Method of automatic control of temperature and light modes in greenhouse and system for its implementation

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural machinery, namely to methods and systems for automatic control of temperature and light modes in greenhouses or other structures of a protected ground. Automatic control system for temperature and light regime in greenhouse, implementing the claimed method, contains the control loop of temperature in a greenhouse, including a temperature sensor which output is connected with the object of regulation through the comparing element with the adjuster, a signal multiplier of maladjustment the current and the calculated temperatures, as well as an actuator supporting at the facility the calculated temperature, as well as the computing unit, which calculates an optimum temperature. Also the system contains an additional control loop of lighting.

EFFECT: invention enables to improve accuracy of maintaining temperature and lighting in cultivating area and stability of the system operation, as well as increase efficiency of photosynthesis mechanism in plants due to adjustment of such environmental factors as temperature and irradiance.

4 cl

 

The invention relates to agricultural machinery, and in particular to methods and systems of automatic control of temperature and light regime in greenhouses or other structures protected ground.

There is a method of automatic control of the temperature in the greenhouse [A.S. USSR №1503711, IPC 4 A01G 9/26], in which during the whole growing period of plants is divided into equal intervals, the duration of which is less than the time constant of the high-speed perturbations. For this period of time is calculated optimal from the condition of equality to zero of the derivative of the energy consumption per unit of product temperature. In accordance with this change temperature setpoint the setpoint temperature, ensuring its consistency during the selected period of time.

However, the proposed method does not allow to solve an actual problem of production of vegetables in greenhouses, the solution of which is to increase the coefficient of performance (COP) of the photosynthesis process of plants. In conditions of natural oblojennosti medium-density planting, use only 1% of incoming solar radiation, which is significantly lower than theoretically possible.

It is believed to increase the energy efficiency of plant photosynthesis can, agreeing the main environmental factors with obluchennom the firm. This is especially important at the present time, the current intensification of the greenhouse vegetable growing, which implies a dense planting of plants per 1 m2usable area (a multi-tiered method of cultivation), by which each square meter of planted 10 plants, while the traditional method of planting only 3-4 plants. This allows to increase the yield from 30 to 300 kg/m2. This planting density requires mandatory dosvechivaniya, and this should lead to very high energy cost. However, the profit from great harvest covers the cost of dosvechivanie. Although sometimes in conditions of total energy scarcity is desirable to reduce costs as dosvechivanie and heated greenhouse.

There is a method of optimization of environmental factors when growing plants [A.S. USSR №456595, IPC 4 A01G 9/26], in which the optimization of plant photosynthesis is carried out by regulating oblojennosti. The method of automatic optimization of the plant is reduced to finding the optimal point on the light curve of photosynthesis.

Ensure the implementation of this method is the automatic optimization of plant photosynthesis consists of the assimilation chamber, where there are plants that are exposed to an adjustable source of irradiation is Oia. The intensity of the photosynthesis of plants is the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO3), which is measured by the instrument "Infranet-1". Using the information on the photosynthesis of plants, can be judged by the rate of absorption of carbon dioxide from the scope of the assimilation chamber, and on the basis of which form a task management function, the extremum in accordance with the adopted criterion. With the help of the ballast xenon lamp DXT-6000 can control the level of oblojennosti plants, which is measured with a pyranometer yanushevski. The search for the maximum of the objective function provides extreme knob ERB-5, which subsequently supports the value received oblojennosti. The system comprises a computer system for processing incoming information about the intensity of photosynthesis and oblojennosti plants and produces a control signal which arrives in extreme regulator ERB-5. The controller changes the direction of motor rotation, if the system is not in the optimum point of the selected criterion, and the engine through the gearbox moves the engine voltage regulator RNO, which slowly changes the power xenon arc lamp DXT-6000, thereby changing the irradiance of plants.

In this way the optimization of environmental factors in Viridian and plant and system ensuring its implementation, you may find a number of drawbacks. First, it is not considered the interaction of two main factors of climate, temperature and light. If when changing the light, at the same time not to change the air temperature in the greenhouse, making a series of sequential steps, the regulator will not find the actual maximum photosynthesis. Secondly, extreme regulation is not the most fast and efficient way to control the modes of the climate, since the regulator should take a few steps to determine the maximum, and this reduces the reliability of the system, always in the mode of self-oscillations. Thirdly, the system contains bulky devices determine the CO2gas exchange in the assimilation chamber, such devices are suitable in research laboratories, where they will be served by professionals in greenhouses such systems are not functional.

