Internal combustion engine with spark ignition

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed engine comprises mechanism (B) to provide for variable synchronisation and control the opening of inlet valve 7 and mechanism (A) to provide for variable compression ratio and vary mechanical compression ratio. To produce required output torque at increasing atmospheric pressure, the moment of inlet valve opening is set to approximate to that of passing intake stroke DTC and mechanical compression ratio is decreased.

EFFECT: possibility to control temperature at intake stroke termination.

19 cl, 18 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to an internal combustion engine with spark ignition.

The level of technology

In the prior art diesel engine, in which the upper surface of each combustion chamber in addition to the intake valve and the exhaust valve is a control valve and which is provided with a control means for opening of this control valve at the beginning of the compression stroke and closing it in the middle of the compression stroke (see Japanese patent publication (A) No. 4-86338). In this diesel engine, even when the compression stroke starts, and the control valve is open, the intake air in the combustion chamber is released through the control valve, so that the compression process is not performed. The compression process starts when the control valve is closed. Therefore, in this diesel engine, the running time of the closing of the control valve is used to control the degree of compression.

Note that in this diesel engine by controlling the time of closing of the control valve it turns out that the lower the atmospheric pressure, the higher you set the compression ratio, and at the same time, the lower the atmospheric temperature, the higher you set the compression level.

On the other hand, in the engine in the morning combustion with spark ignition output torque of the engine is determined by the amount of intake air. In this case, by controlling the time of closing of the intake valve becomes possible to control the amount of intake air in a controlled combustion chamber. That is, even if started on the compression stroke and the intake valve is open, the intake air in the combustion chamber is released through the inlet valve in the inlet channel, so that the amount of intake air actually supplied to the combustion chamber becomes the amount of intake air, sealed in the combustion chamber when the intake valve closes. Therefore, by controlling the time of closing the intake valve you can control the amount of intake air of the combustion chamber.

In this regard, we note that in the internal combustion engine output torque in accordance with an operating condition of the engine, preferably is created, even if the atmospheric pressure changes. For this reason, the intake air mass supplied to the combustion chamber, it is necessary to maintain the same, even if the atmospheric pressure changes. So, for example, if the atmospheric pressure decreases, the density of the intake air becomes smaller, and the amount of intake air supplied in the combustion chamber will increase. Therefore, if you attempt to close the inlet ø the th valve after reaching the bottom dead point of the suction stroke of, you need to make the time of closing the intake valve before coming.

In this regard, we note that if the time of closing the intake valve make merry before, the compression ratio becomes higher, so that if, for example, to assume that the atmospheric temperature remains the same, the temperature at the end of the compression stroke will be extremely high. On the other hand, in this case for lowering the temperature at the end of the compression stroke, you can ensure that the delay time of closing the intake valve, and if the time of closing the intake valve is delayed, when the intake air mass will decrease, consequently the output torque, in the end, will be less than the required torque.

In the above-mentioned known diesel engine by controlling the time of closing the control valve - controls the degree of compression is to achieve the target compression ratio in accordance with the atmospheric pressure and atmospheric temperature. That is, the control pressure at the end of the compression stroke and the temperature at the end of the compression stroke is carried out with the cast to the pressure end of compression stroke and the temperature at the end of the compression stroke, acceptable for combustion with spark ignition. However, when the panel is in relation to the time of closing the control valve to control the amount of intake air, supplied to the combustion chamber, even if the temperature at the end of the compression stroke becomes extremely high, it is impossible to provide the delay time for closing the inlet valve to produce an output torque in accordance with the required torque. To control the temperature at the end of the compression stroke becomes necessary management, different from that which is characteristic of the aforementioned diesel engine.

Inventions

The present invention is to create an internal combustion engine with spark ignition, providing the ability to adjust the temperature at the end of the compression stroke to achieve its optimal value.

In accordance with the present invention proposed an internal combustion engine with spark ignition, equipped with a mechanism that provides variable synchronization is made with the ability to control the time of closing the intake valve, and a mechanism that provides variable compression ratio made possible to change a mechanical compression ratio and torque control time of closing the intake valve, to control the amount of intake air supplied into the combustion chamber, causing the approaching time of closing the intake valve is the passing of the bottom dead point of the suction stroke of, when the atmospheric pressure falls, and the mechanical compression ratio is reduced when the atmospheric pressure falls or the atmospheric temperature rises, so that you can get output torque in accordance with the required torque even when the atmospheric pressure changes.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 presents a General view of the internal combustion engine with spark ignition.

Figure 2 presents the axonometric image of a mechanism that provides variable compression ratio, in a disassembled state.

Figure 3 presents the cross section of the side view illustrated internal combustion engine.

Figure 4 presents a view of the mechanism for customized synchronization valve.

Figure 5 presents a view illustrating the stroke of the intake and exhaust valves.

Figure 6 presents a view for explanation of the compression engine, the actual compression ratio and the degree of the extension.

Figure 7 presents a view illustrating the relationship between theoretical thermal efficiency and the degree of the extension.

On Fig presents a view for explanation of a conventional cycle with that of the ultra-high degree of expansion.

Figure 9 presents a view illustrating changes in the mechanical compression ratio etc. in accordance with the required torque momento is.

Figure 10 presents a view illustrating a graph of pressure against volume.

Figure 11 presents a view illustrating a graph of pressure against volume.

On Fig presents a view illustrating the permissible limit value at which to carry out normal compression.

On Fig presents a view illustrating the mechanical compression ratio and the time of closing the intake valve.

On Fig presents a view illustrating the mechanical compression ratio and the time of closing the intake valve.

On Fig presents a view illustrating a map reference point IC time of closing the intake valve, etc

On Fig presents a view illustrating the value of Δθ amendments to the time of closing the intake valve.

On Fig presents a view illustrating the amount ΔCR amendments to mechanical compression.

On Fig presents a flowchart of the sequence of operational management.

The implementation of the invention

Figure 1 shows the cross section of the side view of the internal combustion engine with spark ignition.

Figure 1 position 1 refers to the crankcase, 2 - cylinder, 3 - cylinder head, 4 a piston, 5 a combustion chamber, 6 - spark plug located in the top center point of the combustion chamber 5, 7 - inlet valve, 8 - inlet CA is al, 9 is an exhaust valve, and 10 an exhaust channel. The inlet channel 8 is connected through an inlet pipe 11 with a smoothing receiver 12, with each intake branch pipe 11 provided with a nozzle 13 for the injection of fuel into the corresponding intake channel 8. Each nozzle 13 may be located in each combustion chamber 5, and not connected with each intake branch pipe 11.

Smoothing the receiver 12 is connected through the intake channel 14 with an air filter 15, and the intake channel 14 provided inside the throttle valve 17 which is actuated actuator 16, a detector 18, the amount of intake air using, for example, a filament, a sensor 19 atmospheric pressure sensor 20 and temperature of the atmosphere. On the other hand, the outlet channel 10 is connected through an exhaust manifold 21 with a catalytic Converter 22, containing, for example, a three-component catalyst, while the exhaust manifold 21 is provided inside the sensor 23, the component ratio of the fuel-air mixture.

