Method of evaluating protective properties of materials of facial parts of gas mask with respect to β,β'-dichlordiethylsulfide by application of its simulator butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide
FIELD: medicine, rescue facilities.
SUBSTANCE: method relates to evaluation of protective properties of materials of facial parts of gas masks with respect to β,β'-dichlorethylsulfide by application of its simulator - butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide. Method includes application on one side of material of gas mask facial part of simulator - butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide drops with further analytic determination of the moment of accumulation in sample of limiting amount of simulator. Butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide in tested sample is caught by sorption substrate Quantitative determination of simulator is carried out with application of photocolorimetric method of analysis Limit of sensitivity of detecting butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide constitutes 1·10-3 mg/ml with inaccuracy not exceeding 15%.
EFFECT: technical result lies in possibility to carry out evaluation of protective properties of not only rubberised fabric, but also materials of facial parts of gas masks (rubbers) of various thickness, with increase of evaluation method safety
The invention relates to the field of research or analysis of the protective properties of the materials of the facial parts gas masks when exposed to drops of β,β'-dichlorodimethylsilane (DDS) through the use of simulator - butyl-β-chloridesulfate (BHAS) as a substance simulating the penetrating ability of mustard.
The chemical structure of butyl β-chloridesulfate shown in the formula
Analysis of the provisions of the "Convention on the prohibition of the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and on their destruction" and the current state of the methodical providing of tests for the evaluation of the protective properties of the materials of the facial parts of the masks with the use of toxic chemicals (TX) shows that it requires immediate improvement in the selection of models and development of laboratory techniques for the study of their use.
This is due to the fact that in recent years has significantly reduced the amount of toxic chemicals intended for research on evaluation of quality indicators of personal protective equipment (PPE), but the volume of conducted tests on samples of PPE in the course of their development, production, operation and storage remain at p is einem level.
Is known about the use of butyl-β-chloridesulfate as a simulator to simulate and study the physical, physicochemical and chemical properties of the compound (patent RU 2162077 C2).
However, the possibility of using butyl-β-chloridesulfate for the purpose of evaluation of quality indicators (defensive power) PPE was not determined.
It is known that as a simulator of the compound to determine the protective capacity of an insulating rubber material used γ-(chloropropyl)propelled using the spectral method of qualitative analysis (patent RU 2249810 C2).
The disadvantage of this method is that the used spectral method is intended for the qualitative (excluding quantitative) determine the protective capacity of only an insulating rubber material, and β-(chloropropyl)propelled is not the closest structural analogue of mustard.
Closest to the proposed invention is a method of evaluation of the protective properties of rubber materials used for the manufacture of PPE from toxic chemicals, namely the permeability estimation of β,β'-dichloromethylsilane through the protective materials the spectral method of qualitative analysis by time of protective action of the material when using butyl-β-chloridesulfate modeling penetrate the th ability of β,β'-dichloromethylsilane through materials PPE (excluding inhalation component) (patent RU 2231063 C2).
However, the disadvantages of this method is that the spectral method is intended for the qualitative (excluding quantitative) determine the protective capacity of only an insulating rubber material without regard to differences in the thickness of materials, taking into account only skin-resorptive effect.
The present invention is to develop a method to estimate time of protective action (including inhalation component) materials facial masks parts (rubber) of different thickness using the photocolorimetric method of quantitative determination of penetrating the layer of material substance.
Technical result achieved in the claimed invention is:
the possibilities for research on the assessment of the protective effect not only rubberized fabric, but materials facial masks parts (rubber) of different thickness with the qualitative and quantitative determination of penetrating substances with regard to inhalation component;
enhancing the safety of research on the evaluation of the protective properties of the materials of the facial parts of the masks;
the possibilities for these studies in terms of the "Convention on the prohibition of the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and on their destruction".
Given the technical result is achieved by way of evaluation of the protective properties of the materials of the facial parts masks for β,β'-dichloromethylsilane, which consists in applying to one side of the material of the front of the mask drops simulator - butyl-β-chloridesulfate, which is captured after the test sample sorption substrate with subsequent analytical determination of the point of accumulation for the sample limit of the simulator using the photocolorimetric method of analysis and the limit of detection sensitivity butyl-(3-chloridesulfate 1·10-3mg/ml with an error not exceeding 15%.
