Cooling agent pipeline

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: cooling agent pipeline includes the following layers: outer layer from moulding compound on the basis of polyamide; inner layer having the thickness at least of 0.3 mm and containing polypropene, 0.02 wt % of heat stabiliser. Polypropene is hetero-phase copolymer on the basis of propene, which contains 0.5 wt % to 20 wt % of ethene.

EFFECT: increasing heat stability and mechanical pipeline strength.

10 cl, 1 tbl

 

The object of the invention is a multilayer pipe for the refrigerant, which contains the outer layer of the molding material based on polyamide and an inner layer of a stabilized molding composition based on the polyolefin.

In the area of the refrigerant piping cars in recent years, it should be noted the increasing demands in respect of long-term sustainability in internal contact with water and/or glycol, as well as in high temperature piping systems. Required good mechanical properties, including the necessary resistance to prodavlivayutsya force, in the case of elevated temperatures above about 100°To give due polyamides. Pipelines of pure polyolefins in this area of elevated temperatures have insufficient resistance to prodavlivayutsya force; resistance against fats and oils are also limited.

However, monochloropropane of polyamides possess no sufficient resistance to hydrolysis; due to swelling in the coolant also reduced mechanical strength.

On this basis, in the prior art multilayer pipes for the refrigerant, having a polyolefin inner layer and a polyamide outer layer. The inner layer acts as a water barrier and protects polyamide naru is hydrated layer from hydrolytic degradation.

In particular, due to increasing due to the increasing power density of the temperature of the motor, respectively, engine compartment, required pipelines, which have, in particular, the following properties:

- high resistance to prodavlivayutsya effort at temperatures in the range from 130°C and above;

- sufficient toughness at low temperatures after thermal aging, adjustable pumping tests, water/glycol, starting from a temperature of about 130°C, at least for 1000 hours, respectively, after aging at elevated temperatures, for example, 150°C;

sufficient bonding of the layers after long-term load;

- cost-effective production during coextrusion.

In the application for the European patent 0436923 describes partially corrugated multilayer piping for refrigerants of the polyolefin of the inner layer and the polyamide of the outer layer, which, if necessary, connected to each other through layer improves the adhesion means.

In the application for the European patent 1362890 describes a multilayer, fill under pressure pipelines for liquids with at least one flexible inner layer of thermoplastic elastomer in combination with the outer layer made of polyamide.

In the application for Europe the ski patent 0671582 describes the piping for the coolant of several layers with modified through the walls in the longitudinal direction of the geometry of the corrugation to reduce the length.

In the patent application Germany 4428236 describes a three-layer corrugated pipe as a flexible tube for cooling water from the inner layer of the modified thermoplastic elastomer.

In the International application WO-01/42005 describes the piping for the coolant and the inner layer of elastomer and an outer layer made of polyamide.

In the International application WO-01/42701 describes the pipeline for coolant with a layer of a mixture consisting of polyamide and polypropylene, as increasing the adhesion means, the inner layer made of thermoplastic elastomer, and an outer layer made of polyamide.

In the patent application Germany 3715251 describes a two-layer tube with a thin polyolefin inner layer.

In the above documents, however, do not specify any way in relation to the ability to achieve high heat resistance, resistance to prodavlivayutsya the force at the specified operating temperatures and long-term mechanical strength (especially toughness).

The weak point of such tubes is a polyolefin inner layer. It turned out that the linear polypropylene in the production environment relatively quickly becoming brittle. The reason for this may be dissolved in the cooling system oxygen or diffusing to the outside via the polymer layer inside the oxygen;available trace amounts of metals can act in the same direction. The problem increasingly becomes noticeable when the polyolefin of the inner layer due to the polyamide of the outer layer is thicker to give sufficient water barrier to protect the outer polyamide layer. It turned out that the thickness of the polyolefin layer should be at least about 0.3 mm, however, better at least 0,4 mm

The consequence of embrittlement of the inner layer is often that microcracks are formed, through which the coolant reaches the outer polyamide layer. What is happening then hydrolysis leads to a significant reduction of resistance to prodavlivayutsya effort, and finally to failure of the pipe.