On the other hand, in the embodiment shown in figure 1, the connecting part of the boat 1 engine and cylinder block 2 provided with a mechanism And providing an adjustable degree of compression, made with the possibility of a change in the relative positions of the crankcase 1 of the engine and block 2 Qili the wood in the axial direction of the cylinder to change the volume of the combustion chamber 5, when the piston 4 is at top dead center of the compression stroke, and is further provided with a mechanism for ensuring the change of time of the beginning of the actual compression process is executed with a possibility of changing the time of the beginning of the actual compression process. Note that in the embodiment shown in figure 1, this mechanism In ensuring the change of time of the beginning of the actual compression process consists of a mechanism that provides variable synchronizing valve, and configured to control the time of closing of the inlet valve 7.

The electronic control unit 30 consists of a computer equipped with components connected to each other through a bidirectional bus 31 such as a persistent storage device (ROM) 32, random access memory (RAM) 33, CPU (microprocessor) 34, the port 35 and input port 36 of the output. Output signals of the detector 18, the amount of intake air, the sensor 19 of the atmospheric pressure sensor 20 of the atmospheric temperature sensor 23, the component ratio of the air-fuel mixture introduced through respective analog-to-digital converters (ADC) 37 port 35 of the input. In addition, the pedal 40 of the accelerator is connected to a load sensor 41 generating an output voltage proportional to the indentation L PED is whether 40 accelerator. The output voltage of the load sensor 41 is inserted through the corresponding ADC 37 to the port 35 of the input. Next port 35 input connected to the sensor 42 of the angle of rotation of the crankshaft, generating an output pulse each time the crankshaft is rotated, for example, 30°. On the other hand, the port 36 output is connected through a scheme 38 excitation with a candle 76 ignition, fuel nozzle 13, the actuator 16 of the throttle mechanism And providing a variable compression ratio, and a mechanism that provides variable synchronizing valve.

Figure 2 presents the axonometric image shown in figure 1 mechanism And providing a variable compression ratio in a disassembled state, and figure 3 presents the cross section of the side view illustrated internal combustion engine. Figure 2 at the bottom of both side walls of the cylinder block 2 is executed many incoming parts 50, spaced from each other at a certain distance. Each protruding portion 50 is made to have a circular cross-section hole 51 in the Cam. On the other hand, the upper surface of the crankcase 1 of the engine is made with many protrusions 52, spaced from each other at a certain distance and set between the respective protruding parts 50. These speakers h the STI 52 is also made with a circular cross-section holes 53 for the Cam.

As shown in figure 2, is provided a pair of Cam shafts 54, 55. Each of the camshafts 54, 55 has mounted thereon circular Cams 56, made with the possibility of installation and rotation in each of the holes 51. These circular Cams 56 coaxially with the axes of rotation of the Cam shafts 54, 55. On the other hand, as shown in figure 3, between the circular Cams 56 are eccentric shafts 57, located eccentrically relative to the axis of rotation of the Cam shafts 54, 55. Each shaft 57 of the eccentric has other circular Cams 58 mounted thereon for rotation eccentrically with respect to it. As shown in figure 2, these circular Cams 58 are located between the circular Cams 56. All the Cams 58 are designed to install and rotation in respective bores 53.

When all the Cams on the shafts 56 of the shafts 54, 55 are rotated in opposite directions, as shown by the arrows, shown in solid lines in figure 3(A), from a state shown in figure 3(A), the eccentric shafts 57 are moving toward the bottom dead point, so that the circular Cams 58 are rotated in opposite directions in the holes 53, as shown by the dotted lines in figure 3(A). As shown in figure 3(B), when the eccentric shafts 57 are moving toward the bottom dead point, the centers of the circular Cams 58 are moving down below excentrique shaft 57.

As will be clear from a comparison of figure 3(a) and Fig.3(C) the relative position of the crankcase 1 of the engine and the cylinder block 2 are determined by the distance between the centers of the circular Cams 56 and the centers of the circular Cams 58. The greater the distance between the centers of the circular Cams 56 and the centers of the circular Cams 58, the further block 2 cylinders from the crankcase 1 of the engine. If the cylinder block 2 is removed from the crankcase 1 of the engine, therefore, when the piston 4 is at top dead center of the compression stroke, the volume of the combustion chamber 5 increases, due to the rotation of the camshafts 54, 55, and therefore, when the piston 4 is at top dead center of the compression stroke, you can change the volume of the combustion chamber 5.

As shown in figure 2, to bring the Cam shafts 54, 55 in rotation in opposite directions, the shaft of the drive motor 58 is equipped with a pair of worms 61, 62 with opposite directions of coils. At the ends of the camshafts 54, 55 is fixed a worm wheel 63, 64, entered into engagement with these worms 61, 62. In this embodiment, the drive motor 59 can be actuated to change the volume of the combustion chamber 5 in a wide range, when the piston 4 is at top dead center of the compression stroke. Note that this example demonstrates the mechanism And providing a variable compression ratio, shown in IG-3. You can use the mechanism And providing an adjustable degree of compression of any type.

On the other hand, figure 4 shows the mechanism In providing customized synchronization valve attached to the end of the Cam shaft 70 for driving the intake valve 7, shown in figure 1. Figure 4 mechanism In providing customized synchronization of the valve, provided with a timing pulley 71, rotate the crankshaft through a timing belt in the direction of the arrow, a cylindrical casing 72, rotating together with the timing pulley 71, the shaft 73, is arranged to rotate together with the Cam shaft 70 of the drive inlet valve and rotation relative to the cylindrical housing 72, a set of partitions 74, passing from the inner circumferential surface of the cylindrical housing 72 to the outer circumferential surface of the shaft 73, and the blades 75, passing between the partitions 74 from the outer circumferential surface of the shaft 73 to the inner circumferential surface of the cylindrical casing 72 and two sides of the blades 75 form a hydraulic chamber 76 to be ahead, and the hydraulic chambers 77 for the delay.

The flow of the operating fluid in the hydraulic chamber 76, 77 controls the valve 79 submission. This control valve 79 is equipped with cylindrical holes 79, 80, connected to hydraulic is Kimi chambers 76, 77, the supply hole 82 for the working fluid from the hydraulic pump 81, a pair of exhaust holes 83, 84 and valve 85 for controlling connection and disconnection of holes 79, 80, 82, 83, 84.

To make ahead the phase of the Cams of the Cam shaft 70 of the drive inlet valve, shown in figure 4, the valve 85 is moved to the right, while the working fluid is directed through the opening 79 in the hydraulic chamber 76 to be ahead, and the working fluid in the hydraulic chambers 77 for the lag comes from the hole 84. At this time, the shaft 73 is rotated relative to the cylindrical housing 72 in the direction of the arrow.

In contrast, to make the delayed phase of the Cams of the Cam shaft 70 of the drive inlet valve, shown in figure 4, the spool 85 moves to the left, while the working fluid from the hole 82 is fed through a hole 80 in the hydraulic chamber 77 to lag, and the working fluid in the hydraulic chambers 76 to lead comes out of the hole 83. At this time, the shaft 73 is rotated relative to the cylindrical housing 72 in a direction opposite to that indicated by the arrow.