Thus in this way:
1. Assess the possibility of determining butyl-β-chloridesulfate photocolorimetric method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used when determining the protective properties of the materials of the facial parts masks for β,β'-dichloromethylsilane.
2. Conducted research to assess the protective properties of the materials of the facial parts of the masks using β,β'-dichloromethylsilane and butyl-β-chloridesulfate.
3. Determined the correlation between the time of the protective action of the materials of the facial parts of the masks corresponding to the criterion of exhaustion of its protective properties, β,β'-dichloromethylsilane and butyl-β-chloridesulfate.
Evaluation of the protective properties of the materials of the facial parts of the masks using butyl-β-chloridesulfate possible Prov is going photocolorimetric method of quantitative chemical analysis, based on the interaction of the compound with a salt of thymolphthalein in ethanol solution.
(reagent T-135), which is formed ester with yellow color.
In the reaction with the reagent T-135 mustard acts as an alkylating reagent. The course of this reaction presented in equation 1.
Similarly, this indicator responds butyl-β-heoretically. The direction of the reaction are presented in equations 2, 3.
As a result of reactions butyl-β-heoretically and indicator T-135 is also formed ester having a yellow color, the intensity of which will depend on its concentration in the sample solution.
To confirm the above comparative evaluation of appearance indicative of the effect in the interaction of β,β'-dichloromethylsilane and butyl-β-chloridesulfate with the reagent T-135.
The test results established that the indication effect is present in both cases, which indicates the possibility of using butyl-β-chloridesulfate instead of β,β'-dichloromethylsilane in the method of evaluation of the protective properties of the materials of the facial parts of the masks.
In the next step assessed the protective properties of the materials front, the hour is she masks for β,β'-dichloromethylsilane and butyl-β-chloridesulfate.
The essence of the method consists of applying to one side of the sample material of the front of the mask drops butyl-β-chloridesulfate and subsequent analytical determination of the moment of the accumulation pattern of the limited number of simulator calculated by the equation:
where q is a valid number BHAS penetrated for the test sample of the material of the front of the mask, placed in the device No. 5M, while protective actions, mg (criterion value);
PCt50- acceptable (threshold) inhalation dose pair BHAS in your mask space mask (0,31 mg·min·l-1);
and the ratio of the squares of the "work" section of the sample placed in the device No. 5M (S1=10 cm2) and the maximum surface of the front part of the mask with an accuracy of 0.5 cm2that while wearing the mask in position "Gases" remains open and can become contaminated with droplets of toxic chemicals (S2);
V is the volume of pulmonary ventilation of a person at rest (V=8,0 l·min-1).
The test objects were the following materials used for making facial masks parts:
sample # 1 - rubber, manufactured from natural rubber (NC);
sample # 2 - rubber, which is made of a synthetic isoprene rubber (SKI.
Samples of the test materials cut out the template and fix the piston devices No. 5M representing diffusion cell (see figure 1).
Piston devices No. 5M made of stainless steel and consist of a piston (1); the housing (2); a clamping nut (4)bushing (6), in which propylene three slit-like openings (7) 0.8×15.0 mm; cap (8)having an outlet nozzle with a diameter of 5 mm and a height of 20 mm (9).
For exceptions, contact the sorption of the substrate (11) with a sample of the test material (5) apply metal lath (3) with a mesh size of 2.0×2.0 mm 10...15 mm less than the diameter of the sample.
Laboratory setup for testing (see figure 2) includes filtering and absorbing box (1) for exhaust air cleaning); rotameter (2) to control the speed of the blower air samples; thermostat (3) to maintain a constant temperature; six devices No. 5M (4) vested in them, samples of the test materials.
The installation is connected to the vacuum line, set the temperature in thermostat plus 40°C and air cooling of the samples to air outdoor (infected) side with a speed of 2.5-3.0 m·s-1.
Further, the devices No. 5M sample test materials are removed from thermostat, remove the cover from the instrument and from the metering device to the outer surface of the samples put drops of β,β'-dal is diethylsulfide (butyl-β-chloridesulfate) based matching their number a specified density of contamination by sulfur mustard.
Pair β,β' - dichloromethylsilane (butyl-β-chloridesulfate)penetrated the sample are absorbed by the sorption substrate lying on the piston. Sorption substrate is periodically replaced with new every 15-30 minutes (depending on thickness of the test material).
