Method of automatic control of temperature-light regime in greenhouse and system for its implementation

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural machinery, namely to methods and systems of automatic control of light and temperature and humidity regime in greenhouses or other structures of protected ground. Automatic control system for light and temperature humidity regime in a greenhouse, which is carrying out the claimed method, contains a control circuit of temperature in a greenhouse, including a temperature sensor, whose output is connected with the object of regulation by the comparing element with a set point adjuster, signal multiplier of the current and the calculated temperature disagreement, as well as an actuating mechanism maintaining in the facility the calculated temperature, and the computer unit which calculates the optimum temperature. At that the system also provides additional control loops of lighting and humidity in a greenhouse.

EFFECT: invention enables to ensure the autonomy of temperature, air humidity adjustment inside the greenhouse and of operation of supplementary lighting equipment independently of each other, although at that their mutual influence on plant productivity remains.

2 cl

 

The invention relates to agricultural machinery, and in particular to methods and systems of automatic control of temperature and light regime in greenhouses or other structures protected ground.

There is a method of automatic control of the temperature in the greenhouse [A.S. No. 1503711 the USSR, IPC 4 A01G 9/26. The method of automatic control of the temperature in the greenhouse / Pasaku, Saipov. (USSR). No. 4288057/30-15; Claimed 21.07.1987; Publ. 30.08.1989, bull. No. 32], in which during the whole growing period of plants is divided into equal intervals, the duration of which is less than the time constant of the high-speed perturbations. For this period of time is calculated optimal from the condition of equality to zero of the derivative of the energy consumption per unit of product temperature. In accordance with this change temperature setpoint the setpoint temperature, ensuring its consistency during the selected period of time.

However, the proposed method does not allow to solve an actual problem of production of vegetables in greenhouses, the solution of which is to increase the coefficient of performance (COP) of the photosynthesis process of plants. In conditions of natural oblojennosti medium-density planting, use only 1% of incoming solar radiation, which is significantly lower than theoretical is almost possible.

It is believed to increase the energy efficiency of plant photosynthesis can, agreeing the main environmental factors with irradiance. This is especially important at the present time, the current intensification of the greenhouse vegetable growing, which implies a dense planting of plants per 1 m2usable area (a multi-tiered method of cultivation), by which each square meter of planted 10 plants, while the traditional method of planting only 3-4 plants. This allows to increase the yield of 30 kg/m2up to 300 kg/m2. This planting density requires mandatory dosvechivaniya, and this should lead to very high energy cost. However, the profit from great harvest covers the cost of dosvechivanie. Although sometimes in conditions of total energy scarcity is desirable to reduce costs as dosvechivanie and heated greenhouse. In addition, modern greenhouses are starting to use three of the cultivation instead of two. The second cultureart based on the use of the lighting. This uses equipment dosvechivaniya, which helps to speed up the growing season [King V.G. Semenov A.A. "the timing of growing cucumbers in winter greenhouses" // Gavrish No. 1, 2007].

There is a method of optimization of environmental factors PR is growing plants [A.S. No. 456595 the USSR, IPC 4 A01G 9/26. The method of optimization of environmental factors for growing plants / Volkovbot, Avitaminosis. (USSR). Publ. 1975, bull. No. 2.], in which the optimization of plant photosynthesis is carried out by regulating oblojennosti. The method of automatic optimization of the plant is reduced to finding the optimal point on the light curve of photosynthesis.

Ensure the implementation of this method is the automatic optimization of plant photosynthesis consists of the assimilation chamber, where there are plants that are exposed to variable radiation source. The intensity of the photosynthesis of plants is the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), which is measured by the instrument "Infranet-1". Using the information on the photosynthesis of plants, can be judged by the rate of absorption of carbon dioxide from the scope of the assimilation chamber, and on the basis of which form a task management function, the extremum in accordance with the adopted criterion. With the help of the ballast xenon lamp DXT-6000 can control the level of oblojennosti plants, which is measured with a pyranometer yanushevski. The search for the maximum of the objective function provides extreme knob ERB-5, which subsequently supports the value received oblojennosti. The system includes a computing whom the Lex for processing incoming information about the intensity of photosynthesis and oblojennosti plants and produces a control signal, which comes in extreme regulator ERB-5. The controller changes the direction of motor rotation, if the system is not in the optimum point of the selected criterion, and the engine through the gearbox moves the engine voltage regulator RNO, which slowly changes the power xenon arc lamp DXT-6000, thereby changing the irradiance of plants.

