Field control tape based on varistor

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: particles of alloyed ZnO are produced by grinding of sintered ZnO unit, by means of grinding or crushing of calcinated granulated particles, or grinding of calcinated or sintered tape (tape-casting). Versions of realisation, inter alia, are related to hollow microvaristor particles of ZnO produced by granulation method, having lower average density and having diametres in the range of much lower than 90 micrometre; and to compounding of ZnO filler in binders used for tape impregnation. Produced tapes are flexible, preferably self-adhesive and have strong non-linear electric resistance. These tapes are useful for protection of areas with high voltage in electric components.

EFFECT: provision of stronger and more reliable non-linear electric resistance, simplified manufacturing of filler from ZnO and mixing with binder.

25 cl

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The invention relates to the field of high and medium voltages and, in particular, to electrical materials and devices with non-linear parameters. The invention is based on the tapes with non-linear electrical parameters and electrical devices containing such "nonlinear electrical" tape corresponding to the restrictive part of the independent claims.

The level of technology

Similar to the invention described in the patent EP 1118086 B1. It is disclosed tape to protect from glow discharge or tape, shielding corona discharge, with improved electrical properties, which is used in winding the insulation of electrical machines. This tape contains tissue-like carrier material which is impregnated with a solution of the reaction resin containing particles of a filler, which are alloyed with antimony tin oxide (SnO2). Optional can be added curing agent and / or accelerator. The coated filler particles provide a more reliable and better reproducible nonlinear electrical behavior in comparison with traditionally used filler is silicon carbide (SiC). The system is covered with a filler designed to be relatively easy to avoid aside the Oia particles during mixing while providing sufficient nonlinearity of electrical resistance. For this purpose, selected inorganic filler materials with low density, such as Al2About3, SiO2, TiO2, BaSO4, chalk, talc, kaolin, mica or titanates, and the electrical nonlinearity is added by applying to the particles of the filler is much heavier coating of alloy oxide of tin. This coating is applied on a substrate or seed particles by hydrolysis or thermal decomposition of organic pasty mixture. Obviously, such a complex system is covered with a filler difficult to manufacture.

In the application DE 2233204 disclosed tape to protect from the glow discharge of a semiconductor material for use in an isolated high-voltage winding of an electric machine. This tape may consist of fiberglass, impregnated with graphite particles. The tape can be pre-stretched, subjected to heat treatment and is compressed in the longitudinal direction. The tape is wound around a glass-mica tape, protecting the copper wire winding. It is designed to replace the carrier tape, which has a surface coated with a lacquer to protect from the glow discharge.

In U.S. patent No. 4297250 disclosed a method of manufacturing a powder composition varistor alloy zinc oxide. The ZnO powder can be dispersed in a resinous medium to provide a ZnO lakova the composition, equalizing the pressure. Varnish can be applied as a paint on the coil or other high-voltage insulated conductors. The ZnO powder can also be sintered ceramic product, such as a liner.

In article R.Strümpler, P.Kluge-Weiss and F.Greuter, "Smart Varistor Composites", Proceedings of the 8thCIMTEC-World Ceramic Congress and Forum on New Materials, Symposium VI (Florence, June 29 - July 4, 1994), describes a composite containing doped ZnO microwriting powder embedded in a polymer matrix.

In the patent EP 0875087 B1 control voltage composition is made of doped zinc oxide (ZnO) of filler particles embedded in a polymer matrix. The composition is determined so that they are round or smooth spheroidal particles, and most of these particles have a maximum size of between 5 μm and 100 μm. The composition can be processed to generate different control voltage products, for example the alignment field splices in cable terminations and joints medium voltage.

The invention

The main objective of the invention is to create a non-linear electrical tape, showing favorable nonlinear electrical properties and which is easy to manufacture, electrical component containing such nonlinear electrical tape, and medium - or high-voltage devices containing tacos the component. This goal is achieved according to the invention characterized in the independent claims.

In the first object of the invention is a nonlinear electrical tape for electrical appliances, in particular for high-voltage electric device containing a substrate that is impregnated with a binder containing particles of inorganic filler, the particles of filler are microwriter particles containing alloy zinc oxide (ZnO). Nonlinear electrical tape on the basis of microvariation of ZnO has several advantages over known control field tapes. Compared with traditional tape with embedded SiC particles is achieved stronger and more robust non-linear electrical resistance. Compared with ribbons containing particles coated with SnO alloy, microwriter of ZnO is much easier to produce, they have significantly reduced the density and, consequently, improved machinability and are clearly more visible electrical nonlinearity.

