Cable downhole gas chromatograph and method of downhole gas chromatography

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: gas chromatograph includes chamber for samples with piston position sensor, which is connected through sample valve to pipeline and through oil pump to reservoir for compensation of hydraulic oil pressure, electrical thermostat with temperature sensor and chromatograph tube located inside thermostat, which is in-series connected on one side through rotating sample injector, zeolite filter, the first return valve and isolating valve of chromatograph with connection line of sample valve and chamber for specimens, in-series connected on the other side to the second return valve, fraction detector, bottle with sample portion and the second pressure sensor. At that, rotating sample injector is in-series connected to pressure reducer, valve for transporting medium, bottle with compressed nitrogen and the first pressure sensor, bypass line with bypass valve is parallel connected to rotating sample injector, chromatograph tube and fraction detector, and circuit of electronic telemetry is connected to output of fraction detector. Method of downhole gas chromatography is proposed as well.

EFFECT: development of device allowing to perform gas chromatography for determining the type of well fluids in well in real time.

3 cl, 5 dwg


The invention relates to devices used in the oil and gas industry.

Gas chromatography is a well-known measurement method, based on the input of a small portion of the test gas in a continuous stream known neutral gas ("media" or "conveying medium"). Then the gases pass through the capillary tube. Due to the different mobility of individual gases that make up the sample, the sample is divided into several portions, each of which consists of a single gas. At the exit of the capillary tube these individual portions in the media can be identified in various ways. Thus, it can be determined the complete chemical composition of the sample. The advantage of the chromatographic method is that the detectors on the receiving end can be greatly simplified, while maintaining high resolution of the system as a whole.

In the oil and gas field gas chromatography is widely used for analysis of samples of the drilling fluid and allows to determine the concentration of H2S, CH4With2H6etc. in gases, mixed with the output flow of the drilling fluid. The media typically used helium or nitrogen.

When implementing this method, the technique used for extracting, sampling and downhole analysis of formation fluids can be dropped in the oil the th hole on the rope or on drill pipe. The tools are installed on the wall of the well bore, after which the wall creates a water seal. Then in the layer is set to the probe, thus creating a hydraulic connection with the investigated layer. Samples of reservoir fluids ranging from a few cubic centimeters to hundreds of liters, are extracted from the reservoir in the instrument for carrying on the surface and/or on-site analysis. In some cases the samples after on-site analysis result in the well. Methods of analysis of fluids include resistivity measurements, coloring fluids or light absorption, density of fluid (as a function of absorption of γ-radiation), gas concentration (by refraction/ reflection of gas bubbles in thin tubes), etc. in Addition, there are special measuring parameters of fluid: using sensors register the exact values of pressure and temperature for different flow regimes.

Development of the device, allowing the use of methods for downhole analysis using a gas chromatograph, is of particular interest. Till now, such a technical solution was not considered, since the chromatographic tube is very long, and a single analysis, which consists in the separation of the sample components of interest, requires a lot of time. In addition, for the sample oturai is a significant amount of gas. Therefore, the shortcoming of the downhole chromatograph are large size and weight, making it impractical and difficult to use under various conditions of the real situation.

Gas chromatography, in particular gas-liquid, examines the sample, which was previously transferred into the vapor phase and is fed into the head of the chromatographic column (Figure 1), where position 1 is designated carrier gas, 2 - valve, 3 - column, 4 - a device for sample introduction, 5 - thermostat 6 detector 7 to the Registrar. The sample is transported through the column by a flow of inert gaseous mobile phase. The column itself contains a liquid or solid stationary phase, which is marked on the wall with an inert solid material. Transporting the carrier gas must be chemically inert. Commonly used gases such as nitrogen, helium, argon and carbon dioxide. The choice of carrier gas often depends on the type of detector. Feeding a carrier gas also contains a molecular sieve to remove water and other impurities.

For optimal operation of the chromatograph, the sample should not be too large and must be entered in the column in the form of steam jams - slow input large samples leads to a blurring of the boundaries and the deterioration of resolution. The most common method of input sample is the method in which COI is the box is used microspec to enter the sample through a rubber gasket in the channel quick evaporator in the head of the column. Temperature channel for sample usually 50°C above the boiling point of the least volatile component of the sample. For Packed columns, the sample size is in the range from tenths of a microliter to 20 microlitres. For capillary columns requires much smaller samples, usually around 10-3microlitres.