When the shaft 73 is driven into rotation relative to the cylindrical housing 72 when the valve 85 is rotated to the neutral position shown in figure 4, the operation of the relative rotation of the Ala ends 73, and at this point, the shaft 73 is held in relative rotated position. Consequently, it is possible to use the mechanism In providing customized synchronization of the valve, in order to make the phase of the Cams of the Cam shaft 70 of the drive of the intake valve is advanced or delayed exactly at the desired value.

The solid lines in figure 5 illustrate the case when the mechanism is In providing customized synchronization valve, is used to make the phase of the Cams of the Cam shaft 70 of the drive inlet valve most advanced, and the dotted lines illustrate the case when the mechanism is In providing customized synchronization valve, is used to make the phase of the Cams of the Cam shaft 70 of the drive inlet valve maximum lagging. Consequently, it is possible to arbitrarily set the time of opening of the intake valve 7 between the range shown by the solid line in figure 5, and the range shown in dotted lines in figure 5, and therefore, you can set the time of closing of the intake valve 7 relevant any angle of rotation of the crankshaft in the range shown by the arrow C in figure 5.

The mechanism In providing customized synchronization of the valve shown in figure 1 and figure 4, is one example. For example, you can use the mechanisms of the s various other types providing customized synchronization valve made with the possibility to change only the time of closing the intake valve, while maintaining the time of opening the intake valve constant.

Next, with reference to Fig.6, will be explained the meaning of the terms used in this application. Note that figure 6(A), (b) and (C) for illustrative purposes, shows the engine with the volume of the combustion chamber, comprising 50 ml, and displacement of the cylinder constituting 500 ml. On these Fig.6(A), (b) and (C) the volume of the combustion chamber is the volume of the combustion chamber when the piston is at top dead center of the compression stroke.

6(A) explains the mechanical compression ratio. Mechanical compression ratio is a value determined based on the working volume of the cylinder and the volume of the combustion chamber during the compression stroke. This mechanical compression ratio is expressed by the ratio of the sum of the volume of the combustion chamber and the working volume of the cylinder to the volume of the combustion chamber. In the example shown in Fig.6(A), this mechanical compression ratio becomes equal to (50 ml+500 ml)/50 ml=11.

6(B) explains the actual compression ratio. This is the actual compression ratio is a value determined based on the actual working volume of the cylinder when the action actually begins compression, until the moment when the piston shortcuts which attaches the upper dead point, and the volume of the combustion chamber. This is the actual compression ratio is expressed by the ratio of the sum of the volume of the combustion chamber and the actual working volume of the cylinder to the volume of the combustion chamber. That is, as shown in Fig.6(B), even if the piston begins to rise in the compression stroke, the compression process is not performed when the open intake valve. The actual compression process begins after the intake valve closes. Consequently, the actual compression ratio is expressed using the actual working volume of the cylinder as follows. In the example shown in Fig.6(B), the actual compression ratio becomes equal to (50ml+450ml)/50 ml=10.

6(C) explains the degree of expansion. Expansion ratio is a value determined based on the working volume of the cylinder during the stroke extension and volume of the combustion chamber. This degree of expansion is expressed by the ratio of the sum of the volume of the combustion chamber and the working volume of the cylinder to the volume of the combustion chamber. In the example shown in Fig.6(C), the expansion rate becomes equal to (50 ml+500 ml)/50 ml=11.

Next, with reference to Fig.7 and Fig, will be explained the cycle with a high degree of expansion. Note that figure 7 shows the relationship between theoretical thermal efficiency and the degree of expansion, and Fig shows the comparison of the normal cycle with that of the ultra-high degree the completion of the expansion, used depending on load.

On Fig(A) shows the normal cycle when the intake valve closes near the bottom dead point and the action of the compression performed by the piston begins almost near the bottom dead point of the compression stroke. In the example shown in this Fig(A), as in the examples shown in Fig.6(A), (b) and (C), the volume of the combustion chamber is 50 ml, and the working volume of the piston 500 ml. As will be clear from Fig(A), in a typical mechanical compression ratio is (50 ml+500 ml)/50 ml=11, the actual compression ratio is about 11 and the expansion ratio also becomes equal to (50 ml+450 ml)/50 ml=11. That is, in the conventional internal combustion engine mechanical compression ratio, the actual compression ratio and expansion ratio becomes, essentially, the same.

The solid line figure 7 illustrates the change in theoretical thermal efficiency in the case, if the actual compression ratio and the mechanical compression ratio essentially equal, i.e. in the normal cycle. In this case, found that the greater the degree of expansion, that is, the higher the actual compression ratio, the higher theoretical thermal efficiency. Therefore, in order to increase theoretical thermal efficiency in the normal cycle, it is necessary to increase the actual compression ratio. However, because of the limitations, maladive what's on the onset of detonation during operation of the engine under a heavy load, the actual compression ratio can be increased even at the maximum level only up to a value of about 12 in the normal cycle, and therefore cannot make theoretical thermal efficiency is quite high.

On the other hand, in this situation, the inventors have established a clear distinction between the mechanical compression ratio and actual compression ratio on this basis was investigated theoretical thermal efficiency, resulting in the discovery that in theoretical thermal efficiency is dominated by the expansion ratio and actual compression ratio is almost no influence on theoretical thermal efficiency. That is, if you increase the actual compression ratio increases, that explosive strength, and compression requires a lot of energy, so even if you increase the actual compression ratio, theoretical thermal efficiency is almost not increased.

In contrast, if you increase the degree of expansion, the longer the period during which the force acts, by pressing down on the piston during the stroke expansion, the longer the time during which the piston transmits a rotational force to the crankshaft. Consequently, the higher you set the degree of expansion, the higher becomes theoretical thermal efficiency. The dotted line in figure 7 illustrates theoretical terminology the definition of efficiency in the case of fixing the actual compression ratio at 10 and increasing the degree of expansion in this state. Thus, it is found that the value of theoretical thermal efficiency with increasing degree of expansion in the state where the actual compression ratio is maintained at a low value, and the value of theoretical thermal efficiency with increasing degree of expansion when the actual compression ratio increases along with the degree of expansion, as shown by the solid line in figure 7, will not be much different.

If the actual compression ratio is maintained, thus, low values, the detonation will not occur, therefore, if theoretical thermal efficiency is increased in a state where the actual compression ratio is maintained at low values, it is possible to prevent the occurrence of detonation and can significantly improve theoretical thermal efficiency. Fig(C) illustrates an example when to maintain the actual compression ratio at the low value and increasing the degree of expansion of use of the mechanism And providing a variable compression ratio, and a mechanism that provides variable synchronizing valve.

Addressing Fig(B), note that in this example, the mechanism And providing an adjustable degree of compression is used to reduce the volume of the combustion chamber from 50 ml to 20 ml on the other hand, the mechanisms of the In, providing the variable synchronizing valve is used to provide lag after closing the inlet valve up until the actual stroke volume does not change with 500 ml to 200 ml as a result, in this example, the actual compression ratio becomes equal to (20 ml+200 ml)/20 ml=11, and the expansion ratio becomes equal to (20 ml+500 ml)/20 ml=26. As explained above, in the conventional cycle, shown in Fig(A), the actual compression ratio is about 11, and the degree of expansion is equal to 11. Compared with this case, in the case shown in Fig(C), it is found that only the degree of expansion increases to 26. This is the reason that mentioned case is called the "cycle ultra high extensions.