In this way the optimization of environmental factors for growing plants and system, ensuring its implementation, you may find a number of drawbacks. First, it is not considered the interaction of two main factors of climate, temperature and light. If when changing the light, at the same time not to change the air temperature in the greenhouse, making a series of sequential steps, the regulator will not find the actual maximum photosynthesis. Secondly, extreme regulation is not the most fast and efficient way to control the modes of the climate, since the regulator should take a few steps to determine the maximum, and this reduces the reliability of the system, always in the mode of self-oscillations. Thirdly, the system contains bulky devices determine the CO2gas exchange in the assimilation chamber, such devices are suitable in research laboratories, where they will be served by professionals, is alizah such systems are not functional.

There is also known a method of controlling the microclimate [A.S. No. 1323065 the USSR, IPC AC 31/00, G05D 27/00. Device for automatic control of temperature and humidity conditions in the industrial poultry / Wahrburg, Pea, Batishchev, Savchenko (USSR). - Declared 28.06.1985; Publ. 15.07.1987, bull. No. 26], which has found application in the device for automatic control of temperature and humidity conditions in the agricultural space, namely in the house. According to this method, define a multidimensional optimal microclimate parameters, vital for growing birds. Using a mathematical model of the productivity of the birds, the parameters of which are the age of the birds, the temperature and the humidity inside the house. Since the model has an extreme character, and the maximum productivity drifts with age, the authors were asked to define derived from this model according to the parameters of humidity and temperature and to solve the system of two obtained equations in order to obtain a multidimensional optimal parameters of temperature and humidity, equations which depend only on the parameter of the age of the birds.

Multidimensional optimal parameters allows self-regulation of each of them independently from each other, while retaining their mutual influence on the productivity of PT is qi. While the definition of one-dimensional optimal parameters does not exclude the influence of each of them at each other.

This way of defining the multidimensional optimal parameters valid for any automation objects, especially in the case of the importance of finding the optimal parameters of the microclimate. However, in the described way can be traced following disadvantages: it is only suitable for climate control in the house, because this method uses a mathematical model of the productivity of birds, this method can only manage humidity and temperature, while for plants is the most important parameter illuminance, to control which requires special equipment.

There is also known a method of controlling temperature in a greenhouse [A.S. No. 1438657 the USSR, IPC 4 A01G 9/26. The method of automatic control of the temperature in the greenhouse / Pasaku, Saipov, Evishlenkova and Lavrentiy (USSR). No. 3738938/30-15; Claimed 20.01.1984; Publ. 23.11.1988, bull. No. 43]adopted for the prototype in which to improve efficiency during the whole growing period of plants is divided into equal time intervals and for each calculated optimal from the condition of equality to zero of the derivative of the economic criterion temperature. In accordance with this change temperature setpoint of the temperature setter.

System [A.S. No. 1438657 the USSR, IPC 4 A01G 9/26.], ensure the method chosen as the prototype consists of a computing unit which is supplied with information from sensors to control the state of the external environment and where the processing of information and calculations necessary to control air temperature in the greenhouse, under which changes the setpoint knob; sensor internal temperature, which measures and transmits a signal from the object to the comparison element, where the comparison of the two temperature values; amp; generator of clock pulses, a signal which resets the previous calculation and the beginning of the new; switch, which transmits the control signal to the actuator, which must support the calculated temperature within discrete period of time.

Considered method and system, its implements, have several disadvantages. First, there is still no mathematical model of the yield as the final product of the process of vegetation, and therefore this method is difficult to implement. Secondly, the prices of greenhouse products and fuel during the vegetation period cannot be predicted, they are constantly changing and have a strong influence on the calculation of the optimal on the proposed criterion temperature. Thirdly, the mathematical model of harvest does not contain important pokazatel the nd photomicroscope: duration length factor and humidity. Fourthly, there is the possibility of changing natural light in favor of its increase in case of cloudy days, especially as modern greenhouses equipped with deveciusagi installations, which may be regulated by any criterion. There is also no ability to control the humidity in the greenhouse.

The aim of the invention is to improve the accuracy of maintaining the light, temperature and humidity in the cultivation area and the stability of the system and increasing the efficiency of photosynthesis of plants due to the coordination of such environmental factors as irradiance, temperature and humidity, which increases the productivity of greenhouse crops, improving fruit quality and shortens the growing season prior to fruiting, which allows you to grow greenhouse crops in three turns.