A sample implementation of the invention according to claim 2 shows the preferred properties and applications of the alignment tape field.

In exemplary embodiments of the invention in PP-6 claims identified favorable konstruktivnye parameters of particles microvariation of ZnO. They cover means for receiving the lighter particles and specific cases of the distributions of particle size and particle shape optimization of nonlinear equalization field tape-based microvariation with alloyed ZnO.

In exemplary embodiments of the invention according to claims 7-11 claims are the most appropriate ways to shape, material and preparation of the substrate and the binder.

Another object of the invention is an electrical component or device that uses defined above nonlinear electrical tape for the purposes of dielectric isolation, surge protection and(or) control field.

Further variants of implementation, advantages and applications of the invention will become clear from paragraphs or combination of claims with the following detailed description.

Detailed description of the invention

The control field is necessary for the coils of the motor and generator, cables, glands, and when the insulated wire passes through a grounded concentric screen. For these and other objectives, the invention proposes a nonlinear electrical tape for electrical appliances, in particular for electric high-voltage devices. The tape contains a substrate that is impregnated with a binder, for example an epoxy resin, containing the th particle inorganic filler, moreover, these filler particles contain microwriter particles containing alloy zinc oxide (ZnO).

The tape containing microwriter of ZnO, according to the invention has advantages in many ways compared to traditional tape-based embedded SiC particles or particles coated with SnO alloy. Nonlinear properties of tapes SiC depend on the contact between the particles of SiC-SiC and thus strongly depend on the size of the SiC particles, the conditions of processing tape and handling and from the degradation of the tape when the voltage overload. In contrast, the nonlinearity alloyed ZnO is an effect caused by the boundaries of the embedded grains, and therefore, is an internal property and, therefore, resistant to treatment conditions and effects of aging. The liquid particles of ZnO is less abrasive than the particles of the filler is silicon carbide. Further, the materials based on ZnO have higher nonlinearity coefficients α>10, the materials based on SiC, with α in the range of 3-5. This means that the dielectric loss can be reduced under normal operating conditions without losing protection against overload pulse or, alternatively, the dielectric loss can be maintained constant under normal operating conditions, and the ability to resist impulses, in particular withstand pulse is snoe voltage, you can increase.

Compared with ribbons containing particles coated with SnO alloy, microwriter alloyed ZnO obviously easier to manufacture, since it is possible to apply standard processes of alloying and sintering and does not require complicated steps, such as coating the seed particles alloyed and sintered varistor material. Further, microwriter of ZnO have a lower density material than SnO2namely 5.6 g/cm3instead of 7.0 g/cm3. In addition, particles microvariation of ZnO can be made more or less porous, and, in particular, they can be in the form of hollow spheres, so that they Express or the average density, defined as the weight of the particles divided by their closed volume can be further significantly reduced. This reduces the risk of sedimentation and stratification of the mixture during the mixing of the filler and the binder, and during the impregnation of the tape obtained binder. Finally, microwriter of ZnO have excellent electrical nonlinearity. Reported coefficient α of nonlinearity in the range from 3 to 34 for SnO2compared to the 50-200 for ZnO. In General, belt with microviscosity of ZnO easier to manufacture and are more favorable electrical properties than hitherto known nonlinear tapes for the control field.

The following are sample variations which you carry out the invention.

The tape can be flexible tape, preferably with at least one surface, which is self-adhesive, for applying tape on electrical components. The ribbon can preferably be applied to the field of electrical components where there is a field with tension, and it provides a nonlinear electric control box through embedded microwriting particles alloyed ZnO.

Microwriter particles alloyed ZnO are at least partially hollow particles with an average density less than the specific gravity of the material of ZnO, which is 5.6 g/cm3. Preferably, microwriter particles alloyed ZnO are hollow particles, which are produced by the methods of granulation, for example by spray drying with a blowing agent or without it, by the method of Sol-gelinas processing, pyrolysis of the applied substance, coating the pretreated polymer or method of treatment in the liquefied layer. The production of such hollow granular microwriting particles alloyed ZnO is disclosed, for example, in the aforementioned article R.Strümpler et al., the contents of which in its entirety is included in this proposal. According to this article, the particles obtained by spray drying, have dimensions of up to 300 μm and sieved to obtain a particle size of 200 microns.

In contrast, according to the invention must be produced and used especially small hollow microwriter of ZnO so that the smoothness and flexibility of the tape did not suffer. Preferably microwriter particles alloyed ZnO have a size distribution of particles with a maximum size less than 90 μm, preferably less than 80 μm, more preferably less than 70 μm, even more preferably less than 60 μm, most preferably less than 50 μm. In particular, microwriter particles alloyed ZnO have a size distribution of particles with a maximum size less than 40 microns, preferably less than 30 μm, more preferably less than 20 microns.