There is also known a method of controlling temperature in a greenhouse [A.S. USSR №1438657, IPC 4 A01G 9/26. The method of automatic control of the temperature in the greenhouse / Pleshakov, Saipov. Evishlenkova and Lavrentiy (USSR). No. 3738938/30-15; claimed 20.01.1984; publ. 23.11.1988, bull. No. 43], selected as a prototype in which to improve efficiency during the whole growing period of plants is divided into equal periods of time and for each calculated optimal from the condition of equality to zero of the derivative of the economic criterion temperature. In accordance with this change temperature setpoint the setpoint temperature.

System [A.S. USSR №1438657, IPC 4 A01G 9/26], which implements the method chosen for the prototype consists of a computing unit which is supplied with information from sensors to control the state of the external environment and where the processing of information and calculations necessary to control air temperature in the greenhouse, under which changes the setpoint knob; sensor internal temperature, which measures and transmits a signal from the object to the comparison element, where the comparison of the two temperature values; amp; generator of clock pulses, a signal which resets the previous calculation and the beginning of the new; switch, which transmits managing signal to the actuator, which must support the calculated temperature within a discrete period of time.

Considered method and system, its implements, have several disadvantages. First, there is still no mathematical model of the yield as the final product of the process of vegetation, and therefore this method is difficult to implement. Secondly, the prices of greenhouse products and fuel during the vegetation period cannot be predicted, they are constantly changing and have a strong influence on the calculation of the optimal on the proposed criterion temperature thirdly, mathematical model of harvest does not contain important indicators of photomicroscope: duration length factor and humidity. Fourthly, there is the possibility of changing natural light in favor of its increase in case of cloudy days, especially as modern greenhouses equipped with deveciusagi installations, which may be regulated by any criterion.

The aim of the invention is to improve the accuracy of temperature and light in the cultivation area and the stability of the system and increasing the efficiency of photosynthesis of plants due to the coordination of such environmental factors as temperature and irradiance, which increases the productivity of greenhouse crops and shortens the growing season prior to fruiting.

The invention consists in the following. In the proposed method, the time of growing plants in a greenhouse is divided into equal intervals, the duration of which is at least an order of magnitude smaller than the time constant of the high-speed perturbations. Unlike the prototype do not measure external parameters of microclimate, and in each of these time intervals are measured illuminance, humidity of the air inside the greenhouse, plant age, is determined by the average rate is the atur previous night and the duration of the light period. According to the results of measurements determine the one-dimensional optimal according to the criterion of efficiency fluorescent temperature, which is supported by constant during the selected period of time. One-dimensional optimum temperature is determined from the condition of equality to zero of the derivative of the intensity of photosynthesis on temperature. In addition to this function must be computed one-dimensional optimal productivity illumination from the condition of equality to zero of the derivative of the intensity of photosynthesis in the light. When real light in the greenhouse below the settlement, must be enabled equipment dosvechivaniya for the period set by agrotechnical.

The criterion of productivity obtained using the mathematical model of the growth of cucumber variety "Moscow greenhouse" [Popov S.A. energy Saving system of automatic control of the temperature in the greenhouse: Dis. Kida. technology. Sciences 05.13.06. Chelyabinsk, 1995]. In General, the mathematical model of CO3gas exchange, obtained during the experiment in the chamber of an artificial microclimate, is written as follows:

where t1- the current value of daily air temperature in the cultivation room, °C;

E1- the current value of the light;

T2- the average pace of the atmospheric temperature of the previous night, °C;

τ1- the duration of the photoperiod, h;

τ2- the age of the plants, day;

φ1- the current value of the air humidity in the greenhouse, %;

and0,a1,and2etc. are the coefficients of the mathematical model of photosynthesis.

For the proposed method and system of automatic control of temperature and light regime in the greenhouse uses the criterion of maximum productivity, i.e. equal to zero partial derivatives of the intensity of photosynthesis

define a one-dimensional temperature and light levels, which is the maximum photosynthesis rate, indirect index.

One-dimensional optimal day temperature t21calculated by the formula:

wherea2,a12,a22etc. are the coefficients of the mathematical model of the rate of photosynthesis;

and2=0,1881;

and12=of 0.0125;

and22=-0,0215;

and23=0,0014;

and24=-0,0087;

and25=0,0000;

and26-0,0107;

E1- established as a result of the operation of the system and takes into account the effect of solar radiation, the current value of the light, CLC;

T2the average temperature value p is adidasa night, °C;

τ1- set by the operator-technician duration of the photoperiod or dosvechivaniya, h;

τ2- the age of the plants, day;

φ1- the current value of the air humidity in the greenhouse, %.