The invention consists in the following. In the proposed method of automatic control of light and temperature and humidity conditions greenhouses time of growing plants in a greenhouse is divided into equal intervals, the duration of which is at least an order of magnitude smaller than the time constant of the high-speed perturbations computed for each time interval of optimum temperature and under what the actual content of this optimal temperature constant during the whole period of time. Unlike the prototype do not measure external parameters of microclimate, and in each of these intervals determine the average temperature of the previous night and the age of the plants, and set the duration of the photoperiod. According to the results of measurements determine the multidimensional optimal according to the criterion of efficiency fluorescent temperature, which is compared with the measurement results of the current temperature values. In addition to this function must be computed multidimensional optimal productivity level of illumination and humidity, which are compared to current measurements in the greenhouse. If the actual illumination in the greenhouse below the settlement, must be enabled equipment dosvechivaniya for the period set by agrotechnical. And if the actual humidity in the greenhouse is less than estimated, should be included moisturizing installation.

The criterion of productivity obtained using the mathematical model of the growth of cucumber variety "Moscow hothouse" for a limited experiment age (to use the model for control photomicroscope, the parameter τ2you need to change in the range from 1 to 26 days in the future for adult plants need to fix the parameter τ2at around 26 days) [Popov S.A. energy-Saving automatic driven the I temperature in the greenhouse: Dis. Kida. technology. Sciences 05.13.06. Chelyabinsk, 1995]. In General, the mathematical model of CO2gas exchange, obtained during the experiment in the chamber of an artificial microclimate, is written as follows:

where t1- the current value of daily temperature in the cultivation room, °C;

E1- the current value of the light;

T2- the average temperature of the previous night, °C;

τ1- the duration of the photoperiod (duration length factor), h;

τ2- the age of the plants, day;

φ1- the current value of the air humidity in the greenhouse, %;

a0, a1, a2etc. are the coefficients of the mathematical model of photosynthesis.

For the proposed method and system of automatic control of light and temperature and humidity conditions in the greenhouse uses the criterion of maximum productivity, i.e. equal to zero partial derivatives of the intensity of photosynthesis

where- the partial derivative on the intensity of photosynthesis on light,

- the partial derivative on the intensity of photosynthesis in the afternoon the air temperature in the greenhouse;

- private derived from intensive the spine of photosynthesis in air humidity in the greenhouse;

define multidimensional values for light, temperature and humidity, which is the maximum photosynthesis rate, indirect index.

Solving systems of equations by matrix method allows you to define multidimensional optimal parameters temperature t21Mlight E21Mand duration of the photoperiod τ21M. The result of transformation of multidimensional optimal according to the criterion of efficiency of daily air temperature in the greenhouse is calculated by the formula

where T2- the average temperature of the previous night, °C;

τ1- the duration of the photoperiod (duration length factor), h;

τ2- the age of the plants, day;

And1And2And3And4- multidimensional shows the ratios of the intensity of photosynthesis, which take the following values:

And1=-0,14And3=-0,172
And2=-0,215And4=41,309

Multidimensional optimal illumination in the greenhouse is calculated by the formula

where T2the average temperature value p is adidasa night, °C;

τ1- the duration of the photoperiod (duration length factor), h;

τ2- the age of the plants, day;

φ1- the current value of the air humidity in the greenhouse, %;

In1In2In3In4- multidimensional lists the coefficients, which take the following values:

B1=0,46B3=-0,85
In2=-0,59B4=28,75

Multidimensional optimal humidity in the greenhouse is calculated by the formula

where T2- the average temperature of the previous night, °C;

τ1- the duration of the photoperiod (duration length factor), h;

τ2- the age of the plants, day;

φ1- the current value of the air humidity in the greenhouse, %;

With1With2C3With4- multidimensional lists the coefficients, which take the following values:

C1=-1,224With3=0,113
With2=0,641With4=115,246

Thus we calculate the matrix method is m dimensional values of the optimal parameters of illumination E 21Mtemperature t21Mand humidity φ21Mdo not depend on each other, although their mutual influence on the photosynthetic activity of plants is enormous, so that you can control lighting, temperature and humidity independently without introducing them in advance in the computer unit, as in the case of determining a one-dimensional parameter.

However, if one of the adjustable parameters of the light-temperature-humidity regime becomes unmanageable due to the influence of external environmental conditions or exceeds the calculated optimal value, the values remained under the control of the system parameters are set depending on the magnitude of control. In this case, will be calculated one-dimensional values of the optimal values.

One-dimensional optimal temperature in the greenhouse t21Ocalculated by the formula:

where a2, a12and22etc. are the coefficients of the mathematical model of the rate of photosynthesis;

and2=0,1881;and24=-0,0087;
and12=of 0.0125;and25=0,0000;
and22=-0,0215;and26=0,0107
and23=0,0014;

E1- established as a result of the operation of the system and takes into account the effect of solar radiation the current value of the light, CLC;

T2- the average temperature of the previous night, °C;

τ1- set by the operator-technician duration of the photoperiod (or dosvechivaniya), h;

τ2- the age of the plants, day;

φ1- the current value of the air humidity in the greenhouse, %.