According to the invention the production parameters of the granulation, for example spraying the rotating disk must be regulated to such a degree that produced small hollow particles, preferably with a maximum size below 40 microns. It is assumed that the yield will be reduced to very small diameters in the range from 30 μm to 10 μm or below. Thus, due to the lower exit of the powder product and superior smoothness and flexibility of the tape with decreasing particle size, the optimal size distribution microwriting particles alloyed ZnO for nonlinear who urovnevaya field tapes must be in the range from 10 μm to 50 μm, preferably from 20 μm to 40 μm, in particular 30 μm.

Mainly, in a binder, at least 70%, preferably at least 80%, more preferably at least 90% of the particles of inorganic filler are microwriting particles alloyed ZnO. Microwriter particles alloyed ZnO have Gaussian or bimodal size distribution of particles. Such Gaussian and bimodal distribution of particle size are disclosed in application EP 0992042 (WO 99/56290), the contents of which in its entirety is included in this proposal. In the application EP 0992042 also revealed that the filler may contain electrically conductive particles, fused with the surface of the particles microvariation, with conductive particles form a direct electrical contacts with low resistance between the particles of microvariation. In addition, there may be used two component filler with different nonlinear characteristics current-voltage, as disclosed in application EP 1274102 A1, the contents of which in its entirety is included in this proposal. In the present invention at least one of the components of the filler should be microviscosity alloyed ZnO, and preferably all of the components of the filler should be based on ZnO particles with different additives. However, in contrast to the application EP 1274102 A1 is Egorovna SnO 2should not be added as a component of the filler due to its too high density, causing sedimentation and stratification during preparation of the mixture.

The ZnO powder for preparation of the binder can be defined so that it contains at least two fractions of ZnO particles. The first fraction microwriting particles alloyed ZnO can be smooth, preferably of spherical shape. Particles of the first fraction is calcined and then separated in particular "neck" broken, so that the particles retain their original predominantly spherical in shape. The second fraction microwriting particles alloyed ZnO may be incorrect, in particular, pointed shape. Particles of the second fraction obtained by calcining or sintering and then crushed or received in such a way that the particles had the right, in particular, pointed shape. Such multifraction composition microwriting particles alloyed ZnO disclosed in the unpublished application EPO No. 04405210.8, the contents of which in its entirety is included in this proposal.

A method of producing a filler of ZnO explained in more detail in this application. The granulated powder is usually by spray drying a paste-like mixture containing ZnO and alloying additives. This step leads to the production of solid or hollow is renal or particles are predominantly spherical shape. Raw granules are subjected to heat treatment to obtain microwriting particles with nonlinear electrical properties. The term calcination refers to processing by heating a layer of free granules, which are more or less fused with each other, usually by the formation of "necks"connecting particles with the jumpers. Alternatively, the granules can carcinomatosa in a rotary kiln, which reduces the formation of necks. Calcined agglomerate and, in particular, the neck can be broken with only a small effort. It protects the original spherical shape of the particles. In contrast, the term sintering refers to the compressed and processed by the fully heated surface of the ceramic block. This unit must be crushed to obtain fragmented irregular shaped particles. These irregular particles can also be obtained from the calcined powder by filing a spherical particle powder microvariation, for example, through the double disc mill with a gap smaller than the smallest size of the whole particle. Preferred particle sizes are selected, as a rule, methods of classification, for example by sieving or pnevmosortirovochnyy. The process of mixing microwriting powder in a binder is called compounding. This binder may be added to dissolve the l, and(or) a curing agent and / or accelerator.

So, it is possible to produce powder microvariation of ZnO by granulation and, in particular, spray drying, as discussed above, followed by calcination and then crushing and grinding. You can also produce particles by crushing sintered ceramic varistor blocks from ZnO or, alternatively, by the destruction of soda or sintered tape (tape casting). Particles must be solid spheres or preferably hollow spheres may contain a mixture of spherical and sharp particles or of particles with different nonlinear characteristics current-voltage and having a grain size distribution from about 10 μm to 90 μm.

As for the tape, the substrate may be in the form of a sheet, and preferably the strip. The substrate should be flexible and may be in the form of a film, a perforated film, a woven material or cloth. Typically, the substrate is selected electrically insulating. It may contain glass and / or polymer, preferably polyester. In a useful embodiment, the substrate is made of polymer and is shrink.

