix, which correspond coderush the m matrices 2×2 Fig-14. According Fig-25 encoding matrix to restore data that is distributed on two pieces of data entered in the block decode line decoder 1360 pre-encoding, and output the recovered data.

More specifically, the encoding matrix is 2×2 in Fig. 23 is a decoding matrix, which corresponds to the coding matrix on Fig.

In the matrix of Fig. 23 put the first input data, the phase of which rotate by -45 degrees (-), and the second input data, the phase of which rotate by -45 degrees (-), two parts of the input data, and output the first output. Then the second input data, the phase of which rotate by -45 degrees is subtracted from the first input, the phase of which rotate 45 degrees, and output the second output. The output is divided intofor zooming.

Fig shows another example of the coding of the 2×2 matrix. The matrix on Fig is a decoding matrix, which corresponds to the coding matrix on Fig. In the matrix on Fig put the first input data is multiplied by 0.5, and the second input data, and output the first output. Then the second input data is multiplied by 0.5, is subtracted from the first input, and output a second output. The output de is Yat for zooming.

Fig shows another example of the coding of the 2×2 matrix. The matrix on Fig is a decoding matrix, which corresponds to the coding matrix on Fig. "*" on Fig denotes complex conjugation of the input data.

In the matrix of Fig. 25 put the first input data, the phase of which rotate by -90 degrees (-), and complex conjugation of the second input data, and output the first output. Then put the first input data and the complex conjugation of the second input, the phase of which rotate at -90 degrees (-), and output the second output. The output is divided intofor zooming.

Fig. 26 is a schematic structural diagram that shows the FEC decoder. The decoder 1390 FEC corresponds to the encoder FEC 100 in Fig. 1. As the inner decoder and the outer decoder it includes a decoder 1392 and LDPC decoder 1394 BCH, respectively.

The decoder 1392 LDPC detects a transmission error that occurs in the channel, and corrects the error, and the decoder 1394 BCH corrects the residual error data, decoded by the decoder 1392 LDPC, and remove the error.

Fig. 27 is a structural diagram that shows the device of the reception signal according to another variant of implementation of the pickup device C is Nala. Further, for convenience of description, will be described a case where the number of receive paths is two.

An implementation option in Fig. 27 includes the first 1700 receiver, a second receiver 1705, the first block 1710 synchronization, the second block 1715 synchronization, the first demodulator 1720, the second demodulator 1725, the first analyzer 1730 frame, the second analyzer 1735 frame, the decoder 1740 with many inputs and outputs, the third departmental 1750, linear decoder 1760 pre-coding block 1770 reverse display characters, the fourth departmental 1780 and decoder 1790 FEC.

The first 1700 receiver and a second receiver 1705 receive RF signals, convert the lower frequency band, converts the signals into digital signals, and output digital signals, respectively. The first block 1710 synchronization and the second block 1715 synchronization determine the synchronization of the received signals output from the first 1700 receiver and the second receiver 1705 in the frequency domain and in time domain, and output the synchronization, respectively. The first block 1710 synchronization and the second block 1715 synchronization can use the results of the displacement information output from the first demodulator 1720 and the second demodulator 1725 in the frequency domain, to obtain the synchronization signal in the frequency domain, respectively.

First Demod the system 1720 demodulates the received signal data, the output of the first block 1710 synchronization. The first demodulator 1720 converts the received data into the frequency domain and decodes the data, distributed subcarriers in the data assigned to subcarriers. The second demodulator 1725 demodulates the received signal output from the second block 1715 synchronization.

The first analyzer 1730 frame and the second analyzer 1735 frame distinguish between a reception paths according to the structures of frame signals, demodulating first demodulator 1720 and the second demodulator 1725, and output data symbol interval of the symbol data, excluding the pilot symbol, respectively.