As explained above, generally speaking, in the internal combustion engine, the lower the engine load, the worse thermal efficiency, therefore, to improve thermal efficiency during operation of the vehicle, i.e. to improve the efficiency of fuel consumption becomes necessary to increase thermal efficiency during engine operation at low load. On the other hand, in a loop with a high degree of expansion, shown in Fig (), the actual working volume of the cylinder during the compression stroke is set smaller, so that less and the number sasivimol the air, which can be sucked into the chamber 5 of the combustion, therefore, when the engine load is relatively small, you can only use this cycle with a high degree of expansion. Therefore, in the present invention during operation of the engine at low load is set cycle ultra-high degree of expansion, shown in Fig(C), and during operation of the engine under a heavy load is set to the normal cycle, shown in Fig(A).

Next, with reference to Fig.9, to be broadly clarified operational management in General.

Figure 9 shows the change of the mechanical compression ratio, the change in the degree of expansion, the change of the time of closing of the intake valve 7, the change of the actual compression ratio, changing the amount of intake air, changing the degree of opening of the throttle valve 17 and the change in pumping losses depending on the required torque. Note that figure 9 illustrates the case when the atmospheric pressure is standard atmospheric pressure, comprising, for example, 98 kPa (980 mbar), and the atmospheric temperature is standard atmospheric temperature, for example 0°C. in Addition, in the embodiment, corresponding to the present invention, control of the average ratio of the components of the air-fuel mixture is usually carried what is the feedback on the basis of the output signal of the sensor 23, the component ratio of the air-fuel mixture, so a three-component catalyst in the catalytic Converter 22 can simultaneously reduce the amount not burnt NS, and NOxin the exhaust gas.

Now, as explained above, during operation of the engine under heavy load, i.e. at large the required torque, regular cycle, shown in Fig(A). Therefore, as shown in Fig.9, at this time, since the mechanical compression ratio is set low, the expansion rate becomes low as shown by the solid line at the bottom of figure 9, the time of closing of the inlet valve 7 comes earlier, as was shown by the solid line in figure 5. In addition, the amount of intake air is large. At the same time, the degree of opening of the throttle valve 17 is such that it is supported fully open or almost fully open, so that the pumping loss becomes zero.

On the other hand, as shown in figure 9, along with a decrease in the engine load increases, the mechanical compression ratio, so the expansion rate also increases. In addition, the time of closing of the intake valve 7 is delayed, since the required torque becomes smaller, as shown by the solid line in figure 9, so that the actual compression ratio is maintained essentially constant. From the etim, what throttle valve 17 is also supported fully open or almost fully open. Therefore, controlling the amount of intake air supplied into the chamber 5 of the combustion is carried out not through the throttle 17, and by changing the time of closing of the intake valve 7. While pumping losses also become zero.

Thus, when the required torque becomes smaller in comparison with the state of engine operation at high load, the mechanical compression ratio is increased along with decrease of the amount of intake air at an almost constant actual compression. That is, when the piston 4 reaches the upper dead point of the compression stroke, the volume of the combustion chamber 4 is gradually reduced to reduce the amount of intake air. Therefore, when the piston 4 reaches the upper dead point of the compression stroke, the volume of the combustion chamber 5 is changed in proportion to the amount of intake air. Note that the ratio of the components of the air-fuel mixture in the chamber 5, the combustion becomes stoichiometric, so that when the piston 4 reaches the upper dead point of the compression stroke, the volume of the combustion chamber 5 is changed in proportion to the amount of fuel.

If the required torque becomes exepense, mechanical compression ratio increases additionally. When the mechanical compression ratio reaches the limit mechanical compression ratio, forming a structural limit of the combustion chamber 5, in the region of a load lower than the load L1the engine, when the mechanical compression ratio reaches the limit mechanical compression ratio, this mechanical compression ratio is maintained at the limit mechanical compression ratio. Therefore, when the required torque is low, i.e. during operation of the engine at low load, the mechanical compression ratio becomes maximum and the expansion ratio also becomes maximum. If you go this way to obtain the maximum degree of expansion during engine operation at low load, the mechanical expansion ratio is set to a maximum. In addition, the actual compression ratio is maintained at the level of the actual compression ratio is essentially the same as during operation of the engine at medium and high load.

On the other hand, as shown by the solid line in figure 9, the time of closing of the intake valve 7 make retarded to limit the time of closing, ensuring control the quantity of intake air supplied into the chamber 5 of combustion, when the required torque moment is less. In the area of the required torque is smaller than the required torque L2when the time of closing of the intake valve 7 reaches the limit time closing time closing the intake valve 7 is maintained at the limit of the time of closing. If the time of closing of the intake valve 7 is maintained at the limit of the time of closing, controlling the amount of intake air by varying the time of closing of the intake valve 7 is no longer possible. So you have to control the amount of intake air in some other way.

In the embodiment shown in Fig.9, at this time, i.e. in the area of the required torque is smaller than the required torque L2when the time of closing of the intake valve 7 reaches the limit time of closing, to control the amount of intake air supplied into the chamber 5 of the combustion, is used throttle valve 17. However, if the throttle valve 17 is used to control the amount of intake air, increasing pumping losses, as shown in Fig.9.

Note that to prevent these pumping losses in the area of the required torque is smaller than t is ebuenyi torque L 2when the time of closing of the intake valve 7 reaches the limit time of closing of the throttle valve 17 is maintained fully open or almost fully open. In this state, the lower the engine load, the more you can do the mixing ratio of the air-fuel mixture. When the nozzle 13 is preferably located in the chamber 5 combustion for the implementation of stratified combustion.

On the other hand, as explained above, in a loop with a high degree of expansion, shown in Fig(C), the degree of expansion is set to 26. The higher the degree of expansion, the better, and if it is 20 or more, you can get a much higher thermal efficiency. Therefore, in the present invention the mechanism And providing a variable compression ratio, is designed so that the expansion ratio is 20 or more. In addition, in the example shown in Fig.9, the mechanical compression ratio is continuously changed in accordance with the required torque. However, it is also possible step change of the mechanical compression ratio in accordance with the required torque.

On the other hand, as shown by the dashed line in figure 9, when the required torque becomes smaller, due to the fact that time is of acrimonia inlet valve begins earlier to control the amount of intake air regardless of throttle valve 17. Therefore, if Fig.9 completely display and the case shown by the solid line, and the case shown in dotted lines, in the embodiment, corresponding to the present invention, when the required torque becomes smaller, the time of closing of the intake valve 7 is shifted in the direction from the lower dead point (LDP) of the suction stroke of up until you reach the limit time closing guarantee control the quantity of intake air supplied into the combustion chamber.