It is therefore necessary to avoid these disadvantages and to produce the refrigerant piping with high long-term stability.

This task is solved through the duct containing the following layers:

I. the outer layer of the molding material based on polyamide and

II. the inner layer, which contains polypropylene, and at least 0.02 wt.%, preferably, at least 0.1 wt.%, especially preferably, at least 0.2 wt.%, particularly preferably, at least 0.3 wt.%, and, highly preferably at least 0.4 wt.%, Ter is stabilizator.

According to one possible variant implementation, the material of the inner layer is subjected for increasing the adhesion strength of the modification, for example, by building groups of the acid anhydride. Suitable methods represent the state of the art and related products are standard. The material of the inner layer also may be in the form of a mixture of unmodified type polypropylene with a modified type of polypropylene.

According to the second possible variant implementation, the inner layer consists of two sublayers, one of which is adjacent to the polyamide layer, subjected for increasing the adhesion strength of the modification, and the other should not be subjected for increasing the adhesion strength of the modification. In addition to providing increased adhesion modification, in this case, as materials of the layers can be used in various molding material based on polypropylene.

According to the next possible option implementation, between the layer according to I. and II. is the layer which increases the adhesion means with different content. In this regard, the prior art, for example, a mixture of polyamide with polypropylene, in which case at least part of the polypropylene component is subjected providing increased so the barb clutch modification.

As the polyamides used in the first place, aliphatic Homo - and copolycondensation, as, for example, polyamide-46, polyamide-66, polyamide-68, nylon-610, nylon-612, nylon-410, polyamide-810, polyamide-1010, polyamide-412, polyamide-1012, polyamide-1212, polyamide-6, nylon-7, nylon-8, nylon-9, nylon-10, nylon-11 and polyamide-12. (Designation of the polyamides corresponds to the international norm, and the first digit (the first digit) indicates(comply) with the number of carbon atoms in the source diamine, and the second digit (second digit) indicates(comply) with the number of carbon atoms in the dicarboxylic acid. If you specify only one number, it means that originate from ∀,T-aminocarbonyl acid, respectively, produced from her lactam; however, we should point out that the book .Domininghaus "Die Kunststoffe und ihre Properties", c.272 and subsequent, VDI publishing house, 1976).

While it is preferable to use nylon-612, as this polyamide, on the one hand, at high operating temperatures is highly resistant to prodavlivayutsya force, on the other hand, has sufficient dimensional stability in a humid atmosphere.

If you use copolyamids, they may contain, for example, adipic acid, sabotinova acid, cork acid, isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid, naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, etc., as is sociaty, accordingly, bis(4-aminocyclohexane)methane, trimethylhexamethylenediamine, hexamethylenediamine were, or the like, as stamina. As acomponent can also be entered lactams, as caprolactam or laurinlactam, respectively, aminocarbonyl acid as T-aminoundecanoic acid.

These polyamides is known (for example, D..Jacobs, J.Zimmermann "Polymerization Processes", s-467, Interscience Publishers, new York, 1977; description of the invention it is lined accepted the application for patent in Germany 2152194).