The decoder 1740 with many inputs and outputs receives the data output from the first analyzer 1730 frame and the second analyzer 1735 frame, decodes the data and outputs the data stream. Signal processing in the linear decoder 1760 pre-coding block 1770 reverse display characters in the fourth deprimirotee 1780 and decoder 1790 FEC is similar to the processing in Fig. 20.

Fig. 28 is a view showing an exemplary method of decoding a decoder with multiple inputs and outputs. Thus, Fig. 28 shows an example of decoding in the receiver when the transmitter with multiple inputs and outputs encodes data in a way STBC and transmits the coded data. The transmitter mo is no use of two transmitting antennas. This is only an example, and you can use another method with multiple inputs and outputs.

In the equation r(k)h(k), s(k) and n(k) represent the symbol received by the receiver, the characteristics of the channel, the value of the symbol transmitted by the transmitter, and noise in the channel, respectively. Subscripts s, i, 0 and 1 represent the s-th symbol transmission, the i-th receiving antenna, the 0-th transmitting antenna and the 1-th transmitting antenna, respectively. "*" represents complex conjugation. For example, hs,1,i(k) represents the characteristic of the channel is exposed to the transmitted symbol, when the s-th symbol transmitted via the first transmitting antenna, take the i-th receiving antenna. Rs+1,i(k) is (s+1)-th received symbol, accept the i-th receiving antenna.

According to the equation in Fig. 28, Rs,i(k), which is the s-th received symbol, accept the i-th receiving antenna becomes a value obtained by adding the values of the s-th symbol transmitted through the channel from the 0-th transmit antenna to the i-th reception antenna, the values of the s-th symbol transmitted through the channel from 1-th transmitting antenna to the i-th reception antenna, and the sum of ns+1(k) the noise in the channel for channels.

Rs+1,jthat is (s+1)-th received symbol, received by the i-th receiving antenna becomes the value obtained using the SL is the supply of values (s+1)-th symbol h s+1,0,jtransmitted through the channel from the 0-th transmit antenna to the i-th reception antenna, the values of (s+1)-th symbol hs+1,1,jtransmitted through the channel from 1-th transmitting antenna to the i-th reception antenna, and the sum of ns+1(k) the noise in the channel for channels.

Fig. 29 is a diagram that show details of an example of a received symbol in Fig. 28. Fig. 29 shows an example of decoding, when the transmitter with multiple inputs and outputs encodes data in a way STBC and transmits the coded data, i.e. shows the equation, which you can use to obtain the received symbol when the data are transmitted using two transmitting antennas, and the data transmitted through the two data taking using a single antenna.

The transmitter transmits a signal using two transmitting antennas, and the receiver receives the signal, using one transmission antenna number of channels transmission can be two. In equation h0 and s0, respectively, are characteristic of the transmission channel from 0-th transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna, and the symbol transmitted from the 0-th transmitting antenna, and h1 and s1, respectively, are characteristic of the transmission channel from 1-th transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna, and the symbol transmitted from the i-th transmitting antenna. "*" represents complex conjugation, and s0' and s1' of the following equations represent vosstanovlenie characters.

In addition, r0and r1, respectively, represent the character, accept receiving antenna at time t, and the symbol received receiving antenna at time t+T after the end of the transmission period T, and n0and n1present values of the amounts of noise in the channel for transmitting circuits at the time of admission.

As expressed by the equation in Fig. 29, the signals r0and r1taken receiving antenna, can be represented by a value obtained by adding the signals transmitting antennas, and the values of noise in transmission channels. The recovered symbols s0' and s1' are calculated using the received signal r0and r1and the values of the characteristics of the channel h0and h1.

Fig. 30 is a schematic structural diagram showing another example of the device for signal transmission.

Fig. 31 shows the device receiving the signal, which receives the signal transmitted from the transmission device signal in Fig. 30. Fig. 30 and 31 show examples of the application of the method with a single input and single output (SISO) system.