Sampling well fluid produced from the mid-1960's. Known tester fluids developed by Schlumberger, called Repeat Formation Tester - RFT™, modular dynamic tester Modular Dynamic Tester (MDT 1992) and SRFT™ (1997). However, the tester fluids RFT made no analysis of fluids in the well, it was intended to deliver samples of reservoir fluids using two high-pressure cylinders with valves with remote control.

In the modular dynamic tester (MDT Figure 2), selected as a prototype, was first implemented the idea of analyzing the downhole fluid using Resistive cell device with four electrodes to measure the electrical resistance of fluids during their passage through the measuring pipe (Dcock, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 11 (1994), p.123-135). This is the first time allowed to determine the most common type of fluid (e.g. oil or water) prior to delivery of the sample to the surface. Figure 3 shows the scheme of the modular DIN the economic tester MDT where pos.10 marked resistance/temperature cell, 11 - jointed pipeline, 12 - front Shoe, 13 - filter, 14 - packer 15 - valve filter, 16 - pistons probe 17 is a module for samples, 18 - gauge CQG, 19 - isolation valve, 20 - leveling valve, 21 - piping line 22 - preliminary test, 23 - strain gauge, 24 - rear telescopic pistons, 25 - throttle/sealing valve 26 to the sample chamber.

Determining the type of well fluids have been further developed by introducing a module optical analyzer fluids (OFA). This module is introduced in the pipeline and performs detection of the type of fluids in real time by passing an intense light beam through the fluid and analyzing the spectral characteristics of the transmitted light. Due to the different absorption of light by water and oil recorded spectrum indicates the content of water and oil, and also allows you to define various types of oil. The gas is analyzed by various sensors that detect gas bubbles in the reflected light. A typical entry signal when determining the type of well fluid is presented on Figure 4. The same principle of measurement used by Schlumberger in the analyzer fluids Live Fluid Analyzer (LFA), which is a further development of the optical method OFA and is available since 2002, and also in the module Baker-Atlas SampleView.

One is about the complexity of the design of the modular dynamic tester and its application for downhole use is not allowed to perform the downhole gas chromatography.

The purpose of the proposed development was to create a device that allows you to spend gas chromatography to determine the type of well fluids in the well in real time.

The proposed cable downhole gas chromatograph shown in Figure 5, where POS marked the pipeline, 31 - valve sampling pattern, a 32 - sample chamber, 33 - isolation valve chromatograph, 34, zeolite filter, 35 - pass valve 36 is liquid nitrogen, 37 - rotating injector sample, 38 - tube chromatograph, 39 detector fraction, 40 - reservoir for compensation of the hydraulic pressure oil, 41 - controlled oil pump, a 42 - position sensor piston 43 - return valve 44 is a pressure reducer, 45 - valve for the conveying medium, 46 - pressure sensor 47 - temperature sensor 48 is the portion of the sample, 49 - electric thermostat, 50 - loop electronic telemetry.

The pipeline connects to the main pipeline modules MDT, top and bottom, because:

- method of introducing chromatograph in the MDT by joining the General (main) pipeline so that the module could be used above and below the point of selection of the sample, allows flexible installation of the downhole tool;

method and device for performing gas chromatography of the common pipeline allows you to repeatedly perform the analysis of the underwater and the same incision in the borehole;

- the use OFA/LFA for the preparation of chromatographic analysis allows the analysis of reservoir fluids so that they were less contaminated mud and mud filtrate.

Cable downhole gas chromatograph consists of the following components that perform the following functions:

1. Valve sampling sample 31 connects the pipe 30 MDT with the sample chamber module chromatograph 32;

2. Sample chamber 32 in the chromatograph is used to select small portions of the pipeline 30 for subsequent analysis; the sample chamber is equipped with a position sensor of the piston 42 and the oil pump 41 that allows you to take a sample from the pipeline or place the sample in the pipeline;

3. Isolation valve chromatograph 33 and the check valve 43 allows to translate the sample in the sensor section of the tool and prevent the reverse flow of the sample;

4. Replaceable zeolite air filter 34 provides the purity of the sample;

5. Air line with by-pass valve 35 are used to remove unwanted fluids from the sensor section;

6. The compressed nitrogen 36 has a valve for the conveying medium 45 and the pressure reducer 44, which are necessary for the organization of the flow of the transporting medium (nitrogen);

7. Rotating the sample injector 37 allows the introduction of the sample fluid in the flow transport is yuusei environment;

8. Tube chromatograph 38, which are separated fractions of the sample; the tube is in electrical thermostat 49, which supports the required elevated temperature, controlled by temperature sensor 47;

9. The detector fraction 39, based on the absorption of light;

10. The cylinder portion of the sample 48 for collecting the residual fluid after the test; - return valve 43 on the detector prevents the reverse flow of the conveying medium;

11. Circuit electronic telemetry 50 is used to transfer data over cable system to collect measurements on the surface.

The device works as follows:

1. Module chromatograph is located together with the rod for the MDT so that sampling point sample reservoir and the LFA module was on the one hand, and the pumping module (MRPO) or other equipment sampling was located on the other side.