Moreover, as the polyamides are also suitable mixed alifaticheskii/aromatic polycondensate, which are described, for example, in U.S. patents 2071250, 2071251, 2130523, 2130948, 2241322, 2312966, 2512606 and 3393210,

as well as in the management of the Kirk-Othmer "Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology", third edition, volume 18, page 328 and the subsequent and page 435 and subsequent, Wiley and Sons, 1982

Molding composition based on polyamide may contain either one of these polyamides, or multiple in the form of a mixture. Next, can contain up to 50 wt.% other thermoplastics, if they do not create interference with respect to this ability to grip, especially lactiferous rubbers as copolymers of ethylene and propylene or ethylene, propylene and diene (application for European patent 0731308), polpettine, Polichinelle, statistical copolymers, matched with the public, the copolymers of alkanolamine compounds with aliphatic olefins or danami (application for European patent 0261748) or rubber structure "core-shell" with viscoelastic core of (meth)acrylate, butadiene or styrene/butadiene rubbers with glass transition temperatures Tgbelow -10°C, and the core may be subjected to the stitching, and the shell can be obtained from styrene and/or methyl methacrylate and/or other unsaturated monomers (posted descriptions of inventions to unaccepted applications for patents Germany 2144528, 3728685).

The polyamide preferably has an excess of end amino groups, which usually stems from the fact that when getting used diamine as molecular weight regulator. An excess of end amino groups can also be adjusted by mixing of the depleted amino groups of the polyamide and enriched with amino groups of the polyamide. The ratio of terminal amino groups to terminal carboxyl groups then there must be at least 51:49, preferably at least 55:45, particularly preferably at least 60:40, particularly preferably at least 70:30.

Along with this, the molding composition based on polyamide may contain more minor amounts of additives, which are necessary to establish certain properties. The example is of such additives are pigments, accordingly, fillers like carbon black, titanium dioxide, zinc sulfide, silicates or carbonates, auxiliary processing means as waxes, zinc stearate or calcium stearate, fire tools, such as magnesium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide or melincourt, fiber, antioxidants, UV stabilizers, and additives which give the product antistatic properties or electrical conductivity, such as carbon fibers, graphite fibrils, fibers, stainless steel, respectively, electrically conductive carbon black.

According to a special variant implementation, the molding composition contains 1-25 wt.%, particularly preferably 2-20 wt.% and particularly preferably 3-15 wt.%, plasticizer.

Plasticizers and their use in the case of polyamides are known. For the General overview of the plasticizers that are suitable for polyamides, you can specify on the book Gächter/Müller "Kunststoffadditive", publisher .Hanser, second edition, C.

Conventional, suitable as plasticizers compounds are, for example, esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid with 2 to 20 carbon atoms in the alcohol component or amides of arylsulfatase with 2-12 carbon atoms in the amine component, preferably amides of benzosulfimide.

As plasticizers are used, in particular, the ethyl ester of p-hydro is cibenzoline acid, oktilovom ester of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, isohexadecane ester of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, n-octylated toluenesulfonic acid, n-butylamide benzosulfimide or 2-ethylhexylamine benzosulfimide.

Molding composition based on polypropylene in the case of the inner layer, in principle, can contain any standard type of polypropylene, for example, isotactic or syndiotactic homopolymer, a statistical copolymer of propylene with ethylene and/or butylene-1, block copolymers based on ethylene and propylene, a thermoplastic elastomer based on polypropylene, and the like. Polypropylene can be obtained by any known method, for example, by the method of Ziegler-Natta or when using metallocene catalysis. It may contain lactiferous component, as, for example, rubber-based copolymer of ethylene and propylene or a rubber-based copolymer of ethylene, propylene and diene or a styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene copolymers. Moreover, may contain conventional auxiliary substances and additives such as pigments, respectively, fillers like carbon black, titanium dioxide, zinc sulfate, silicates or carbonates or auxiliary processing means as waxes, zinc stearate or calcium stearate. The normal amount of polypropylene in the moulding mass amount, for example,at least 50 wt.%, at least 60 wt.%, at least 70 wt.%, at least 80 wt.% or at least 90 wt.%.

According to a preferred variant implementation used the polypropylene of the first inner layer has a melt flow index according to ISO 1133 (230°C/2,16 kg) in the range from 0.1 g/10 min to 3 g/10 minutes, particularly preferably in the range of 0.15 g/10 min to 2 g/10 minutes, particularly preferably in the range from 0.18 g/10 minutes to 1.5 g/10 minutes, and highly preferably in the range from 0.2 g/10 min to 1 g/10 minutes. This kind of pipe has a particularly high resistance to aging.