Device transmit signal in Fig. 30 includes an encoder 2000 error correction FEC, the first interleaver 2010, block 2020, the display of symbols, linear pre-coder 2030, the second interleaver 2040, 2050 driver frame, modulator 2060 the transmitter 2070. Description this option may not correlate with the embodiment described in Fig. 1 and 20. Thus, in the embodiment of Fig. 30 performs signal processing similar to the processing of embodiments of Fig. 1 and 20. However, the device of the transmission signal in Fig. 30 processes the signal by way of SISO, so it does not include the encoder with multiple inputs and outputs.

Thus, the data symbols, which are subjected to a linear pre-coding and interleaving, so that they become resistant to frequency-selective fading in the channel, enter the shaper 2050 frame, and shaper 2050 frame forms the interval data, which does not include the pilot signal, and the interval of the pilot symbol, which includes a pilot signal, as shown in Fig. 8, based on the input data symbol, and outputs the generated data interval and the interval of the pilot symbol. In the way SISO not need to distinguish between transmission paths according to how many inputs and outputs shown in Fig. 18 and 19.

The device receiving the signal in Fig. 31 includes a receiver 2100 block 2110 synchronization demodulator 2120, 2130 analyzer frame, the first departmental 2140, linear decoder 2150 pre-coding block 2160 reverse display characters, the second departmental 2170 and decoder 2180FEC. Option exercise device of the reception signal can be correlated with the embodiment described in Fig. 20 and 27. However, in the embodiment of Fig. 31, since the device of the transmission signal in Fig. 31 processes the signal by way of SISO, it does not include the decoder with multiple inputs and outputs.

In the device receiving the signal symbol data, analyzed using the analyzer 2130 frame output to the first detereminately 2140 so that they perform the reverse process with respect to the processing of the data transmitting device, so that they become resistant to frequency-selective fading in the channel.

Fig. 32 is a sequence of operations showing the method of signal transmission according to the present invention.

The FEC encoding is done on the input data so that the error of the transmission data find and fix (S2200). The BCH encoder can be used as an external encoder to prevent errors, and the LDPC encoding method can be performed after execution of a BCH encoding method for encoding FEC.

The coded data is alternating, so that they become resistant package errors of the transmission channel, and intermixed data is converted into character data according to the system of transmission/reception (S2202). To display characters can be used QAM or QPSK./p>

To the data symbol became resistant to frequency-selective fading in the channel, the data of the display character code for pre-allocation for multiple output symbols in the frequency domain (S2204), and pre-coded data symbols alternating (S2206). Accordingly, it is possible to reduce the likelihood that data will be lost when the frequency-selective fading in the channel. When interleaving can be used convolutional interleaver or a block interleaver, which can be selected according to the modalities for the implementation of the implementation.

Accordingly, it is possible to reduce the probability that all information will be lost by the sinking, when the channel is subjected to frequency-selective fading, and not allow the distributed data symbol to be subjected to the same frequency-selective fading. When interleaving can be used convolutional interleaver or a block interleaver, which can be selected according to the modalities for the implementation of the implementation.

Intermixed data encode character with many inputs and outputs for transmission through multiple antennas (S2208). The number of data paths can be determined in accordance with the number of antennas. With the method of spatial diversity through tracts transmit data having the same information that is in the way spatial multiplexing through the paths transmit different data.

The coded data is converted into the transmitted frame in accordance with the number of transmitting circuits with multiple inputs and outputs, modulate the transmitted frame, and modulated the transmitted frame transfer (S2210). The transmitted frame includes the symbol interval of the pilot signal and the symbol interval data. The symbol interval of the pilot signal may have information that can distinguish between transmission paths. For example, when the signal is passed through two antennas, bearing with an even number, and bearing with an odd number of the generated pilot signals can be transmitted through different antennas. Alternatively, when the signal is passed through two antennas, the amount of pilot signals transmit in the positions of the symbol with an even number, and the difference between the pilot signals are passed in the positions of the symbol with an odd number, so that the effect of diversity can be obtained.

However, in the transmission/reception signal using the method of SISO, instead of the way with many inputs and outputs the modulated signal is passed through a single antenna without performing phase encoding with multiple inputs and outputs S208.