One-dimensional optimal productivity the air temperature in the greenhouse for day time of day can be set at a sufficient level of natural lighting and air humidity in the greenhouse.

One-dimensional optimal illumination in the greenhouse E21Ocalculated by the formula

where a1, a11etc. are the coefficients of the mathematical model of the rate of photosynthesis;

a1=1,9788;and14=-0,0046;
and11=-0,0141;and15=-0,0174;
and12=of 0.0125;a16=-0,0147;
and13=-0,0034;

t1- established in the functioning of the system, current temperature, °C;

T2- the average temperature of the previous night, °C;

τ1- set by the operator-technician duration of the photoperiod (or dosvechivaniya), h;

τ2- the age of the plants, day;

φ1- the current value of the air humidity in the greenhouse, %.

One-dimensional optimal productivity illumination in the greenhouse can be installed at a sufficient temperature and air humidity in the greenhouse.

One-dimensional optimal humidity in the greenhouse φ21Ocalculated by the formula

where a6and16etc. are the coefficients of the mathematical model of the rate of photosynthesis;

and6=0,2291;and46=-0,0050;
and16=-0,0147;and56=-0,0100;
and26=0,0107;and66=-0,0011;
and36=0,0055;

t1- established in the functioning of the system, current temperature, °C;

T2- the average temperature is s previous night, °C;

E1- established as a result of the operation of the system and takes into account the effect of solar radiation the current value of the light, CLC;

τ2- the age of the plants, day;

φ1- the current value of the air humidity in the greenhouse, %.

One-dimensional optimal productivity humidity in the greenhouse can be set at a sufficient level of natural lighting and air temperature in the greenhouse.

In accordance with defined this way multidimensional values of illumination, temperature and humidity in the greenhouse change setpoint knobs.

The system of automatic control of light and temperature and humidity conditions in the greenhouse, which implements this method, contains the control loop internal temperature in the greenhouse, including the internal sensor temperature, the output of which is connected with the object of regulation through the element of comparison with the reference, power of the error signal of the current temperature and calculated, and an actuator supporting the object, the calculated temperature, and the computational unit that produces the optimal temperature. Unlike the prototype of the proposed system contains an additional control loop illumination, consisting of a sensor, comparing the element, the greater is the body and the actuator and managing dosvechivayu apparatus according to the values of the parameters of the light defined by the computer unit, switching on and off of the lighting apparatus is a magnetic actuator by means of a signal from the relay mechanism of time, setting the duration of the light period which is fed to the input of the computer unit, in addition the proposed system contains another loop control humidity inside the greenhouse, equipped with an additional set of elements: regulatory body (injector nozzle), the actuator (solenoid on the water line), power of the error signal, the sensor internal humidity and item comparison. The system is also equipped with a counter plant age, and the computational unit and the control devices are combined in a computer unit, which generates signals in the form of multi-dimensional values of the optimum temperature, optimum light and optimum humidity in the greenhouse for all three control loops. In addition, if necessary, a computer unit according to a special algorithm is able to calculate the same one-dimensional optimal values.

The set of features of the claimed method and system for its implementation are not known and do not follow explicitly from the prior art, which allows to conclude that the technical solutions according to the criteria of "novelty" and "inventive step".

In the drawing pre the given diagram of the system of automatic control of light and temperature and humidity conditions in the greenhouse according to the criterion of productivity. Contour system automatic optimization of air temperature, implements this method, consisting of a sensor 5 which compares element 1, amplifier 2, the actuator 3 and the regulator 4, supports calculated by the computer unit 12 temperature until a new calculation.

Contour system automatic optimization of illumination, consisting of a sensor 9 which compares element 6, amplifier 7, the actuator 8, a relay mechanism 10 and a magnetic starter 11, regulates dosvechivayu apparatus according to the values of the parameters of the illumination particular computer unit 12.

The system of automatic circuit optimization humidity in the greenhouse, consisting of a sensor 13 which compares element 15, amplifier 16, the actuator 17 and the regulator 18, supports calculated by the computer unit 12 humidity inside the greenhouse until a new calculation.

The method is as follows. In the computer unit, which should make for SAU job is optimal according to the criterion of productivity values for light, temperature and humidity in the greenhouse, receives signals from the temperature sensors 5, light 9 and humidity in the greenhouse 13 and counter age is astani 14. The average night temperature computing unit computes after the end of the night. Next, the computer unit according to formula (3), (4) and (5) calculates a multidimensional optimal productivity values of temperature t21Mlight E21Mand humidity φ21M. The obtained optimum values of temperature and illumination are compared with the readings of the temperature sensors 5, light 9 and humidity 13.