2. The tool is lowered to the desired depth of the well, and installed hydraulic contact with formation fluids.

3. Reservoir fluid pumps pump at this time is held in the MDT measurement of the resistance sensors, temperature and pressure readings are taken LFA. After reaching the required purity of the discharge cycle begins and ends with the chromatographic analysis.

4. Valve sampling sample in the module chrome is tograph opens and fluid from the pipeline is drained into the sample chamber.

5. Valve sampling sample closes and opens isolation valve chromatograph for submission of sample for analysis.

6. Instantly opens the bypass valve (shunt) to flush the content from previous samples or other undesirable fluids.

7. The valve for the conveying medium is opened to create a flow of the transporting medium.

8. Rotating the sample injector is opened for input sample fluid to be analyzed.

9. Valve chromatograph closes and opens the valve of the sampling pattern for supplying fluid from the chamber for samples in the pipeline. The oil pump is used to move the piston. The oil pump stops and the valve sampling is closed by a signal from the position sensor piston.

10. Then the sample is separated in a chromatographic tube and analyzed by the traditional detector for gas chromatography. The remains of the conveying medium and samples are brought in the washing section.

11. After completion of the analysis closes the valve for the conveying medium, and the tool is ready to repeat the test at a different depth of the well, starting from step 2, above.

Developed in the Institute of catalysis, Siberian branch of the Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences midget chromatographic tube given the opportunity to construct rebar, allowing to combine the method of gas chromatography with the requirements and conditions of the oil and gas industry.

The most important advantage of the claimed device is that the small size of the tubes significantly reduce the processing time of the sample, so that the analysis conducted using the claimed device can be completed in a few minutes instead of several hours, which allowed us to design a downhole gas analyzer based on the principle of chromatography.

Thus, gas chromatography was first used to determine the type of well fluids in the well in real time.

1. Cable downhole gas chromatograph, comprising a sample chamber with a position sensor piston connected through a valve sampling sample with tubing and connected through the oil pump with a reservoir for compensation of the hydraulic pressure oil, electric thermostat with temperature sensor located inside thermostat tube chromatograph, with one side connected in series across the rotating injector sample, zeolite filter, the first check valve and isolation valve chromatograph with a line connection valve sampling of the sample and the camera for samples, on the other hand sequentially connected to the second non-return valve, detector faction points is ω with a portion of the sample and the second pressure sensor, and rotating the sample injector is connected in series with the pressure reducer, the valve for the conveying medium, the compressed nitrogen and the first pressure sensor, air line with a bypass valve connected in parallel with the rotating injector sample tube chromatograph and detector fractions, and the electronic circuit telemetry connected to the output of the detector faction.

2. Method of downhole gas chromatography, which
downhole gas chromatograph is lowered to the desired depth of the well and installed hydraulic contact with formation fluids,
pump pump reservoir fluids,
complete the cycle of discharge,
open the valve of the sampling of the sample and collect the fluid from the pipeline into the sample chamber,
close the valve of the sampling of the sample and open the isolating valve chromatograph for submission of sample for analysis,
at the same time, opens the bypass valve to flush the content from previous samples or other undesirable fluids
open the valve for the conveying medium,
open rotary injector sample to enter the sample fluid to be analyzed
close the valve chromatograph and open the valve of the sampling pattern for supplying fluid from the chamber for samples in the pipeline
move the piston through the oil the first pump, stop the oil pump and close the valve of the sampling signal from the position sensor piston
analyze the detector, the sample separated in the chromatographic tube,
the remains of the conveying medium and the samples sent to the washing section,
after the analysis completes, close the valve for the conveying medium.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the cable downhole gas chromatograph equipped with a bar for modular dynamic tester (MW)so that sampling point reservoir of the sample and the analyzer module fluids (LFA) was on the one hand, and the pumping module (MRPO) or other equipment sampling was located on the other hand, during the discharge of fluids held in the MDT measurement of the resistance sensors, temperature and pressure readings are taken LFA, the cycle discharge ends after reaching the desired purity.


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