Fig. 33 is a sequence of operations showing the method of signal reception. The signal received through the transmitting tract, synchronize, synchronized signal demodulator (S2300).

Demoduliruem frame data EN who are lysed and the signal from many inputs decode according to the method of decoding with multiple inputs and outputs to receive the stream of data symbol (S2302).

Character data, which are alternating, so that they become resistant to frequency-selective fading in the channel, departmeat using a process that is reverse to the process of alternation (S2304). The data stream, which is recovered by using deteremine, decode by using a process that is reverse to the pre-coding, and source data symbols that are spread across multiple parts of the data symbol, restore in the frequency domain (S2306).

For the recovered data symbol perform inverse mapping according to the method of display characters and decode the bitmap data, the bitmap data departmeat to restore the original sequence (S2308).

The FEC decoding performed in relation to the restored data so that correct the transmission error (S2310). To decode the FEC can be used by the LDPC decoder and the outer decoder to prevent errors, you can perform a method of decoding BCH after executing the method of decoding LDPC.

However, in the transmission/reception of a signal, which uses the method of SISO, instead of the way the centre of the PTO inputs and outputs, perform reception of a signal through one of the transmit path, without performing the step of decoding with multiple inputs and outputs S2302.

The way the transmission/reception unit and a transmission/reception signal in accordance with the present invention are available in the areas of technology transfer and communication.

According to the method of transmission/reception signal and the transmission/reception signal of the present invention can provide a change in the system of transmitting/receiving signals using an existing network of transmission/reception signal, and reduce the value.

In addition, you can increase the speed of data transmission, so as to obtain improved SNR, and to estimate the channel relative to the transmission channel having the property of a large spread in delay, to increase the distance signal transmission. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the efficiency of transmission/reception of a signal in the transmission/reception.

Variants of the invention

Variants of the invention are also described in section a preferred variant embodiment of the invention.

Industrial application

The present invention has industrial application in the field of engineering digital broadcasting technology digital communication and in related areas of technology.

1. A device for signal transmission, comprising:
the encoder (100) with a direct error correction (FEC), which is delivering the direct encoding with error correction (FEC) of the input data;
the first interleaver (110), which performs interleaving FEC-coded data;
block (120) display characters, which converts alternating with the data in the character data;
the second interleaver (140), which performs interleaving of the data symbols;
encoder (150), which encodes the data symbols, interspersed by the second interleaver;
unit (160) add pilot symbols, which adds at least one pilot symbol in a data frame that includes encoded data symbols; and
the transmitter (180), which transmits the data frame, which includes pilot symbols and data symbols.

2. The device according to claim 1, in which the unit (160) add pilot symbol adds at least one pilot symbol in the initial part of the data frame.

3. The device according to claim 1, in which the encoder (150) performs processing with multiple inputs and single output (MISO).

4. The device according to claim 1, in which the encoder (150) receives sequentially the first and second symbols and encodes characters in such a way that
Y_tx1(t)=S0, Y_tx1(t+T)=S1,
Y_tx2(t)=-S1*, Y_tx2(t+T)=S0*,
where S0 represents the first symbol S1 represents the second symbol * represents complex conjugation, Y_tx1 is encoded symbols, which will transmit through the first antenna, Y_tx2 is coded symbols that will be transmitted via the second antenna, t represents the t time, when the transmit symbols, and T is the period of time between transmission of the first symbol and the second symbol, respectively.

5. The device according to claim 1, in which the encoder (130) receives sequentially the first and second symbols and encodes characters in such a way that minus the complex conjugation of the second symbol and the complex conjugation of the first symbol display simultaneously with the first and second characters.