Now, in the embodiment, corresponding to the present invention, the desired value of the output torque of the engine, that is, the desired torque is set in accordance with an operating condition of the engine determined by the magnitude of the pedal 40 of the accelerator, the engine speed, etc. of the engine Control such that the output torque required in accordance with the operational condition of the engine is generated even if the atmospheric pressure changes, becoming different from normal atmospheric pressure. Therefore, in the embodiment, corresponding to the present invention, the management engine is such that even if the atmosphere is the amount of pressure change, becoming different from normal atmospheric pressure, intake air mass supplied to the chamber 5 of the combustion chamber becomes the same as the intake air mass during the normal atmospheric pressure. Therefore, for example, when the atmospheric pressure decreases, the density of the intake air becomes smaller, so that the amount of intake air supplied into the chamber 5 of combustion, should increase. Therefore, as shown by the solid line in figure 9, when the inlet valve 7 is closed after passing the bottom dead point of the suction stroke of the time of closing of the intake valve 7 is attained earlier.

However, if the time of closing of the intake valve 7 occurs earlier for the above reason, the compression ratio will be higher, so if we assume, for example, that atmospheric temperature is the same, the temperature at the end of the compression stroke should be very high. Therefore, in the present invention at this point, the mechanical compression ratio is reduced, whereupon the temperature at the end of the compression stroke becomes extremely high. Next it will be explained with reference to figure 10-12.

Figure 10(A) shows the relation between the volume V of the combustion chamber 5 and the pressure P in the chamber 5 of the combustion when the atmospheric pressure is normal atmospheric pressure, and at esterna temperature is normal atmospheric temperature. Note that figure 10(A) and pressure P measured on the ordinate, and the volume V is measured on the abscissa, expressed in logarithmic values. The same can be said for figure 10(b) and 11 (A), (B).

Point "a" on figure 10(A) shows the bottom dead point of the discharge stroke and the bottom dead point of the suction stroke of, and the point "b" displays the time of closing of the intake valve 7 when the inlet valve 7 is closed after passing the bottom dead point of the suction stroke of. In the range from the bottom dead point "a" of the discharge stroke to the bottom dead point "and" quantum intake in the range from the bottom dead point "and" quantum intake until "b" time of closing of the intake valve 7, the pressure P in the chamber 5, the combustion becomes normal atmospheric pressure Ro. Then, when the compression stroke, the pressure P in the chamber 5 of combustion increases. When the piston 4 reaches the upper dead point, the pressure P in the chamber 5 of the combustion pressure becomes Re at the end of the compression stroke. Then, when combustion occurs, the pressure P in the chamber 5 combustion is growing to the point "d". Then, when the piston 4 descends, until then, until the start of the release process, the pressure P in the chamber 5 combustion is gradually reduced.

Now, for example, if the vehicle is used at a high altitude, the atmospheric pressure P is reduced to the pressure of the RA by the amount Δ. E. what if the inlet valve 7 is closed at the same time, as figure 10(A), the volume V of the combustion chamber 5 and the pressure P in the chamber 5 of the combustion change as shown in figure 10(B). As should be clear from figure 10(B), the pressure at the end of the compression stroke decreases from the value D to the value of Pf, shown in figure 10(B). This means that the mass of intake air supplied into the chamber 5 combustion has become smaller.

In this case, to make the mass of air supplied into the chamber 5 of the combustion, the same as in the case shown in figure 10(A), it is necessary to make the pressure at the end of the compression stroke is equal to Re. Therefore, as shown in figure 11 (A), the time of closing of the intake valve 7 should be done before coming exactly on the value of Δθ, so that when the inlet valve 7 is opened, the volume V of the combustion chamber 5 is changed from Vs to Vt. In this regard, we note that, if the time of closing of the intake valve 7 make coming earlier, earlier will come and time of the beginning of the compression stroke, so that the actual compression ratio will increase. Therefore, if the atmospheric temperature was normal atmospheric temperature, the temperature at the end of the compression stroke would become extremely high.

Therefore, in the present invention, to prevent the temperature at the end of the compression stroke to be extremely high, as shown in figure 11 (B), the mechanical compression ratio reduces exactly what and value ΔCR, so the volume V of the combustion chamber 5 at the top dead center of the compression stroke is reduced from Ve to Vg. If the mechanical compression ratio is reduced, the actual compression ratio will fall, so will fall and the temperature at the end of the compression stroke. On the other hand, if the mechanical compression ratio is reduced, as shown in figure 11(B), the pressure at the end of the compression stroke a little slow compared with the value of D shown in figure 10(A), and the mass of air supplied into the chamber 5 of the combustion, is the same as in the case shown in figure 10(A), so that the output torque becomes the same as the torque in the case shown in figure 10(A).

Next, explanation will be given of the above from a different point of view.

On Fig shows the relationship between the pressure end of compression stroke and the temperature at the end of the compression stroke in the chamber 5 of the combustion and the allowable limit TO where you can carry out normal combustion. Drawing area shown by hatching on Fig illustrates the area where the detonation and other abnormal combustion. Another area of the drawing illustrates the area where the normal combustion. The permissible limit value TO is within the scope of normal combustion exceptionally close to the area where abnormal combustion. When d is permissible limiting value TO get the highest thermal efficiency. Therefore, in the embodiment, corresponding to the present invention, the time of closing of the intake valve 7 and the mechanical compression ratio is determined so that the pressure at the end of the compression stroke and the temperature at the end of the compression stroke take it permissible limit value.

That is, as shown in figure 10(A), when the atmospheric pressure is normal atmospheric pressure and atmospheric temperature is normal atmospheric temperature, pressure PE at the end of the compression stroke and the temperature at the end of the compression stroke shown by point "a" on Fig. If the atmospheric temperature is the same as the atmospheric pressure, as shown in figure 10(B), falls, pressure Pf at the end of the compression stroke and the temperature at the end of the compression stroke when this will be shown by point "b" on Fig. On the other hand, when the atmospheric pressure falls, as shown in figure 11(A), if the time of closing of the intake valve 7 is attained earlier precisely on the value of Δθ, and the pressure at the end of the compression stroke is equal to D, the pressure PE at the end of the compression stroke and the temperature at the end of the compression stroke when this will be shown by point "C" on Fig. That is, the pressure PE at the end of the compression stroke and the temperature at the end of the compression stroke exceeds the allowable limit value TO, which can happen normal combustion.

Therefore, in the present invention, when the time of closing of the intake valve 7 reaches the lower dead point of the stroke of the inlet and the temperature at the end of the compression stroke and the pressure end of compression stroke exceeds the allowable limit value TO, which may occur in normal combustion, the mechanical compression ratio is reduced until, until it reaches the mechanical compression ratio at which the temperature at the end of the compression stroke and the pressure end of compression stroke take the limit value TO. The pressure at the end of the compression stroke and the temperature at the end of the compression stroke at this point shows the point "d" on Fig. That is, as will be clear from Fig, if the mechanical compression ratio is reduced, the pressure at the end of the compression stroke will fall only slightly, and the temperature at the end of the compression stroke will fall significantly.

Next, with reference to Fig-18, will be given a detailed explanation of option implementation corresponding to the present invention. The solid lines in Fig show the relationship between the mechanical compression ratio, shown in Fig.9, and the required torque and the relationship between the time of closing of the intake valve 7, shown by the solid line in Fig.9, and the required torque, that is the relation between basic mechanical compression ratio and the required torque and the dependence between the reference time of closing of the intake valve 7 and the required torque, when the atmospheric pressure is normal atmospheric pressure and atmospheric temperature is normal atmospheric temperature.