The captured substrate is placed in a test tube with a glass stopper. In a test tube pour extracting fluid at a rate of 1 ml of the extractant on 1 cm2sorption of the substrate. Acting substance β,β'-dichloromethylene (butyl-β-heoretically) extracted 96,0%ethyl alcohol alcohol. The duration of extraction for 30 minutes without shaking or 5 minutes with shaking for 1-2 minutes.
The concentration of β,β'-dichloromethylsilane (butyl-β-chloridesulfate) in the extract is determined by pre-constructed calibration curve.
The experimental results presented in the table.
|The protective properties of the materials of the facial parts gas masks when exposed to drops of mustard gas and simulator|
|The test material||Time of protective action 1 mm material thickness, min, when exposed to drops|
|β,β'-dichlormid is sulfide||butyl-β-chloridesulfate|
|No. 1 (NC)||90,0||60,3|
|No. 2 (RCM)||75,0||41,3|
Data analysis the table shows that the time for the protective effect of test materials dropwise β,β' - dichloromethylsilane on average 1.6 times more than in the tests on butyl-β-chloridesulfate in similar conditions.
The time evaluation of the protective action of the materials of the facial parts of the masks is performed using the conversion factor (parameter correlation), obtained on the basis of results of experimental studies on β,β'-dichloromethylsilane and butyl-β-chloridesulfate:
where: τDDS 1the time of protective action dropwise β,β'-dichloromethylsilane, min, per 1 mm thickness of the material;
τIMIT 1the time of protective action dropwise butyl-β-chloridesulfate, min, per 1 mm thickness of the material;
k - factor time of protective action materials for β,β'-dichloromethylsilane using data on butyl-β-chloridesulfate determined experimentally for each material type.
To calculate the time for the protective effect of mother studied the crystals to 1 mm thickness, you must use the equation:
where: τIMIT 1the time of the protective action of the material dropwise BHAS 1 mm thickness;
τIMIT- the actual time of the protective action of the material dropwise BHAS;
L is the actual thickness of the sample of the test material, mm.
The equation for calculating time of protective action materials facial masks parts (1 mm thickness) dropwise β,β'-dichloromethylsilane using data on butyl-β-chloridesulfate is:
The conversion factor for the material of the front parts made of rubber based on natural rubber, is 0.67, and for rubbers, made on the basis of synthetic isoprene rubber, is 0.55.
The test results showed that butyl-β-heoretically less toxic than the β,β'-dichloromethylene, and in reactions with salt thymolphthalein in ethanol solution (reagent T-135) gives a stable indication of the effect.
The main advantage of the present invention is that:
instead of β,β' - dichloromethylsilane use less toxic substance - butyl-β-heoretically;
quantitative determination of penetrating the sample material butyl-β-chloridesulfate is photocolorimetric method of analysis with a limit of sensitivity of 1·10-3mg/ml and what okresnosti, not exceeding 15%;
the method allows to conduct research on the evaluation time of protective action not only rubberized fabric, but materials facial masks parts (rubber) of different thickness with regard to inhalation component.
The method of evaluation of the protective properties of the materials of the facial parts masks for β,β'-dichloromethylsilane, which consists in applying to one side of the material of the front of the mask drops simulator - butyl-β-chloridesulfate with subsequent analytical determination of the point of accumulation for the sample limit of the simulator, wherein the butyl-β-heoretically after the test sample is captured sorption substrate, its quantification is performed using photocolorimetric analysis method with a limit of detection sensitivity butyl-β-chloridesulfate 1·10-3mg/ml with an error not exceeding 15%.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of measuring a set of technological parametres of a chemical process taking place in a chemical reactor. The method of determining at least one technological parametre of a chemical process taking place in a reactor 2, involves passing a sample of the process medium of the chemical process into a lateral circuit (20, 22, 24, 26, 34, 40, 42, 36) and isolation of the said sample from the remaining process medium in the said reactor; circulation of the said sample in the said lateral circuit and its thermal processing therein to the required temperature; taking measurements of at least one technological parametre of the said sample, chosen from viscosity, pH, conductivity, turbidity, and/or taking spectrometre measurements with provision for spectrometric data at the required temperature; controlling the chemical process based on the determined at least one technological parametre. The method is realised in a system which has an output 18 and an input 28; lateral circuit (20, 22, 24, 26, 34, 40, 42, 36), connected to the reactor 2 through output 18 and input 28, which enable passage of the sample of process medium from the said reactor 2 to the said lateral circuit and back to the said reactor; a device 30 for circulating the said sample; valves V1, V2, V4, V5 for isolating the said sample in the said lateral circuit from the remaining process medium in the said reactor 2; a device for thermal processing 46, 50, 52, V7 the said sample in the said lateral circuit to the required temperature; and a device for measuring 38 at least one technological parametre, chosen from viscosity, pH, conductivity, turbidity; and/or apparatus for measuring spectrometric data at the required temperature in the said lateral circuit and apparatus for controlling the chemical process based on the measured technological parametres.