6. The device for reception of a signal, comprising:
receiver (1300), which receives a frame of data including data symbols and at least one pilot symbol;
analyzer (1330) frame, which analyzes the data symbols in a received data frame;
decoder (1340), which decodes the analyzed data characters;
first departmental (1350), which departmeat decoded data characters;
block (1370) reverse display characters, which converts depechemiami characters of data into bitmap data;
the second departmental (1380), which departmeat converted bit data; and
decoder (1390) with direct error correction (FEC), which performs decoding with direct error correction (FEC) depechemiami bit data.

7. The device according to claim 6, in which the initial part of the data frame includes at least one pilot symbol.

8. The device according to claim 6, in which the decoder (1340) Dec is derouet analyzed the data symbols according to the algorithm Alamouti.

9. The method of signal transmission, comprising stages, which are:
coding the direct error correction (FEC) of the input data;
alternating with the FEC-coded data;
convert alternating with the data in the character data;
alternating with the data symbols;
encode intersected with the data symbols;
add at least one pilot symbol in a data frame that includes encoded data symbols; and
transmit the data frame, which includes pilot symbols and data symbols.

10. The method of signal transmission according to claim 9, in which at least one pilot symbol is added in the initial part of the data frame.

11. The method of signal transmission according to claim 9, in which alternating symbols encode data using processing with multiple inputs and single output (MISO).

12. The method of signal transmission according to claim 9, in which when encoding intersected with the data symbols of the first and second characters in alternating symbols encode data in such a way that
Y_tx1(t)=S0, Y_tx1(t+T)=S1,
Y_tx2(t)=-S1*, Y_tx2(t+T)=S0*,
where S0 represents the first symbol S1 represents the second symbol * represents complex conjugation, Y_tx1 is encoded symbols, which will transmit through the first antenna, Y_tx2 is coded symbols that will be transmitted via the second antenna, t represents the time when the transmit symbols, and T presented AET period of time between transmission of the first symbol and the second symbol, respectively.

13. The method of signal reception, comprising stages, which are:
take a frame of data including data symbols and at least one pilot symbol;
analyze the data symbols in a received data frame;
decode analyzed the data symbols;
departmeat decoded data characters;
convert depechemiami characters of data into bitmap data;
departmeat converted bit data; and
perform decoding with direct error correction (FEC) depechemiami bit data.

14. The method according to item 13, in which the initial part of the data frame includes at least one pilot symbol.

15. The method according to item 13, in which decodes the analyzed data characters perform according to the algorithm Alamouti.



 

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21 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: physics; image processing.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of buffering multimedia information, as well as a method of decoding a coded stream of images in a decoder, in which the coded stream of images is received in form of transmission blocks which contain multimedia data. A system for processing multimedia data is proposed, which contains a coder for coding images and a buffer for buffering multimedia data. Multimedia data are included in the data transmission blocks. The data transmission blocks are ordered in the transmission sequence, which at least partially differs from the sequence of decoding multimedia data in transmission blocks. There is also definition block, which can set a parametre which indicates the maximum number of data transmission blocks which precede any data transmission block in a stream of packets in the transmission sequence and that data transmission block is tracked in the decoding sequence.

EFFECT: more efficient compression when buffering multimedia information.

32 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: method and device are suggested for multilevel integration used for elimination of errors. Error is detected in multimedia data on the basis of the first level protocol, and then error detected in multimedia data is masked on the basis of the second level protocol. In one aspect error in multimedia data is eliminated on the basis of communication level protocol, and it is controlled on the basis of transport level protocol. Further distribution of controlled error is determined on the basis of synchronisation level protocol, then error detected in multimedia data is masked on the basis of applied level protocol. Further stage of error elimination and scaling stage are provided.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of multimedia data stream processing by reception of multiple streams of coded multimedia data, eliminating errors in erroneous part of stream and recovering multimedia data from multiple streams.