Subsequent processing is performed when changing any of the parameters included in equation (3), (4) and (5), for example, changing the age of the plant, which is fixed counter plant age 14.

The calculation of the optimal values is made on the period of time whose duration is on the order of magnitude smaller than the time constant of the high-speed perturbations (for example, of 0.1 min).

If the control parameter (the current values of the air temperature t1light E1or humidity φ1) the value will exceed the value of multidimensional optimal values of t21ME21Mor φ21Min this case, the calculated one-dimensional optimal according to the criterion of productivity values of the air temperature inside the greenhouse t21Olight E21Oand humidity φ21O. A special algorithm to take machine vision into production the second unit moves to control the temperature and light regime by the formulas (6), (7) or (8), which contains the current parameter values out of control SAU factor light-temperature-humidity conditions. The factor is fixed in an unchanging state in this period of time. This uses either a single equation or a group of two in any combination, depending on which of the parameters is fixed.

The system responsible for the contour automatic optimization of illumination by the claimed method works as follows. According to counter plant age 14, the average temperature of the previous night and manually set the duration of the photoperiod, which corresponds to the duration of work dosvechivayu apparatus implemented by a relay mechanism 10, the computer unit 12 produces the equation (4) the signal E21M, which is the task for the system optimization of illumination. On the comparison element 6 compares job E21with the signal of the sensor 9, which takes into account the natural light (from the sun), the value of the error between the two signals is amplified by the element 7 and then switches the actuator lighting, which changes the height of the suspension lamps, which leads to a change of the current light value. In turn, this change from leive the light sensor 9. After completion of the established techniques time dosvechivaniya triggered relay mechanism 10 and disables magnetic starters dosvechivayu apparatus 11. As thickened requiring dosvechivaniya planting planted multilevel method, dosvechivayut equipment falls between plants. The sensor for this reason must be located between the plants, because the lower tiers of planting suffer from lack of light.

The system, which is responsible for channel automatic optimization of temperature, as follows. Computer unit according to counter plant age 14, the average temperature of the previous night and manually set the duration of the photoperiod, which corresponds to the duration of work dosvechivayu equipment, produces according to equation (3) specifies the signal applied to the comparison element 1. Another signal comparing device is received from the sensor 5, the air temperature in the greenhouse, which, in addition, takes into account the temperature change due to the inclusion of dosvechivayu equipment or the influence of external environmental conditions. the error signal obtained at the output of the device 1, is converted in accordance with the required control law and amplified by the device 2, and then supplied to the actuator 3 to the nd sets in motion a regulatory body 4, changing the flow of the coolant in the pipe system heating greenhouses.

The system, which is responsible for channel automatic optimization humidity, as follows. Computer unit according to counter plant age 14, the average temperature of the previous night and manually set the duration of the photoperiod, which corresponds to the duration of work dosvechivayu equipment, produces according to equation (5) specifies the signal φ21Mserved on the comparing element 15. Another signal comparing device is received from the current sensor humidity in the greenhouse 13, which takes into account the change in humidity due to the inclusion of dosvechivayu equipment or the influence of external environmental conditions (infiltration of outside air through cracks). the error signal obtained at the output, served on comparing element 15, is converted in accordance with the required control law and is amplified by amplifier 16 and is then transferred to the actuator 17, which opens regulatory body 18 (nozzle), and there is a sprinkling of moisture in the form of a mist.

Learning data system to humidify the air helped to identify some of the difficulties retain necessary moisture at a constant level. Parameter moisture quite the ACCS is out of control. For example, immediately after spraying, the humidity increases and then gradually decreases, and then again turns on the equipment splashing water.

Therefore, in case of being out of control of any parameter SAU can go to a special algorithm to control other parameters in equations (6), (7) or (8).

Joint use of the method and system allows you to more accurately maintain the desired humidity in the greenhouse, as well as significantly increase the efficiency of use of light energy of the sun and the irradiation facility of cultivated plants, and therefore, can reduce the duration of the vegetation period prior to fruiting, to increase the productivity of the plants themselves, but also to improve product quality fruits and their content of sugars and vitamins, in addition, allows to effectively use spetacular, which is cultivated in the dark winter cultivation. Finally, the method and system provides Autonomous control temperature and humidity inside the greenhouse, as well as work dosvechivayu equipment independently from each other, while retaining their mutual influence on plant productivity.