EFFECT: invention allows for taking a large number of measurements of different technological parametres, accurate measurement at temperatures different from temperature of the reactor, fast switching between measurements taken in inline and online modes, as well as prevention of clogging of equipment of the system.
18 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method relates to production of rubber-containing products, namely, to methods designed to control vulcanisation. Proposed method consists in correcting vulcanisation time depending upon that required for producing maximum modulus of rubber mix shear in vulcanising the specimens at flow metre and departure of rubber extension modulus in finished products from preset magnitudes. This allows processing disturbing effects on vulcanisation in compliance with tuber mix production and vulcanisation.
EFFECT: higher stability of mechanical characteristics of rubber-containing products.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in qualitative and quantitative evaluation of degree of both structural and deformational heterogeneity of such elastomers as oriented polyethylene terephtalate (PETP) or high-pressure polyethylene (HPP), using device for sample heating. As researched polymer sample, preliminary oriented PETP or HPP plate or film is used. Sample is placed on polished substrate, and a sheet of foil made of heat-conducting material is placed on the top of sample surface. Sample is heated through the foil with flat heating element at temperature 1.5-2.5 times higher than upper limit of operating temperature Top., during 2-15 seconds and under pressure of 3-4 g/cm2. Then pressure is reduced to 0.3-0.4 g/cm2, keeping heating element on sample during 1-15 seconds. After that, heating element is removed and sample is air-cooled. Degree of heterogeneity is determined visually both on sample surface and in the volume. After shrinkage change of form of investigated material sample is studied, followed by investigation of tension of compression and stretching in detected sections of higher and delayed deformations respectively in the form of deflection of positive and negative signs, in samples of investigated PETP. Also structure-formation at over-molecular level of different sample sections is studied.
EFFECT: detecting structural heterogeneity at the level of over-molecular organisation, visualisation of heterogeneities, simplification and acceleration of detection and investigation method.
FIELD: rubber technology.
SUBSTANCE: method is characterised by that, a sample is prepared for analysis during the vulcanisation process, for which 25 cm3 of toluene is added to a precise batch of the sample, with subsequent keeping the rubber mixture-toluene for 4 hours, after which gel-sol analysis is carried out. To carry out gel-sol analysis, the obtained system is filtered. The residue is dried until a constant mass is obtained. The content of gel in the system and concentration of polymer in the filtrate is calculated and its characteristic viscosity is determined. A graph is drawn with coordinates of characteristic viscosity - vulcanisation time and gel content - vulcanisation time, and from the character of the obtained graphic dependence the parameters of the vulcanisation process are determined. Two regions on the graph of the relationship between the characteristic viscosity of solutions and vulcanisation time are marked. On the first region, characteristic viscosity increases during the vulcanisation time of the sample in an almost linear relationship. In this case, the system contains gel, which shows that, in this period there not enough intermolecular transverse bonds in the sample to form a spatial structure, while the increase in characteristic viscosity is only a result of change in the length of caoutchouc macromolecules. The beginning of the vulcanisation process is shown by the increase in the characteristic viscosity of the investigated solution by 5% relative its minimum value. Content of gel increases from 0 to 100% in the second region. At the point with 90% gel content the sample is completely insoluble in toluene.
EFFECT: increased accuracy and efficiency of determining vulcanisation parameters on the initial stage of the process.