40 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to buffering packets of a media stream during transmission from a transmission device to a receiving device. Media packets are generated from at least one type of media information in a stream generator; at least one transmission frame is generated based on transmitted media packets; transmitted packets are generated from at least one transmission frame and a transmission schedule is generated for transmitted packets. In addition, the first and second steps of hypothetical decoding are executed. The first step of hypothetical decoding is executed in accordance with the transmission schedule, and involves buffering the transmitted packets in accordance with the transmission schedule in the first buffer for hypothetical decoding and output of packets from the first buffer for hypothetical decoding based on the transmission frame. The second step of hypothetical decoding involves controlling occupance rate of the first and second buffer for hypothetical decoding by controlling at least one of the following: operation of the stream generator, generation of at least one transmission frame, transmission schedule.

EFFECT: more efficient buffering of media stream packets.

20 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: image transferring equipment engineering, possible use in multimedia communications.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, when error codes are detected on receiving side, data of code stream of image with error codes are refused prior to decoding of data of code stream of image, and refused data of code stream of image are replaced with data of code stream of image, positioned in appropriate position of previous frame, and data of code stream of image are encoded continuously. Also, an array of marks is set up for data of code stream of image prior to encoding on receiving side, to perform recording of positions, where error codes have been detected.

EFFECT: possible avoidance of transfer of internal frame images on transmitting side and of frozen images on receiving side, or decrease of their occurrence periods, thus improving quality of image.

7 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: re-synchronization.

SUBSTANCE: method can be used in decoding channel according to MPEG-4 standard. To provide proper decoding of pressed video data signal, the re-synchronization word RW differs from known words of variable length code VLC as well as from start code of plane of video object and has at least 17 sequent zeros, after which the unit follows, for plane of video object coded to provide two-directional prediction. After error in transmission in pressed video signal is detected, the pressed video data signal can be re-synchronized.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of re-synchronization.

4 cl, 2 dwg

The invention relates to encoding and decoding digital data divided into blocks of digits, in order of importance digits

The invention relates to television, in particular to the processing of the image data, and in particular to a method and apparatus for loop-filtering the image data

FIELD: re-synchronization.

SUBSTANCE: method can be used in decoding channel according to MPEG-4 standard. To provide proper decoding of pressed video data signal, the re-synchronization word RW differs from known words of variable length code VLC as well as from start code of plane of video object and has at least 17 sequent zeros, after which the unit follows, for plane of video object coded to provide two-directional prediction. After error in transmission in pressed video signal is detected, the pressed video data signal can be re-synchronized.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of re-synchronization.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: image transferring equipment engineering, possible use in multimedia communications.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, when error codes are detected on receiving side, data of code stream of image with error codes are refused prior to decoding of data of code stream of image, and refused data of code stream of image are replaced with data of code stream of image, positioned in appropriate position of previous frame, and data of code stream of image are encoded continuously. Also, an array of marks is set up for data of code stream of image prior to encoding on receiving side, to perform recording of positions, where error codes have been detected.

EFFECT: possible avoidance of transfer of internal frame images on transmitting side and of frozen images on receiving side, or decrease of their occurrence periods, thus improving quality of image.

7 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to buffering packets of a media stream during transmission from a transmission device to a receiving device. Media packets are generated from at least one type of media information in a stream generator; at least one transmission frame is generated based on transmitted media packets; transmitted packets are generated from at least one transmission frame and a transmission schedule is generated for transmitted packets. In addition, the first and second steps of hypothetical decoding are executed. The first step of hypothetical decoding is executed in accordance with the transmission schedule, and involves buffering the transmitted packets in accordance with the transmission schedule in the first buffer for hypothetical decoding and output of packets from the first buffer for hypothetical decoding based on the transmission frame. The second step of hypothetical decoding involves controlling occupance rate of the first and second buffer for hypothetical decoding by controlling at least one of the following: operation of the stream generator, generation of at least one transmission frame, transmission schedule.

EFFECT: more efficient buffering of media stream packets.