1. The method of automatic control of light and temperature and humidity conditions in the greenhouse, including the store split the vegetation period of plants in the greenhouse at equal intervals, duration are an order of magnitude smaller than the time constant of the high-speed perturbations computed for each time interval the optimal temperature and maintaining this optimal temperature constant during the whole period of time, characterized in that measure humidity, temperature and lighting in the greenhouse by receiving signals from sensors of air temperature and light intensity, respectively, measure the age of the plants receiving the signal from the counter of the age of the plants, and set the duration of the photoperiod, and the data received in the computer unit, which calculates the average night temperature, and then determines and sets the multidimensional optimal according to the criterion of efficiency fluorescent temperature air in the greenhouse by the formula:

where T2- the average temperature of the previous night, °C;
τ1- the duration of the photoperiod, h;
τ2- the age of the plants, day;
A1, A2, A3, A4- multidimensional shows the ratios of the intensity of photosynthesis, which take the following values:
A1=-0,14
A2=-0,215
A3=-0,172
And4=41,309,
next, determine and establish multidimensional optimal according to the criterion of efficiency of the solar irradiation by the formula:

where T2- the average temperature of the previous night, °C;
τ1- the duration of the photoperiod, h;
τ2- the age of the plants, day;
φ1- the current value of the air humidity in the greenhouse, %,
B1B2B3B4- multidimensional shows the ratios of the intensity of photosynthesis, which take the following values:
B1=0,46
B2=-0,59
B3=-0,85
B4=28,75,
next, determine and establish multidimensional optimal according to the criterion of productivity humidity in the greenhouse by the formula:

where T2- the average temperature of the previous night, °C;
τ1- the duration of the photoperiod, h;
τ2- the age of the plants, day;
φ1- the current value of the air humidity in the greenhouse, %,
C1C2C3C4- multidimensional shows the ratios of the intensity of photosynthesis, which take the following values:
C1=-1,224
C2=0,641
C3=0,113
C4=115,246,
but in the case of temperature, light and humidity in the greenhouse exceeds one of the multidimensional optimal according to the criterion of productivity parameters, the computer unit determines and sets the one-dimensional optimal according to the criterion of productivity the temperature at which Suha, illumination and humidity in the greenhouse for daytime by the following formulas:



where a1, a2, a6etc. are the coefficients of the mathematical model of photosynthesis, which take the following values:
a2=0,1881
a12=of 0.0125
a22=-0,0215
and23=-0,0014
a24=-0,0087
a25=0,0000
and26=0,0107
and
a1=1,9788
and11=-0,0141
a12=of 0.0125
a13=-0,0034
a14=-0,0046
a15=-0,0174
a16=-0,0147
and
and6=0,2291
a16=-0,0147
and26=0,0107
a36=0,0055
and46=-0,0050
and56=-0,0100
a66=-0,0011
E1- established as a result of the operation of the system and takes into account the effect of solar radiation, the current value of the light, CLC;
t1- established in the functioning of the system, current temperature, °C;
T2- the average temperature of the previous night, °C;
φ1- the current value of the air humidity in the greenhouse, %;
τ1- set by the operator-technician duration of the photoperiod, h;
τ2- the age of the plants, day.

2. The system of automatic control of light and temperature and humidity conditions in the greenhouse, containing the control loop internal temp is the temperature in the greenhouse, including the temperature sensor, the output of which is connected with the object of regulation through comparing the element with knob, power of the error signal of the current temperature and calculated, and an actuator supporting the object, the calculated temperature, and a computing unit that produces the optimal temperature, characterized in that the system contains an additional control loops with illumination and humidity in the greenhouse; the control circuit of light contains a light sensor, comparing the element, amplifier, actuator, to perform a control dosvechivayu apparatus according to the values of the parameters of illumination, certain computer unit, for switching on and off of the lighting equipment installed magnetic starter, receiving the signal from the relay mechanism of time; the control circuit humidity in the greenhouse contains a humidity sensor, comparing the element, the amplifier, the actuator and the regulatory authority with the possibility of controlling the installation of humidification by the values of the parameters humidity, specific computer unit; the system is equipped with a counter plant age, and the computational unit and generator are combined in a computer unit, which forms the t signals in the form of multidimensional optimal values of air temperature, light and humidity for the three control loops.