In this regard, we note that the reference point IC time of closing of the intake valve 7, is required to supply the amount of intake air, capable of giving the desired torque, the inside of the combustion chamber 5 becomes a function of torque and motor speed. Therefore, in the embodiment, corresponding to the present invention, the reference point IC time of closing of the intake valve 7 is stored in advance as a function of the required torque TQ and the speed N of the engine in the form of a map as shown in Fig(A), in the ROM 32. The reference time of closing of the intake valve 7, shown by the solid line in Fig, is calculated from this map.

On the other hand, as explained above, in the embodiment, corresponding to the present invention, the actual compression ratio is maintained almost constant regardless of the desired torque. However, if the motor speed increases, the air-fuel mixture in the chamber 5 combustion appears turbulence, resulting in easily occur detonation will not be able. Therefore, in the embodiment, corresponding to the present invention, as shown in Fig(C), the higher the speed N of the engine, the higher the target actual compression ratio. On the other hand, the mechanical compression ratio required to do the actual compression ratio of the target actual compression ratio becomes a function of the required torque and motor speed. Therefore, in the embodiment, corresponding to the present invention, reference mechanical degree CR compression ratio required to do the actual compression ratio of the target actual compression ratio, is stored in advance as a function of the required torque TQ and the speed N of the engine in the form of a map as shown in Fig(C), in the ROM 32. Reference mechanical compression ratio, shown by the solid line in Fig, is calculated from this map.

Now, as explained above, in the embodiment, corresponding to the present invention, if the atmospheric pressure becomes low, as shown in figure 11 (A), the time of closing of the intake valve 7 is set before coming exactly on the value of Δθ and - as shown in figure 11(B) mechanical compression ratio is reduced exactly by the amount ΔCR. That is, when the atmospheric pressure falls relative to normal atmospheric pressure, the time of closing of the intake valve 7 is approaching the moment of passing the bottom dead point of the suction stroke of varying exactly what and the amount Δθ of the amendment from the usual time of closing, shown by the solid line in Fig, until the time of closing, shown by the dashed line, and the mechanical compression ratio is reduced exactly by the amount ΔCR amendment of the mechanical compression ratio, shown by the solid line in Fig to mechanical compression, shown in dashed lines.

On Fig (A) shows the relationship between the value Δθ amendment to the time of closing of the intake valve 7, shown in Fig, and the atmospheric pressure PA. Note that Fig(A) Ro denotes the normal atmospheric pressure. As will be clear from Fig(A), the value of Δθ amendment increases the more, the more falls atmospheric pressure of RA, and becomes negative and decreases the more grows the atmospheric pressure PA. That is, if the atmospheric pressure RA falls relative to normal atmospheric pressure Ro, the time of closing of the intake valve 7 is approaching the moment of passing the top dead point of the suction stroke of, and if the atmospheric pressure RA increases relative to normal atmospheric pressure Ro, the time of closing of the intake valve 7 moves away from the moment of passing the bottom dead point of the suction stroke of.

On the other hand, Fig(A) shows the relationship between the amount ΔCR amendments to mechanical compression, shown in Fig, atmosfery pressure RA. Note that Fig(A) Ro also indicates normal atmospheric pressure. As will be clear from Fig(A), the value ΔCR amendment becomes negative and the lower falls, the lower falls atmospheric pressure of RA relative to normal atmospheric pressure Ro, and increases the more than rises above atmospheric pressure RA relative to normal atmospheric pressure Ro. That is, if the atmospheric pressure RA falls relative to normal atmospheric pressure Ro, the mechanical compression ratio is reduced, and if the atmospheric pressure RA rises relative to normal atmospheric pressure Ro, the mechanical compression ratio is increased.

On the other hand, if the atmospheric pressure increases, along with it becomes higher than the temperature at the end of the compression stroke, so that when the atmospheric pressure increases, the mechanical compression ratio is preferably reduced. On Fig(B) shows the relationship between the amount ΔCR amendments to mechanical compression ratio and the atmospheric temperature TA in the consideration of this case. Note that Fig () denotes the normal atmospheric temperature. As will be clear from Fig(In), value ΔR amendment becomes negative and the lower falls than rises above atmospheric temperature from The normal atmospheric temperature, and increases the more, che is falls below the atmospheric temperature from The normal atmospheric temperature. That is, if the atmospheric temperature TA increases from normal atmospheric temperature, the mechanical compression ratio is reduced, and if the atmospheric temperature TA falls from normal atmospheric temperature, the mechanical compression ratio is increased.

Thus, in accordance with the present invention, the lower atmospheric pressure of RA, the more approaching the moment of passing the bottom dead point of the suction stroke of asking the time of closing of the intake valve 7, while the lower atmospheric pressure RA or higher than the atmospheric temperature TA, the more reduced the mechanical compression ratio. Note that the value ΔCR amendments to mechanical compression ratio is stored in advance as a function of atmospheric pressure RA and atmospheric temperature TA in the form of a map as shown in Fig(C), in the ROM 32.

On pig case is shown, displayed by the dashed line in Fig.9, when the time of closing of the intake valve 7 is set coming up after passing the bottom dead point of the suction stroke of. In this case, if the atmospheric pressure falls, as shown in Fig, the time of closing of the intake valve 7 is set delayed exactly by the amount Δθ of the amendment, and the mechanical compression ratio is set falling exactly on the value ΔCR amendment. The value Δθ of the amendments to the IOM is the time of closing of the intake valve 7 in this case the less, the lower atmospheric pressure of RA, as shown in Fig(In). That is, the time of closing of the intake valve 7 is delayed the more falls atmospheric pressure of RA.

On Fig shows the program operational control.

In accordance with Fig - phase 100 to calculate the reference point IC time of closing of the intake valve 7 on the basis of the map shown in Fig(A). Then on the stage 101 - calculate the value of Δθ amendment to the time of closing of the intake valve 7 on the basis of the dependencies shown in Fig(A) or Fig(In). Then at step 102 is to increase the reference point IC time of closing on the value of Δθ amendments to compute the final moment ICO (=IC+Δθ) time of closing, and set the time of closing of the intake valve 7 is equal to this final moment ICO-time closing. Then at step 103 to calculate the mechanical support degree CR compression ratio on the basis of the map shown in Fig(C). Then at step 104 - calculate the value ΔCR amendments to mechanical compression on the basis of the dependencies shown in Fig(C). Then at step 105 to increase mechanical support degree CR compression on the value ΔCR amendments to compute the final mechanical degree CRO (=CR+ΔCR) compression, and set the mechanical compression ratio is equal to the final mechanical degree CRO compression

In accordance with a variant of execution in the internal combustion engine is approaching the moment of closing of the inlet valve to the moment of passing the bottom dead point, the suction stroke of increases in the atmospheric pressure decreases, and the mechanical compression ratio decreases with decreasing atmospheric pressure or at a higher temperature of the atmosphere to ensure that the torque at the output corresponded to the desired even when the change of atmospheric pressure.

In accordance with a variant of execution in the internal combustion engine reference point of time of the closing of the inlet valve, in which the output torque corresponds to the desired torque at a given atmospheric pressure, is memorized in advance, and when the drop in atmospheric pressure below atmospheric pressure, the time of closing of the inlet valve is set approaching the moment of passing the bottom dead point, the suction stroke of and differs from the mentioned reference time precisely at a pre-specified amount of the amendment.