A binder may be from the group of epoxies and silicones. It can be a thermoplastic or duromer. Binder in the tape can be pre-utverzhdenii-stage or fully on the approved C-stage. Binder, located in the C-stage, facilitates handling of the tape for further processing. At a later stage, the tape is superimposed on the electric component. This component is then processed, for example, by further impregnation and heat treatment. Examples are the processing of enrichment resin and impregnation in vacuum pressure. If the tape has a binder in the B-stage, a necessary step prior to curing, to prevent the loss of particles microvariation in the course of further impregnation of electrical components.

The invention relates also to an electrical component or device, in particular for medium or high voltage component or device, such as a device for electrical isolation of the device from electrical surges or device to control the electric field, which contains nonlinear electrical tape, in particular a tape management field, as disclosed above. Examples of such electrical components are conductive bus, for example, the bus engine or tire generator or cable end, the motor insulation, isolation transformer, the reference insulator, input or control field. Examples of such electrical devices are medium - or high-voltage device, for example a circuit breaker, circuit breaker, transformer, to tensator, inductor, instrument transformers, cable, or electric machine.

Such a component or device according to the invention contains a non-linear tape control field that contains the substrate, impregnated with a binder containing particles of inorganic filler, which contains microwriter particles of alloy of zinc oxide (ZnO).

In a preferred embodiment, the belt is a flexible band with at least one surface, which is self-adhesive, for applying tape in voltage electric field component or device and performs there, nonlinear control of electric field through its embedded microwriting particles alloyed ZnO; and(or) microwriter particles alloyed ZnO are hollow particles having a size distribution of particles with a maximum size less than 70 μm, preferably less than 50 microns, more preferably less than 30 microns.

1. Tape with nonlinear electrical properties for electrical appliances, in particular for high-voltage electric device containing a substrate that is impregnated with a binder containing particles of inorganic filler, wherein the filler particles contain microwriter particles containing alloy zinc oxide (ZnO)./p>

2. Tape according to claim 1, characterized in that the tape is a flexible tape, in particular with at least one surface, which is self-adhesive, for applying tape on electrical components, and / or tape suitable for use in fields with voltage electrical component and provides nonlinear control of electric field through embedded microwriting particles of ZnO.

3. Tape according to claim 1, characterized in that at least 70%, preferably at least 80%, more preferably at least 90% of the particles of inorganic filler are microwriting particles alloyed ZnO and(or) microwriter particles alloyed ZnO have Gaussian or bimodal distribution of particles by size.

4. Tape according to claim 1, characterized in that microwriter particles alloyed ZnO have a size distribution of particles with a maximum size less than 90 μm, preferably less than 80 μm, more preferably less than 70 μm, even more preferably less than 60 μm, most preferably less than 50 μm, and in particular, have a size distribution with a maximum size less than 40 microns, preferably less than 30 μm, more preferably less than 20 microns.

5. Tape according to claim 1, characterized in that the first fraction micro. ritorni particles alloyed ZnO has a smooth, preferably spherical in shape, and the particles of the first fraction is calcined and then separated, in particular, is broken, so that the particles retain their original predominantly spherical in shape, and(or) the second fraction microwriting particles alloyed ZnO is incorrect, in particular, pointed form, and the particles of the second fraction obtained by calcination or sintering, and then grinding or received in such a way that the particles had irregular, in particular, pointed form.

6. Tape according to claim 1, characterized in that the substrate has the form of a sheet, and preferably the strip, and(or) the substrate is flexible and is made in the form of a film, a perforated film, a woven material or cloth.

7. Tape according to claim 1, characterized in that the substrate is electrically insulating and, in particular, the substrate contains glass and / or polymer, preferably polyester.

8. Tape according to claim 7, characterized in that the substrate is made of polymer and is shrink.

9. Tape according to claim 1, wherein the binder is selected from the group SpaceDev and silicones, and / or binder is thermoplastic or duromer.

10. Tape according to claim 1, characterized in that the binder in the tape is pre-utverzhdenii In-phase or binder in the tape is fully utverzhdenii-stage to the I facilitates the handling of the tape for further processing.

11. The tape according to any one of claims 1 to 10, characterized in that microwriter particles alloyed ZnO contain hollow particles with an average density lower than 5.6 g/cm3and, in particular, microwriter particles alloyed ZnO are hollow particles, which is obtained by granulation, preferably by spray drying.

12. An electrical component containing nonlinear electrical tape comprising a substrate impregnated with a binder with the particles of inorganic filler, which contain microwriter particles of alloy of zinc oxide (ZnO).