 

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FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural machinery, namely to methods and systems of automatic control of temperature and light regime in greenhouses or other structures of a protected ground. The method includes splitting the vegetation period of plants in greenhouse at equal intervals, which duration an order of magnitude smaller than the constant time of the most high-velocity perturbation, calculation for each time interval of optimum temperature and this optimal temperature maintenance constant during the whole period of time. Then the air humidity, air temperature and illumination in the greenhouse are measured to obtain signals from the sensors of air, temperature and light, respectively, the age of plants are measured to obtain a signal from the counter device of plant age, at that these data enter the computer set point adjuster which calculates the average night temperature, then determines and sets the multidimensional optimum daily temperature at the criterion of productivity in the greenhouse.

EFFECT: invention enables to improve significantly the efficiency of light energy use and to increase productivity of plants themselves.

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EFFECT: higher accuracy of the fructification start time planning on the one hand and from the other hand, well developed and strong plants by the moment by photosynthesis intensification.

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20 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: agricultural engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device for control of microclimate in greenhouses. Proposed device is essentially closed space of greenhouse limited from one side by fragment of guard and by heat insulation from all other sides. Heating and measuring elements are installed inside. To protect measuring element from direct sun rays special screen is used. Control unit provides automatic control of device heating element and forms dc signal at its output corresponding to value of heat losses. Operation of device is based on measuring power of heater placed in closed space limited from one side by fragment of guard and at other sides by heat insulation. Heating element maintains is heated volume constant temperature equal to temperature maintained in zone of location of plants by means of automatic control system arranged in separate unit.

EFFECT: simplified design of device.

2 cl, 7 dwg

The invention relates to the cultivation of plants in artificial light

The invention relates to methods and means for providing climate control in the greenhouse

The invention relates to agriculture, namely the means of growing plants indoors

The invention relates to agriculture, namely the automation of processes in buildings protected ground

FIELD: agricultural engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device for control of microclimate in greenhouses. Proposed device is essentially closed space of greenhouse limited from one side by fragment of guard and by heat insulation from all other sides. Heating and measuring elements are installed inside. To protect measuring element from direct sun rays special screen is used. Control unit provides automatic control of device heating element and forms dc signal at its output corresponding to value of heat losses. Operation of device is based on measuring power of heater placed in closed space limited from one side by fragment of guard and at other sides by heat insulation. Heating element maintains is heated volume constant temperature equal to temperature maintained in zone of location of plants by means of automatic control system arranged in separate unit.

EFFECT: simplified design of device.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: lighting technology.

SUBSTANCE: light-emitting diodes (LED) with different radiation spectrum are used as light sources. Control unit input is connected to pulse frequency adjuster, dark pause adjuster and light pulse amplitude adjuster. Pulse shaper is represented as switch in LED circuit between common negative output and control unit. In second option of lighter design, light source housing is represented as strip along surface with plants and light sources having LED with different radiation spectrum separated along the strip. In third option of lighter design, surface with plants is represented with internal surface of cylindrical pipe. Housing with light sources is represented with several strips equally distanced from each other but with some space along forming surfaces. In fourth option of lighter design, surface with plants is represented with interior space of cylindrical pipe and pulse shaper is in the form of correct prism. Lighting method is a scanning of light flow from aligned LEDs with different radiation spectrum with sequential lighting of surface with plants.

EFFECT: possibility of light flow frequency, radiation spectrum, amplitude and beam form adjustment.

20 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: vegetation installation comprises hollow cylindrical chamber and sources of light. Cylindrical chamber, dome roof, floor consist of external detachable transparent wall and inner stationary transparent wall. Sources of light are arranged as spotlight, are mounted between external detachable transparent wall and inner stationary transparent wall and are separated by vertical and horizontal partitions, forming sections shaped as squares. In the left upper corner of square-shaped section there are spotlight sources of blue light, and the right upper corner - spotlight sources of green colour, in the left lower corner - spotlight sources of red colour, in the right lower corner - spotlight sources of white colour.

EFFECT: such arrangement increases efficiency of installation due to uniform and controlled illumination.

3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: greenhouse plant cultivation period is broken down into several time intervals, the required rate of plant development and the adequate daily average temperature are specified. Each time interval is described by the light conditions: day or night. If the system has identified a daytime, then illumination, indoor air humidity, age of plants, photoperiod duration and relative daytime are measured. The average last-night temperature is calculated to derive the optimum producing temperature. If the system has identified a night-time, the average last-day temperature and the night temperature are determined. The estimated optimum producing temperature and night temperatures are corrected with observing the acceptable values.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of the fructification start time planning on the one hand and from the other hand, well developed and strong plants by the moment by photosynthesis intensification.