In accordance with a variant of execution in the internal combustion engine, the more falls atmospheric pressure is compared with the predetermined atmospheric pressure, the greater is mentioned correction rate for the time of closing of the inlet to the Apana.

In accordance with a variant of execution in the internal combustion engine reference time of closing the intake valve at which the output torque corresponds to the desired torque at a given atmospheric pressure, is memorized in advance, and when the atmospheric pressure is growing above a given atmospheric pressure, the time of closing the intake valve is set distant from the moment of passing the bottom dead point of the suction stroke of exactly predetermined value amendments relative to that reference point in time of the closing.

In accordance with a variant of execution in the internal combustion engine increases the more the atmospheric pressure is compared with the predetermined atmospheric pressure, the greater is mentioned correction rate for the time of closing the intake valve.

In accordance with a variant of execution in the internal combustion engine, when the atmospheric pressure falls, becoming below a predefined atmospheric pressure, the mechanical compression ratio is reduced exactly to a predetermined magnitude of the corrections from the reference mechanical compression ratio with said predetermined atmospheric pressure.

In accordance with the option run in the engine, SG is Rania, the more drops atmospheric pressure is compared with the predetermined atmospheric pressure, the greater is mentioned correction rate for mechanical compression.

In accordance with a variant of execution in the internal combustion engine, when the atmospheric pressure rises, becoming higher than atmospheric pressure, the mechanical compression ratio is increased exactly to a predetermined value amendments in comparison with the reference mechanical compression ratio with said predetermined atmospheric pressure.

In accordance with a variant of execution in the internal combustion engine, greater than atmospheric pressure in comparison with a given atmospheric pressure, the greater is mentioned correction rate for mechanical compression.

In accordance with a variant of execution in the internal combustion engine when the atmospheric temperature is compared with a predetermined atmospheric temperature, the mechanical compression ratio is reduced exactly to a predetermined value amendments in comparison with the reference mechanical compression ratio with said predetermined atmospheric temperature.

In accordance with a variant of execution in the internal combustion engine, the more increases the atmospheric temperature in comparison with upon is given by the atmospheric temperature, the more increases said value corrections for mechanical compression.

In accordance with a variant of execution in the internal combustion engine when the atmospheric temperature falls in comparison with the predetermined atmospheric temperature, the mechanical compression ratio is increased exactly to a predetermined value amendments in comparison with the reference mechanical compression ratio with said predetermined atmospheric temperature.

In accordance with a variant of execution in the internal combustion engine, the more decreases the atmospheric temperature is compared with the predetermined atmospheric temperature, the greater is mentioned correction rate for mechanical compression.

In accordance with a variant of execution in the internal combustion engine, the mechanical compression ratio is reduced to reduce the pressure at the end of the compression stroke, so as to reduce the temperature at the end of the compression stroke, when the time of closing the intake valve is approaching the moment of passing the bottom dead point of the suction stroke of, to obtain the output torque corresponding to the required torque, even when the atmospheric pressure falls.

In accordance with a variant of execution in the internal combustion engine when the set point BP is like closing the inlet valve is approaching the moment of passing the bottom dead point of the suction stroke of, if the temperature at the end of the compression stroke and the pressure end of compression stroke exceeds the allowable limit value, which may occur in normal combustion, the mechanical compression ratio then decreases until the temperature at the end of the compression stroke and the pressure at the end of the compression stroke will not accept the aforementioned permissible limit value.

1. Internal combustion engine with spark ignition, equipped with a mechanism that provides variable synchronization to control the time of closing of the inlet valve and the mechanism for changing the mechanical compression ratio, at which time the intake valve closing is approaching the moment of passing the bottom dead point, the suction stroke of decreasing atmospheric pressure, and the mechanical compression ratio decreases with decreasing atmospheric pressure or by increasing the temperature of the atmosphere to ensure that the torque at the output corresponded to the desired even when the change of atmospheric pressure.

2. Internal combustion engine with spark ignition according to claim 1, in which the approximation of the moment of closing of the inlet valve to the moment of passing the bottom dead point, the suction stroke of increases in the atmospheric pressure decreases, and the mechanical compression ratio decreases with decreasing atmospheric pressure or under who is astonii temperature of the atmosphere to ensure that to torque output corresponded to the desired even when the change of atmospheric pressure.

3. Internal combustion engine with spark ignition according to claim 1, in which the reference time of closing of the inlet valve, in which the output torque corresponds to the desired torque at a given atmospheric pressure, is memorized in advance, and when the drop in atmospheric pressure below atmospheric pressure, the time of closing of the inlet valve is set approaching the moment of passing the bottom dead point, the suction stroke of and differs from the mentioned reference time precisely at a pre-specified amount of the amendment.

4. Internal combustion engine with spark ignition according to claim 3, in which more than falling atmospheric pressure is compared with the predetermined atmospheric pressure, the greater is mentioned correction rate for the time of intake valve closing.

5. Internal combustion engine with spark ignition according to claim 1, in which the reference time of closing the intake valve at which the output torque corresponds to the desired torque at a given atmospheric pressure, is memorized in advance, and when the atmospheric pressure is growing above a given atmospheric pressure, the time of closing the intake valve is set distant from the moment of passing the bottom dead point of the suction stroke of exactly predetermined value amendments relative to that reference point in time closing.

6. Internal combustion engine with spark ignition according to claim 5, in which the more increases the atmospheric pressure is compared with the predetermined atmospheric pressure, the greater is mentioned correction rate for the time of closing the intake valve.

7. Internal combustion engine with spark ignition according to claim 1, in which, when the atmospheric pressure falls, becoming below a predefined atmospheric pressure, the mechanical compression ratio is reduced exactly to a predetermined magnitude of the corrections from the reference mechanical compression ratio with said predetermined atmospheric pressure.

8. Internal combustion engine with spark ignition according to claim 7, in which more than falling atmospheric pressure is compared with the predetermined atmospheric pressure, the greater is mentioned correction rate for mechanical compression.

9. Internal combustion engine with spark ignition according to claim 1, in which, when the atmospheric pressure rises, becoming higher than atmospheric pressure, the mechanical compression ratio is increased exactly to a predetermined value amendments in comparison with the reference mechanical compression ratio with said predetermined atmospheric pressure.

10. The internal combustion engine and krovim ignition according to claim 9, in which greater than atmospheric pressure in comparison with a given atmospheric pressure, the greater is mentioned correction rate for mechanical compression.

11. Internal combustion engine with spark ignition according to claim 1, in which when the atmospheric temperature is compared with a predetermined atmospheric temperature, the mechanical compression ratio is reduced exactly to a predetermined value amendments in comparison with the reference mechanical compression ratio with said predetermined atmospheric temperature.

12. Internal combustion engine with spark ignition according to claim 11, in which more than increasing atmospheric temperature is compared with the predetermined atmospheric temperature, the greater is mentioned correction rate for mechanical compression.

13. Internal combustion engine with spark ignition according to claim 1, in which when the atmospheric temperature falls in comparison with the predetermined atmospheric temperature, the mechanical compression ratio is increased exactly to a predetermined value amendments in comparison with the reference mechanical compression ratio with said predetermined atmospheric temperature.