SUBSTANCE: method involves placing 10x10 cm large sample of material under test into measuring device for determining elasticity modulus Eel1 or super- elasticity modulus Esl1 of the sample. Then, the sample is kept in artificial sweat solution at room temperature during 3 days and then dried under natural conditions during 22-24 h and elasticity modulus Eel2 or super- elasticity modulus Esl2 are determined with the device. Sweat resistance value is calculated as P=(Eel2/Eel1)*100 or (Esl2/Esl1)*100, where Eel1 is the elasticity modulus of a sample in initial condition, in MPa; Eel2 is the elasticity modulus of a sample treated in artificial sweat solution, in MPa; Esl1 is the super-elasticity modulus of a sample in initial condition, in MPa; Esl2 is the super-elasticity modulus treated in artificial sweat solution in MPa.
EFFECT: high accuracy of obtained results.
FIELD: the invention refers to the mode of manufacturing of technical rubber articles for vacuum systems namely of rubber with reduced humidity permeability resistant to fluoride elements and fluoric hydrogen applied in a gas centrifuge.
SUBSTANCE: the mode of manufacturing and quality control of technical rubber articles for a gas centrifuge and a cascade of communications for gas centrifuges is in shaping of articles out of rubber mixture, vulcanization of technical rubber articles, drying and control. The drying is fulfilled in the conditions of high temperature vacuum at temperature of 0,6-1 from the maximum permissible temperature of exploitation and at pressure of no more then 0,08 mm of the mercury column (10 Pa) during 1-4 days for removal of volatile components of the mixture. The quality control is conducted in relation of a mass of products of gassing collected in a low temperature trap cooled by liquid nitrogen to the total mass of technical rubber articles.
EFFECT: the mode provides reduction of quantity of volatile admixtures removed from technical rubber articles in the process of exploitation of a gas centrifuge and provides quality control of the material of technical articles out of rubber.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing of materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preliminary conditioning of rubber specimens in paraffin hydrocarbon with 12-16 atoms of carbon in the atmosphere of neutral gas and in the fuel to be tested at a temperature of 130-150°C for 3-5 hours.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: investigating or analyzing of materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises investigating threshold capabilities of the multi-layer polymeric material and determining maximum permeability of oil product and time period required for reaching the maximum permeability.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: light industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises recording response of the material to be tested that represents an amplitude-frequency characteristic, calculating deformation characteristics, and determining the value of distributed mass of the vibrating part of the material. The response representing two amplitude-frequency characteristics is recorded for the same part of the material to be tested for various masses of two bodies that cause deformation. The deformation characteristics are calculated from equations of vibration theory for viscoelastic bodies.
EFFECT: enhanced precision and reliability.
FIELD: weighing equipment; chemical mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used for measuring content of binder in reel-up composite material produced by preliminary soaked thread. Method is based upon weighing. The constant values are determined according to the method as length of thread for specific type of items and value of linear density averaged for any reel before and after soaking by binder and reeling it up onto frame. Weighing is performed for item before reeling it up with soaked thread and after reeling-up and final polymerization of composite material to determine mass of composite. Basing upon the data received, content of thread is determined which value is subsequently used for finding mass content of binder in composite from relation of C=(M-LxT/M)x100%, where C is content of binder in composite, in mass percent; M is mass of composite, g; L is length of thread consumed for item, km; T is average arithmetic meaning of values of linear density of thread and its rests at any reel before and after impregnation, g/km.
EFFECT: higher stability of performance measures.
SUBSTANCE: method involves taking a sample, concentration of impurities, chromatographic analysis with separation of the concentrate on a capillary column and mass-selective detection while raising temperature from 35°C to 280°C, isolation of tridecane and 1-methylnaphthalene as reference compounds on the chromatogram, calculation of their concentration ratio in the sample and calculation of the time of contact between diesel fuel and water using the formula: x=0.42·y-1.8, where x is the time of contact between diesel fuel and water, h; y=Stridecane/Smethylnaphthalene; Stridecane and Smethylnaphthalene are area of peaks of tridecane and 1-methylnaphthalene on reconstructed chromatograms on selective ions with mass to charge ratio of 85 for tridecane and 145 for 1-methylnaphthalene, which correspond to concentrations of given compounds in the sample.