1 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural machinery, namely to methods and systems of automatic control of temperature and light regime in greenhouses or other structures of a protected ground. The method includes splitting the vegetation period of plants in greenhouse at equal intervals, which duration an order of magnitude smaller than the constant time of the most high-velocity perturbation, calculation for each time interval of optimum temperature and this optimal temperature maintenance constant during the whole period of time. Then the air humidity, air temperature and illumination in the greenhouse are measured to obtain signals from the sensors of air, temperature and light, respectively, the age of plants are measured to obtain a signal from the counter device of plant age, at that these data enter the computer set point adjuster which calculates the average night temperature, then determines and sets the multidimensional optimum daily temperature at the criterion of productivity in the greenhouse.

EFFECT: invention enables to improve significantly the efficiency of light energy use and to increase productivity of plants themselves.

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural machinery, namely to methods and systems of automatic control of light and temperature and humidity regime in greenhouses or other structures of protected ground. Automatic control system for light and temperature humidity regime in a greenhouse, which is carrying out the claimed method, contains a control circuit of temperature in a greenhouse, including a temperature sensor, whose output is connected with the object of regulation by the comparing element with a set point adjuster, signal multiplier of the current and the calculated temperature disagreement, as well as an actuating mechanism maintaining in the facility the calculated temperature, and the computer unit which calculates the optimum temperature. At that the system also provides additional control loops of lighting and humidity in a greenhouse.

EFFECT: invention enables to ensure the autonomy of temperature, air humidity adjustment inside the greenhouse and of operation of supplementary lighting equipment independently of each other, although at that their mutual influence on plant productivity remains.

2 cl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural machinery, namely to methods and systems for automatic control of temperature and light modes in greenhouses or other structures of a protected ground. Automatic control system for temperature and light regime in greenhouse, implementing the claimed method, contains the control loop of temperature in a greenhouse, including a temperature sensor which output is connected with the object of regulation through the comparing element with the adjuster, a signal multiplier of maladjustment the current and the calculated temperatures, as well as an actuator supporting at the facility the calculated temperature, as well as the computing unit, which calculates an optimum temperature. Also the system contains an additional control loop of lighting.

EFFECT: invention enables to improve accuracy of maintaining temperature and lighting in cultivating area and stability of the system operation, as well as increase efficiency of photosynthesis mechanism in plants due to adjustment of such environmental factors as temperature and irradiance.

4 cl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: system to grow potato plants to produce microtubers comprises chambers with automatically controlled medium to keel and maintain growth of potato plants for the whole life cycle. Each chamber has facility of air temperature control, facility of atmospheric humidity control, illumination facility, sensors of temperature, moisture and light, facility for delivery of nutrients and water to plants. System includes computer facility for continuous automatic monitoring and control of facilities of lighting, air temperature and atmospheric humidity control, and also facilities for delivery of nutrients and water. It is possible to grow both sprouts of tissue culture into mother plants, as well as hefts of mother plants into minitubers, which may be used as source of seeds for further reproduction in the field as stocks of seed potato.

EFFECT: using system with controlled conditions of medium and method providing for optimal conditions of cultivation, results in quick growth and development of potato piece, so that up to six harvests of tubers may be gathered in a calendar year.

18 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device of automatic control of mist-generating plant relates to gardening, namely to vegetative propagation of horticultural crops by the method of herbaceous cuttings. The device comprises operating mode switches on the number of units of mist-generating plant, a commutation switch to connect the power source to the units of mist-generating plant and cyclical timing relay that determines the duration of the presence or absence of each unit power. The cyclical timing relay consists of a microcontroller, a real-time clock, a memory module, two encoders, control buttons and an alphanumeric LCD display.

EFFECT: device of automatic control of mist-generating plant provides optimisation of watering mode by an independent set of time of watering and the time of pause separately for several intervals within the day, such as morning, day, evening and night.

1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: light diode radiator comprises a body from a heat conductive material, at least partially ribbed at the rear side. The body has an outlet hole, which is closed with an optically transparent protective glass or a diffuser. Inside the body there are linear boards installed with assembled groups of light diodes with a different spectrum of radiation in the range of spectral efficiency of photosynthesis /400-700 nm/ with optical axes, facing the outlet hole of the body, and connected to a source of supply. At least on two internal side walls of the concave body there is a cascade of longitudinal plates forming terraces from a heat conductive material, which create ribs of an internal radiator of a conductive heat sink. Longitudinal plates are in thermal contact with body walls and face the outlet hole with a flat part. On each plate there are linear boards /lines/ installed in thermal contact, mostly boards with an aluminium base with high-capacity light diodes or light diode modules, or separate light diodes, which are connected in series or in parallel-serial chains to a source of supply.

EFFECT: design will make it possible to improve thermal and spectral characteristics, to increase density of radiation flow with reduced dimensions of a radiator.

6 cl, 7 dwg

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