One-dimensional optimal illumination in the greenhouse E21calculated by the formula:

whereand1,and11etc. are the coefficients of the mathematical model of the rate of photosynthesis;

and1=1,9788;

and11=-0,0141;

and12=of 0.0125;

and13=-0,0034;

and14=-0,0046;

and15=-0,0174;

and16=-0,0147;

t1- established in the functioning of the system, current temperature, °C;

T2- the average temperature of the previous night, °C;

τ1- set by the operator-technician duration of the photoperiod (or dosvechivaniya), h;

τ2- the age of the plants, day;

φ1- the current value of the air humidity in the greenhouse, %.

In accordance with defined this way, the values of temperature and illumination change setpoint knobs.

The system of automatic control of temperature and light regime in the greenhouse, which implements this method, contains the control loop internal temperature in the greenhouse, including the internal sensor temperature, the output is vtorogo associated with an object of control over the element of comparison with the reference, power of the error signal of the current temperature and calculated, and an actuator supporting the object, the calculated temperature, and the computational unit that produces the optimal temperature. Unlike the prototype system contains an additional control loop illumination, consisting of a sensor, comparing element, amplifier and actuator and managing dosvechivayu apparatus according to the values of the parameters of the illumination particular computer unit, switching on and off of the lighting apparatus is a magnetic actuator by means of a signal from the relay mechanism of time, setting the duration of the light period which is fed to the input of the computer unit, and the system is equipped with a humidity sensor, a counter, plant age, and the computational unit and generator are combined in a computer unit, which generates signals in the form of values of the optimal temperature and optimal illumination for two circuits control.

The set of features of the claimed method and system for its implementation are not known and do not follow explicitly from the prior art, which allows to conclude that the technical solutions according to the criteria of "novelty" and "sabrett Liski level.

The drawing shows a diagram of the system of automatic control of temperature and light regime in the greenhouse according to the criterion of productivity. Contour system automatic optimization of air temperature, implements this method, consisting of a sensor 5 which compares element 1, amplifier 2, the actuator 3 and the regulator 4, supports calculated by the computer unit 12 temperature until a new calculation.

Contour system automatic optimization of illumination, consisting of a sensor 9 which compares element 6, amplifier 7, the actuator 8, a relay mechanism 10 and a magnetic starter 11, regulates dosvechivayu apparatus according to the values of the parameters of the illumination particular computer unit 12.

The method is as follows. The signals from the temperature sensors 5, illumination 9, air humidity, 13 and counter plant age 14 are received in the computer unit 12, where the formulas (3) and (4) the calculation of the optimal productivity of temperature and light. First determine the optimal day temperature t21from the given agrotechnique initial settings of operation mode dosvechivayu equipment E1and τ1. Inside the greenhouse rises the temperature corresponding to the daytime period. Then calculate the optimal illuminance E21taking into account established in the greenhouse daily air temperature. After which the work enters lighting. On the program installed in the computer algorithm of the unit. Subsequent processing is performed upon changing any of the parameters included in equation (3) or (4). For example, changing the age τ2or humidity φ2. The calculation of the optimal values is made on the period of time whose duration is on the order of magnitude smaller than the time constant of the high-speed perturbations (such as 0.1 min).

The system responsible for the contour automatic optimization of illumination by the claimed method works as follows. According to the sensors 5, 13, 14, and manually set the duration of the photoperiod, which corresponds to the duration of work dosvechivayu apparatus implemented by a relay mechanism 10, the computer unit 12 produces an output signal E21according to equation (4), which is the task for the system optimization of illumination. On the comparison element 6 compares job E21with the signal of the sensor 9, which takes into account the natural light (from the sun), the value of the error between the two signals is amplified e is a COP-7, and then there is the inclusion of the actuator lighting, which changes the height of the suspension lamps, which leads to a change of the current light value. In turn, this change monitors the ambient light sensor 9. After completion of the established techniques time dosvechivaniya triggered relay mechanism 10 and disables magnetic starters dosvechivayu apparatus 11. As thickened requiring dosvechivaniya planting planted multilevel method, dosvechivayut equipment falls between plants. The sensor for this reason must be located between the plants, because the lower tiers of planting suffer from lack of light.