According to a further preferred variant implementation, the polypropylene of the first inner layer is a so-called propylene-ethylene block copolymers, often referred to as heterophase copolymer. Such heterophase copolymers can be obtained, for example, by a two-phase process, which occurs, for example, as follows: first, for example, when using a catalyst of the Ziegler-Natta get vysokoenergeticheskie polypropylene, and, under certain conditions, may be a small amount of ethylene, resulting in a statistical polymer. This material serves as a matrix heterophase copolymer. In the second stage of the reaction (in case is necessary, in another reactor) to impose, if necessary, a second catalyst, e.g. a metallocene catalyst. Then carry out the copolymerization of ethylene with propylene, and the polymerization reaction proceeds in the pores of the first polymer. Due to this, there is introduced a second polymer.

Block copolymers, respectively, of the heterophase copolymer, according to a preferred variant implementation, contains at least 0.5 wt.%, at least 0.6 wt.%, at least 0.7 wt.%, at least 0.8 wt.% or at least 0.9 wt.%, as well as a 20 wt.%, a maximum of 15 wt.%, most 12 wt.%, a maximum of 10 wt.% or a maximum of 8 wt.%, polymerization-built-in 1-butylene.

According to a preferred variant implementation, the molding composition of the inner layer or one of the internal sublayers contains 0.1 to 50 wt.%, preferably, 0.5 to 40 wt.% and, particularly preferably 1-30 wt.%, nanoscale filler. This is, for example, the modified layered silicates. Their species ratio (quotient of the lateral dimensions of the layer thickness) is typically at least 20, preferably at least 30, and especially preferably at least 50, and the thickness of the layer is from 0.5 nm to 50 nm, preferably, from 1 nm to 35 nm and, particularly preferably, from 1 nm to 20 nm. Alemannia nanocomposites from lyophilised layered silicates and polymers were first described in U.S. patent 2531396. Lyophilization of layered silicates are known, for example, from U.S. patent 2531472, 2996506, 4105578, 4412018, 4434075, 4434076, 4450095 and 4874728. Review on the subject of layered silicates are presented in the textbook Arnold F. Holleman, Niels Wiberg "Die Anorganische Chemie", 91-100-nd edition, publishing house Walter de Gruyter, Berlin-new York, 1985, s-786.

Organically modified layered silicates are produced by different firms, for example, the firm Sudchemie AG (trade name: nanofil), firm Southern clay products (trade name: closet), firm Reox GmbH (trade name: Benton), Laporte (trade name: laponite), firm COOP chemical (trade name: somacid) and the company TOR (trade name: Planamar).

Particularly suitable nanoscale fillers are layered silicates, montmorillonite, hectorite, saponite, and synthetic layered silicates.

thermo stabilizer is, for example, spatial-hindered phenol or a sulfur compound, such as, for example, diakidoy ether thiopropionic acid or complex thiodiethylenbis. Such connections are standard; of course, you can also use a mixture of stabilizers.

Moreover, the molding composition based on polypropylene in the case of the inner layer or one of the internal sublayers, preferably, the first internal padsl what I may contain deactivator metal, for example, in the most minute quantities that comprise 0.01 wt.%, 0.03 wt.%, 0.06 wt.%, 0.1 wt.% or 0.15 wt.%, and you can use any normal polyolefins of deactivator metal; for example, use the hydrazides.

Preferred, for example, the combination of deactivator metal, space-constrained phenol and ticinella.