14. Internal combustion engine with spark ignition in item 13, in which the more falls atmosfer the I temperature compared with the predetermined atmospheric temperature, the more increases said value corrections for mechanical compression.

15. Internal combustion engine with spark ignition according to claim 1, in which the mechanical compression ratio is reduced to reduce the pressure at the end of the compression stroke, so as to reduce the temperature at the end of the compression stroke, when the time of closing the intake valve is approaching the moment of passing the bottom dead point of the suction stroke of, to obtain the output torque corresponding to the required torque even when the atmospheric pressure drops.

16. Internal combustion engine with spark ignition indicated in paragraph 15, in which, when asked the time of closing the intake valve approaching the moment of passing the bottom dead point of the suction stroke of, if the temperature at the end of the compression stroke and the pressure end of compression stroke exceeds the allowable limit value, which may occur in normal combustion, the mechanical compression ratio then decreases until the temperature at the end of the compression stroke and the pressure at the end of the compression stroke will not accept the aforementioned permissible limit value.

17. Internal combustion engine with spark ignition according to claim 1, in which the time of closing the intake valve to move in the direction of the moment of passing the bottom dead point, so the and the inlet to the limit of the time of closing, where it is possible to control the amount of intake air supplied into the combustion chamber when the desired torque is reduced.

18. Internal combustion engine with spark ignition at 17, in which the required torque is smaller than the required torque when the time of closing of the intake valve reaches the mentioned limit time closing throttle valve located in the intake channel of the engine, is used to control the amount of intake air supplied into the combustion chamber.

19. Internal combustion engine with spark ignition at 17, in which the required torque is smaller than the required torque when the time of closing of the intake valve reaches the mentioned limit time of closing, less than the required torque, the greater you set the mixing ratio of the fuel mixture.



 

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EFFECT: higher accuracy and validity of determination.

35 cl, 20 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system comprises fuel pump, fuel heater, thermal machine control component, booster valve, thermal machine coolant cooler and coolant pump. Said system additionally incorporates: first fuel metre to measure fuel temperature at high-pressure pumps inlets, second metre to measure output of thermal machine, third metre to measure temperature of fuel bled from fuel tank by fuel pump, two-way bypass valve arranged between fuel heater and coolant cooler; first, second and third setpoint adjusters and first, second and third comparators. Third comparator is connected with third metre and third setpoint adjuster. Second comparator is connected with second metre and second setpoint adjuster. First comparator is connected with first metre. First setpoint adjuster, second and third comparators and two-way bypass valve drive. First metre, first setpoint adjuster, and two-valve bypass valve with drive make temperature controller that regulates temperature in compliance with current temperature deviation from preset temperature. Second metre, second setpoint adjuster, and two-valve bypass valve with drive make temperature controller that regulates temperature in compliance with thermal machine power output disturbance (first disturbance). Third metre, third setpoint adjuster, third comparator and two-valve bypass valve with drive make temperature controller that regulates temperature in compliance with current temperature of fuel bled from fuel tank (second disturbance) Functions of first, second and third setpoint adjusters, first, second and third comparators are fulfilled by microprocessor controller that ensure required static and dynamic operating parametres of proposed system in compliance with programmed algorithms.

EFFECT: higher fuel efficiency.

3 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system comprises fuel pump, fuel tank, thermal machine control component, booster valve, safety valve and booster valve. Said system additionally incorporates: first fuel metre to measure fuel temperature at high-pressure pumps inlets, second metre to measure output of thermal machine, third metre to measure temperature of fuel bled from fuel tank by fuel pump, two-way bypass valve arranged between fuel gas heater and exhaust manifold, first, second and third setpoint adjusters and first, second and third comparators. Third comparator is connected with third metre and third setpoint adjuster. Second comparator is connected with second metre and second setpoint adjuster. First comparator is connected with first metre. First setpoint adjuster, second and third comparators and two-way bypass valve drive. First metre, first setpoint adjuster, and two-valve bypass valve with drive make temperature controller that regulates temperature in compliance of current temperature deviation from preset temperature. Second metre, second setpoint adjuster, and two-valve bypass valve with drive make temperature controller that regulates temperature in compliance with thermal machine power output disturbance (first disturbance). Third metre, third setpoint adjuster, third comparator and two-valve bypass valve with drive make temperature controller that regulates temperature in compliance with current temperature of fuel bled from fuel tank (second disturbance). Functions of first, second and third setpoint adjusters, first, second and third comparators are fulfilled by microprocessor controller that ensure required static and dynamic operating parametres of proposed system in compliance with programmed algorithms.

EFFECT: higher fuel efficiency.

3 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed engine comprises mechanism (B) to provide for variable synchronisation and control the opening of inlet valve 7 and mechanism (A) to provide for variable compression ratio and vary mechanical compression ratio. To produce required output torque at increasing atmospheric pressure, the moment of inlet valve opening is set to approximate to that of passing intake stroke DTC and mechanical compression ratio is decreased.

EFFECT: possibility to control temperature at intake stroke termination.

19 cl, 18 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed engine comprises cetane number determination device that includes the appliance of determining engine crankshaft angular speed. Amplitude of angular speed makes a standard criterion of cetane number estimation and is set proceeding from engine rpm and amount of injected fuel. Variation in angular speed amplitude defined by aforesaid device is compared with standard magnitude. Additionally, the engine comprises: device to determine engine load, engine rpm determination device, device to determine the amount of injected fuel that calculates at least one amount of injected fuel, the number of fuel injection and fuel injection pressure with respect to standard fuel proceeding from load determined by aforesaid devices, and fuel injection correction device to correct the amount of injected fuel after the amount has been determined, the fuel injection number if the latter has been determined, and fuel injection pressure is it has been determined proceeding from cetane number determined by the device of determining said number. In compliance with another version, the engine comprises additionally variable-capacity blower to vary back pressure or boost pressure, and boost pressure control device that controls back pressure or boost pressure proceeding from cetane number as determined by appropriate device.

EFFECT: invention allows revealing and controlling fuel injection proceeding from revealed variation in cetane number.

8 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: control system for power plant wherein relationship between multiple control signals and multiple control magnitudes exists comprises appliance to set target magnitudes that make preset magnitudes of appropriate control magnitudes and appliance to calculate no interrelated input signals for computation of control input signals as appropriate no interrelated input signals that resolve interrelation, for tracing control magnitudes of appropriate target magnitudes suing appropriate control algorithm built around the power plant built by simulating power plant as discrete-time system model. Aforesaid control algorithm comprises combination of definite control algorithm with predefined respond and definite independent control algorithm. System claim defines three versions of power plant control system.

EFFECT: better controllability and control accuracy and eliminating interrelation between multiple control input signals and control magnitudes.

22 cl, 39 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: engine comprising angular speed transducer 10 for tracking angular speed of rotation of engine crankshaft 11, torque created by engine transducer for tracking angular speed amplitude difference measured by transducer 10 as variation in torque developed by engine. Engine corrects the amount of injected fuel ob comparing angular speed amplitude tracked angular speed transducer with angular speed amplitude.

EFFECT: tracking torque via engine rotation angular speed amplitude.

15 cl, 11 dwg

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