20 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: method and device are suggested for multilevel integration used for elimination of errors. Error is detected in multimedia data on the basis of the first level protocol, and then error detected in multimedia data is masked on the basis of the second level protocol. In one aspect error in multimedia data is eliminated on the basis of communication level protocol, and it is controlled on the basis of transport level protocol. Further distribution of controlled error is determined on the basis of synchronisation level protocol, then error detected in multimedia data is masked on the basis of applied level protocol. Further stage of error elimination and scaling stage are provided.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of multimedia data stream processing by reception of multiple streams of coded multimedia data, eliminating errors in erroneous part of stream and recovering multimedia data from multiple streams.

40 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: physics; image processing.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of buffering multimedia information, as well as a method of decoding a coded stream of images in a decoder, in which the coded stream of images is received in form of transmission blocks which contain multimedia data. A system for processing multimedia data is proposed, which contains a coder for coding images and a buffer for buffering multimedia data. Multimedia data are included in the data transmission blocks. The data transmission blocks are ordered in the transmission sequence, which at least partially differs from the sequence of decoding multimedia data in transmission blocks. There is also definition block, which can set a parametre which indicates the maximum number of data transmission blocks which precede any data transmission block in a stream of packets in the transmission sequence and that data transmission block is tracked in the decoding sequence.

EFFECT: more efficient compression when buffering multimedia information.

32 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: physics, communications.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to transmission of a media stream over an error-prone digital video broadcasting - handheld (DVB-H) channel in which media datagrams are labelled according to a priority, packed in a multiprotocol encapsulation section, unequally protected using forward error-correction codes packed into a traffic stream and transmitted into the channel using packets with time-division. A system and a method are proposed for transmitting a multiplexed service stream over a DVB-H channel. Media IP packets are priority labelled. For each packet with time division, the IP packets are grouped based upon the priority labels. Multi protocol encapsulation - forward error correction (MPE-FEC) matrices are made for different priority labels in each packet with time division. Reed-Solomon code data table (RSDT) columns are computed such that the average service bit rate does not overshoot the maximum allowed bit rate, and protection increases with priority. The application data table (ADT) and RSDT of the MPE-FEC matrices are then encapsulated into MPE-FEC sections.

EFFECT: shorter start delay during reception of an unequally protected priority service bit stream.

21 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: physics, communications.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to multimedia transmission systems, specifically to methods and a device for acquiring services. Proposed is a service acquisition device which has a source coder configured to generate one or more channel switch video (CSV) signals, which is an independently decoded version of a low-resolution video for the selected channel in a received multiplex transmission and associated one or more multimedia signals, an error coder configured to code CSV signals and multimedia signals for formation of coded error blocks, and a linker configured to encapsulate coded error blocks into a multiplex transmission signal.

EFFECT: fast acquisition of a service and/or switching between services in multiplex transmission.

60 cl, 23 dwg

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: video data is coded, packet is formed with coded video data, and packet is transferred via wireless channel into access network. Level of access control to transfer medium (MAC) receives negative notice from the access network (NAK). It is identified whether received NAK is associated with packet, which contains video data. If received NAK is associated with packet, which contains video data, errors are corrected.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of video data errors correction.

36 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: method for transmission/reception of signal and device for transmission/reception of signal. Device for transmission of signal includes coder with forward error correction (FEC), which executes FEC-coding of input data for detection and correction of data errors, interleaver, which interleaves FEC-coded data, and unit of symbols display, which displays interleaved data to data of symbol according to method of transmission.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of channel bandwidth use, increased speed of data transmission and increased distance of signal transmission, reduced cost of network development for signal transmission-reception.

15 cl, 33 dwg

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: several various VLC-tables are stored in coding devices, in process of coding and decoding, one of VLC-tables is selected and used to do coding of SVR for this video unit. Table may be selected on the basis of number of neighbouring video units for current video unit, which include non-zero transformation ratios.

EFFECT: increased coefficients of coding of SVR video units, in which structures of coefficients occurring with higher probability, are coded with the help of shorter codes, while structures of coefficients, which occur with lower probability, are coded with the help of longer codes, which is especially useful in coding of video units of improved layers in coding of scalable video.

25 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl

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