Polypropylene inner layer according to II. in the preferred case has a thickness of at least 0.3 mm and, particularly preferably at least 0.4 mm, the Total thickness of the pipe wall is an amount preferably in the range from 0.8 mm to 2.5 mm, particularly preferably in the range from 0.9 mm to 2 mm, and particularly preferably in the range from 1 mm to 1.5 mm; the outer diameter of the tube is an amount preferably in the range from 8 mm to 50 mm, particularly preferably in the range from 10 mm to 40 mm and, particularly preferably, in the range from 12 mm to 30 mm

Proposed according to the invention the duct can be made in a straight or corrugated form or Gavrilova only on individual segments. It can be produced in one or several stages by injection molding, coextrusion, sequential coextrusion, coextrusion blow molding or the methods of application of Obolo the key. Further, the pipeline can be produced using the so-called Conex-way. When it comes to the extrusion, and the individual layers are applied to each other by means of a special extruder (tapered rotors and stators) (international application WO-97/28949).

Moreover, it is proposed according to the invention the duct can be produced also by means of injection molding to obtain a multilayer hollow products. In this case, you need to specify, for example, a combination of injection molding multi-layer articles (obtaining a multilayer molded product by injection molding with the structure of "core-shell") and subsequent injection of the fluid (injection of gas or water) in order to obtain a hollow channel for the passage of fluid through it is obtained by injection molding, the product.

Modified methods, in principle, can also be based on paleobiological technology, for example, by processing the multilayer film and/or plate-billet thermoforming and welding the halves in a molded product with a hollow space for the passage of fluid.

According to a preferred variant implementation, the corrugated pipe has a smooth inner layer. The outer layer thus Gavrilova (if necessary, together with a layer improving the adhesion of funds) and through hollows in the LF adhesive associated with the inner layer. The advantage of this is that the hydraulic resistance is low, the wall thickness is uniform and, in particular compared to conventional corrugated pipes, there is no local excess sprains; moreover, because of this avoid corrugations, which can be formed deposits. Such tubes are described in International applications WO-03/064910 and WO-03/064911.

Proposed according to the invention the duct, depending on the type of material polyamide outer layer, short-time withstand peak loads up to a temperature of 150°C, which occur near the motor, it has a high resistance to thermal aging and good resistance to prodavlivayutsya effort. On the basis of internal, according to the invention, the polyolefin layer tubing at high temperatures up to about 135°C resistant to be used as a coolant mixture of glycol and water.

The invention is illustrated using the following examples. The examples use the following molding material:

The outer layer (layer I):

polyamide 1: heat stabilised polyamide-12;

polyamide 2: heat stabilised polyamide-612.

The inner layer (layer II):

polypropylene 1: heterophase copolymer based on Elena with ethylene content of 4.1 wt.% (defined in 13C-NMR) and a melt flow index 230/2,16 according to ISO 1133, equal to 2 cm3/10 minutes;

polypropylene 2: heterophase copolymer based on propylene with ethylene content of 2.4 wt.% (defined in13C-NMR) and a melt flow index 230/2,16 according to ISO 1133, equal to 0.4 cm3/10 minutes;

polypropylene 3: the compound of 99.2 wt.% polypropylene 2 and the following compounds: 0.2 wt.% IRGANOX®MD 1024, deactivator metal-based phenol;

0.2 wt.% IRGANOX®MD 1010, thermo stabilizer based

space-constrained phenol; and

0.4 wt.% IRGANOX®PS802FL, thermo stabilizer on the basis of sulfur.

Improves the adhesion of the tool:

ADMER®QB520E, functionalized with maleic anhydride polypropylene.