The system, which is responsible for channel automatic optimization of temperature, as follows. Computer unit according to the sensors 13 and 14, the values of the preliminary light regime E1and τ1established techniques, and the average temperature of the preceding night produces the equation (3) specifies the signal t21submitted to the element of comparison 1. Another signal comparing device is received from the sensor 5, the air temperature in the greenhouse, which takes into account the temperature change due to the inclusion of dosvechivayu equipment or the influence of external environmental conditions Signal the error, obtained at the output of the device 1, is converted in accordance with the required control law and amplified by the device 2, and then supplied to the actuator 3, which sets in motion a regulatory body 4 that modifies the flow of the coolant in the pipe system heating greenhouses.

Sharing method and system greatly increases the efficiency of utilization of light energy of the sun and the irradiation facility of cultivated plants, and therefore, can reduce the duration of the vegetation period prior to fruiting, to increase the productivity of the plants themselves, but also to improve product quality fruits and their content of sugars and vitamins.

1. Method of automatic control of temperature and light regime in the greenhouse, including the splitting of the vegetation period of plants in the greenhouse at equal intervals, the duration of which the order is less than the time constant of the high-speed perturbations computed for each time interval the optimal temperature and maintaining this optimal temperature constant during the whole period of time, characterized in that measure humidity, temperature and lighting in the greenhouse by receiving signals from sensors of air temperature and light intensity corresponding is about, measure the age of the plants receiving the signal from the counter plant age, determine the duration of the light period, when this data is fed into a computer unit, which calculates the average night temperature, and then determines the one-dimensional optimal according to the criterion of productivity daily air temperature and further defines the one-dimensional optimal productivity of the illumination, then in accordance with certain values of temperature and illumination change setpoint knobs.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the set of one-dimensional optimal productivity the air temperature in the greenhouse for daytime by the formula:

where a2, a12, a22etc. are the coefficients of the mathematical model of the rate of photosynthesis;
and2=0,1881;
and12=of 0.0125;
and22=-0,0215;
and23=0,0014;
and24=-0,0087;
and25=0,0000;
and26=0,0107;
E1- established as a result of the operation of the system and takes into account the effect of solar radiation the current value of the light, CLC;
T2- the average temperature of the previous night, °C;
τ1- set by the operator-technician duration of the photoperiod or dosvechivaniya, h;
τ2- the age of the plants, day;
φ1are those the current value of the air humidity in the greenhouse, %.

3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the set of one-dimensional optimal productivity illumination by the formula:

where a1, a11etc. are the coefficients of the mathematical model of the rate of photosynthesis;
a1=1,9788;
and11=-0,0141;
and12=of 0.0125;
a13=-0,0034;
a14=-0,0046;
a15=-0,0174;
a16=-0,0147;
t1- established in the functioning of the system, current temperature, °C;
T2- the average temperature of the previous night, °C;
τ1- set by the operator-technician duration of the photoperiod or dosvechivaniya, h;
τ2- the age of the plants, day;
φ1- the current value of the air humidity in the greenhouse, %.

4. The system of automatic control of temperature and light regime in the greenhouse, containing the control loop temperature in the greenhouse, including the temperature sensor, the output of which is connected with the object of regulation through comparing the element with knob, power of the error signal of the current temperature and calculated, and an actuator supporting the object, the calculated temperature, and the computational unit that produces the optimal temperature, characterized in that the system contains an additional control loop osvesheno is d, consisting of a sensor, comparing element, amplifier and actuator and managing dosvechivayu apparatus according to the values of the parameters of the illumination particular computer unit, switching on and off of the lighting apparatus is a magnetic actuator by means of a signal from the relay mechanism of time, setting the duration of the light period which is fed to the input of the computer unit, and the system is equipped with a humidity sensor, a counter, plant age, and the computational unit and generator are combined in a computer unit, which generates signals in the form of values of the optimal temperature and optimal illumination for the two control loops.



 

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SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural machinery, namely to methods and systems of automatic control of light and temperature and humidity regime in greenhouses or other structures of protected ground. Automatic control system for light and temperature humidity regime in a greenhouse, which is carrying out the claimed method, contains a control circuit of temperature in a greenhouse, including a temperature sensor, whose output is connected with the object of regulation by the comparing element with a set point adjuster, signal multiplier of the current and the calculated temperature disagreement, as well as an actuating mechanism maintaining in the facility the calculated temperature, and the computer unit which calculates the optimum temperature. At that the system also provides additional control loops of lighting and humidity in a greenhouse.

EFFECT: invention enables to ensure the autonomy of temperature, air humidity adjustment inside the greenhouse and of operation of supplementary lighting equipment independently of each other, although at that their mutual influence on plant productivity remains.

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