13. An electrical component according to item 12, wherein the tape is a flexible tape, in particular with at least one surface, which is self-adhesive, for applying tape in the area of the field with a voltage of the electrical component and performs there, nonlinear control of electric field through embedded microwriting particles alloyed ZnO, and(or) microwriter particles alloyed ZnO are largely hollow particles have a size distribution, the maximum size less than 70 μm, preferably less than 50 microns, more preferably less than 30 microns.

14. An electrical component containing nonlinear electrical tape according to any one of claims 1 to 11.

15. Electrical component pop, characterized in that microwriter particles alloyed ZnO contain hollow particles with an average density lower than 5.6 g/cm3and, in particular, microwriter particles alloyed ZnO are hollow particles, which is obtained by granulation, preferably by spray drying.

16. Tape with nonlinear electrical properties for electrical appliances, in particular for high-voltage electric device containing a substrate that is impregnated with a binder containing particles of inorganic filler, wherein the filler particles contain microwriter particles containing alloy zinc oxide (ZnO), this tape is a flexible tape, in particular with at least one surface, which is self-adhesive, for applying tape on electrical components, and / or tape suitable for use in fields with voltage electrical component and provides nonlinear control of electric field through embedded microwriting particles of ZnO, and microwriter particles alloyed ZnO contain hollow particles with an average density lower than 5.6 g/cm3and, in particular, microwriter particles alloyed ZnO are hollow particles, which is obtained by granulation, preferably by spray drying.

17. The tape is about P16, characterized in that at least 70%, preferably at least 80%, more preferably at least 90% of the particles of inorganic filler are microwriting particles alloyed ZnO, and(or) microwriter particles alloyed ZnO have Gaussian or bimodal distribution of particles by size.

18. Tape item 16, characterized in that microwriter particles alloyed ZnO have a size distribution of particles with a maximum size less than 90 μm, preferably less than 80 μm, more preferably less than 70 μm, even more preferably less than 60 μm, most preferably less than 50 microns, and, in particular, have a size distribution with a maximum size less than 40 microns, preferably less than 30 μm, more preferably less than 20 microns.

19. Tape item 16, characterized in that the first fraction microwriting particles alloyed ZnO has a smooth, preferably spherical in shape, and the particles of the first fraction is calcined and then separated, in particular, is broken, so that the particles retain their original predominantly spherical in shape, and(or) the second fraction microwriting particles alloyed ZnO is incorrect, in particular, pointed form, and the particles of the second fraction obtained PU is eat calcination or sintering, and then grinding or thus obtained, so that the particles had irregular, in particular, pointed form.

20. The tape according to any one of PP-19, characterized in that the substrate has the form of a sheet, and preferably the strip, and(or) the substrate is flexible and is made in the form of a film, a perforated film, a woven material or cloth.

21. The tape according to any one of PP-19, characterized in that the substrate is electrically insulating and, in particular, the substrate contains glass and / or polymer, preferably polyester.

22. Tape item 21, wherein the substrate is made of polymer and is shrink.

23. The tape according to any one of PP-19, characterized in that the binder is selected from the group of epoxies and silicones, and / or binder is thermoplastic or duromer.

24. The tape according to any one of PP-19, characterized in that the binder in the tape is pre-utverzhdenii In-phase or binder in the tape is fully utverzhdenii S-phase, which facilitates the handling of the tape for further processing.

25. The application of the tape with nonlinear electrical properties according to any one of claims 1 to 11 for dielectric isolation, surge protection and/or management field in an electrical appliance.



 

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1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polymer compositions based on plasticised polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with low flammability, low emission of smoke and hydrogen chloride during combustion, designed for insulating inner and outer casings of wires and cables used in high fire risk conditions. The electrically insulating composition contains the following (pts. wt): suspended polyvinyl chloride 100, ester plasticiser 40-60, calcium-zinc complex stabiliser 5-12, epoxy-diane resin or epoxidated soya oil 1-4, calcium carbonate 5-60, trihydrate of aluminium oxide or magnesium hydroxide 30-100, antimony trioxide 5-10, zinc oxide 1-7, boric acid 0.1-1.5, zinc borate 0.5-8, additive 1,3,5-tris-(2,3-dibromoisopropyl)-isocyanurate (FR-930) 0.5-10, diphenylolpropane 0.1-0.5, polyethylene wax 0.1-0.5. The calcium-zinc complex stabiliser used can be: Baeropan MC 9917 KA, Baeropan MC 8703 KA, Naftosafe GKX 2208, Naftosafe GKX 2292 Akropan 2593 PX, Akropan 2530 PX.

EFFECT: higher degree of non-flammability, increased fluidity of the melt and environmental safety of the insulating material.

2 cl, 1 tbl

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