Examples 1-5

Installation for extruding the double-wall pipe, which is equipped with two 45-mi extruders and three 30-mi extruders produce pipes with dimensions 8×1 mm at a speed of extrusion to approximately 12 m/min

ExampleThe outer layer = layer IImproves the adhesion of the toolLayer IIaLayer IIbLayer IIc
10.45 mm polyamide 1 0.1 mm0.15 mm polypropylene 30.15 mm polypropylene 30.15 mm polypropylene 3
20.45 mm polyamide 20.1 mm0.15 mm polypropylene 30.15 mm polypropylene 30.15 mm polypropylene 3
3*)0.45 mm polyamide 10.1 mm0.15 mm polypropylene 10.15 mm polypropylene 10.15 mm polypropylene 1
4*)0.45 mm polyamide 10.1 mm0.15 mm polypropylene 20.15 mm polypropylene 20.15 mm polypropylene 2
50,70 mm polyamide 10.1 mm0.05 mm polypropylene 30.05 mm polypropylene 30.10 mm polypropylene 3
*) not according to the invention

On the basis of the high viscosity polypropylene inner layer in this case, get the help of 3 extruders.

Description pipes

In the case of pipes of examples 1-5 adhesion between the layer improves the adhesion means, respectively, the inner polypropylene layer and a polyamide layer as in sizeexclusion condition, and also after storage (keeping in internal contact with the glycol/water at a temperature of 130°C, 1300 hours) so high that the composite material is partially impossible to separate, but always get a high value, greater than 3 N/mm

When using polypropylene in the case of the inner layer is not according to the invention (examples 3 and 4) impact strength after aging at internal contact is worse than in the case of examples 1 and 2 according to the invention.

In the case of pipes of example 5, which is due to the thinner inner layer is not directly comparable with pipes of other examples, impact strength after aging at internal contact worsened compared with the pipes of examples 1 and 2 according to the invention.

1. The duct containing the following layers: the outer layer of the molding material based on polyamide and an inner layer, having a thickness of at least 0.3 mm and containing polypropylene, and at least 0.02 wt.% thermo stabilizer, and the polypropylene is a heterophase copolymer based on propylene, and at least 0.5 wt.%, and the maximum is about 20 wt.% of ethylene.

2. Refrigerant piping according to claim 1, characterized in that the layers are connected to each other through layer improves the adhesion means.

3. Refrigerant piping according to claim 1, characterized in that the material of the inner layer subjected to ensuring the strength of the adhesion of the modification.

4. Refrigerant piping according to claim 1, characterized in that the inner layer consists of two sublayers, one of which is adjacent to the polyamide layer, subjected for increasing the adhesion strength of the modification.

5. Refrigerant piping according to claim 1, characterized in that thermo stabilizer is spatially hindered phenol or a sulfur compound.

6. Refrigerant piping according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the molding composition of the inner layer or one of the internal sublayers contains from 0.1 to 50 wt.% nanoscale filler.

7. Refrigerant piping according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the molding composition of the inner layer or one of the internal sublayers contains deactivator metal.

8. Refrigerant piping according to claim 1, characterized in that the polypropylene inner layer has a melt flow index according to ISO 1133 (230°C/2,16 kg) in the range from 0.1 to 3 g/10 minutes

9. Refrigerant piping according to claim 1, characterized in that it is on individual segments or full of the stew Gavrilova.

10. Refrigerant piping according to claim 9, characterized in that it is made in the form of a corrugated pipe with a smooth inner layer.



 

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FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: panel of curvilinear shape comprises upper and lower linings and zigzag corrugated filler arranged in between. Filler is arranged in the form of folded construction of helical structure, which, in its finally transformed condition contains cells along each serrated line, which are limited with inclined and vertical walls produced by two pairs of adjacent facets in the form of irregular quadrangles separated with section of zigzag line inclined towards serrated line, which is common for both pairs, at the angles of α1 and α2. α1 is angle between common serrated line and section of zigzag line, which separates a pair of adjacent facets, which, in finally transformed condition produce vertical wall of cell. α2 is angle between common serrated line and section of zigzag line, which separates a pair of adjacent facets, which, in finally transformed condition produce inclined walls of cell, at the same time condition of α12 is maintained. According to method for manufacturing of multilayer panel of curvilinear shape with separate shaping of linings with specified curvature and layer of filler, sheet stock at the first stage is marked with bending lines, which produce elementary modules with specified geometric parametres. At the second stage sheet stock is transformed into relief position, where it takes form of folded construction of helical structure. At the third stage produced folded construction is shaped till finally transformed condition, which is characterised by formation of cells limited with inclined and vertical walls.

EFFECT: increased strength and rigidity of panels.

2 cl, 13 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: cooling agent pipeline includes the following layers: outer layer from moulding compound on the basis of polyamide; inner layer having the thickness at least of 0.3 mm and containing polypropene, 0.02 wt % of heat stabiliser. Polypropene is hetero-phase copolymer on the basis of propene, which contains 0.5 wt % to 20 wt % of ethene.

EFFECT: increasing heat stability and mechanical pipeline strength.

10 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of laminar boards and shells with light fillers, particularly, to stepped laminar board and method of its production. Proposed board comprises top and bottom shells with folding four-beam filler from sheet blank consisting of elementary modules, each being formed by two beams of sawtooth and zigzag beams. Filler is made stepped from signal blank and comprises inclined folded flat sections in its final transformed state. Inclination of one section allows varying between sawtooth and zigzag beams. Proposed method consists in marking and bending sheet blanks along marked lines, transforming sheet blank into relief state, making n-quantity of stages on filler zigzag and sawtooth lines to be transformed into preset width and height described by mathematical expressions.

EFFECT: better manufacturability.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a construction element containing the first and the second fibrous panel elements located parallel to each other and a filling element located between the first panel element and the second panel element; with that, the filling element is made in the form of a solid plate, the plane of which is generally parallel to the first and the second panel elements; with that, the filling element includes the first system of cone-shaped wells projecting out of the plate plane. With that, the element is characterised by the fact that the filling element is obtained by forming or vacuum forming from material based on cellulose fibre; with that, the first system of cone-shaped wells represents a set of flattened cones with an upper part and a lower part, which have the shape of a round. One side of the plate plane has a continuous flat surface; the system of cone-shaped wells projects on the other side of the plate plane; and the system of cone-shaped wells has a conicity angle of 5-45°.

EFFECT: construction element has strength and durability; with that, it is easy- and cheap-to-manufacture.

15 cl, 18 dwg

Pipe // 2244866

FIELD: pipeline engineering.

SUBSTANCE: pipe has wall provided with flat sections. The longitudinal projections and mating hollows are provided in the middle of opposite flat sections of the wall.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of joining.

2 cl, 3 dwg

Biplastic pipe // 2248492

FIELD: plastic pipes.

SUBSTANCE: in biplastic pipe with inner layer made of thermoplast, outer layer made of glass plastic and grooves made on outer surface of inner layer, depth of grooves h is determined by formula h>Δα·Δt·din, where Δα is difference in coefficients of linear thermal expansion of materials of inner and outer layers; Δt is difference in maximum and minimum temperatures of transferred medium; din is outer diameter of inner layer.

EFFECT: improved strength and operation reliability of biplastic pipe.

3 cl, 3 dwg

Biplastic pipe // 2248493

FIELD: plastic pipes.

SUBSTANCE: in proposed biplastic pipe with inner layer made of thermoplast, outer layer of glass plastic and stiffening ribs secured on outer surface of inner layer, height of stiffening ribs h is determined by formula h>Δα·Δt·din, where Δα is different of coefficients of linear thermal expansion of materials of inner and outer layers; Δt is difference in maximum and minimum temperatures of transferred medium; din is outer diameter of inner layer.

EFFECT: improved strength and operation reliability of biplastic pipe.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: rigid pipes.

SUBSTANCE: cylinder wall comprises at least one layer made of fibers oriented at least in one direction. The total thickness of the wall dtot ranges from 0.010 mm to 1 mm. The ratio dtot/D ≥ 0.0025.

EFFECT: improved method of manufacturing.

20 cl, 4 dwg

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