EFFECT: simple and reliable method with high information content.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: there is performed laboratory coking. Quality of each i-coal component used for preparation of charge for coking is evaluated relative to coefficient of process value (CPVi). Share of each i-coal component used at preparation of charge is determined in a coke and caking groups and by their dimension with consideration to coefficient of process value of each i-coal component. Coefficient of process value is determined correspondingly of the coke group (CPVk) and of the caking group (CPVc) and for coal charge (CPVch). Further there are determined shares of coke and caking groups in coal charge for production of metallurgical coke (Ccch, Ccakech). Share of each i-coal component contained correspondingly in coke and caking groups in charge for production of metallurgical coke is determined on base of value of share of each i-coal component used for preparation of coal charge correspondingly in the coke and caking groups and on base of shares of the coke and caking groups in coal charge for preparation of metallurgical coke.
EFFECT: preparing coal charge including coal components of various grades and wide range of coal basins for production of metallurgical coke of high mechanical properties.
SUBSTANCE: method involves putting a sample into a vessel which is put into a bomb and kept in a liquid thermostat at high pressure for a given period of time. The sample is then cooled for a given a period of time at the end of which chemical stability is determined from the value of an information factor calculated using a mathematical relationship. Oxygen is fed into the sealed bomb containing the sample until achieving excess pressure of 800±10 kPa which is fixed. Temperature of ambient air is measured and the bomb is put into a liquid thermostat preheated to 120°C at which the bomb is held for 180 minutes. The bomb is then taken out of the liquid thermostat and held at ambient temperature for 180 minutes. Further, ambient temperature and oxygen pressure are then measured. The information factor A is the fraction of absorbed oxygen which is calculated from a given relationship and if A≤25%, the motor petrol is chemically highly stable and suitable for prolonged storage. If 25<A≤85%, the motor petrol is chemically stable and suitable for short-term storage.
EFFECT: increased reliability and faster determination.
2 ex, 3 tbl
FIELD: measurement technique.
SUBSTANCE: rapid method for determination of water content in liquid fuel in domestic conditions. Method for determination of water content in liquid fuel in domestic conditions includes preparation of fuel samples by taking fuel sample into transparent measuring container and mixing in it. Testing is performed by freezing fuel sample at temperature below ice point. Then during freezing sample is visually inspected for presence of water in solid state in it. Further, after freezing completion, water amount collection is performed by filtering water crystals. Then water is defrosted, its volume is measured by weighing and percentage of water in the sample is calculated.
EFFECT: development of water content in fuel determination without using expensive equipment and special solvents.
1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to analysis of materials by determining chemical or physical properties of explosive substances. The device for determining sensitivity to the impact wave of an explosive charge (EC) has series-arranged triggering apparatus, initial charge, inert barrier, inert charge, facing the inert barrier and on the opposite surface. The said initial charge contains at least 90% octogene and the inert barrier is made from polymer substance with an amorphous structure. Thickness and density of the initial charge and thickness of the barrier satisfy the following expressions: 0.3<hic/hba<3; 1.3<hic×ρic<5.7; where pic is thickness of the initial charge, cm, ρic is density of the initial charge, g/cm3, hba is thickness of the barrier, cm.
EFFECT: more accurate control.
1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to apparatus for controlling quality of engine fuel. The chemical sensor is a plate made from aluminium foil, coated with a composite sorbent and an indicator. The composite sorbent used is a mixture which consists of silica gel 60, gypsum and liquid glass, and the indicator is a mixture of potassium ferrocyanide K3[Fe(CN)6] and iron sulphate FeSO4, which is blue in the presence of water due to formation of a coordination compound.
EFFECT: more reliable control.
FIELD: blasting jobs.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laboratory equipment used in training in theory of explosives, explosion effects and experimental methods of physics of explosion. Proposed laboratory comprises blasting chamber 1 accommodating mount 2 to place thereon or suspend thereto an explosive charge, electric pulse source arranged outside the chamber and electric cable 11 to connect aforesaid source with charge. Aforesaid charge is made from liquid explosive substance 4 representing a mix of liquid oxidiser and combustible filled in metal or non-metal shell 3. It comprises also spark discharger 5 or exploding conductor dipped into liquid explosive 4. Discharger 5 is connected, via high-voltage cable 11, with electric pulse source.
EFFECT: higher safety of experiments.
21 cl, 15 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: oil is deasphalted, prepared 0.5% solution of asphalt-free oil in toluol, photocolorimetered it at length of wave 510 nm, it is defined transmission density, by its value there are calculated absorption of light coefficient (Kla) of solution of asphalt-free oil from correlation: Kla= 100%*D/0.4343CL [cm-1], where D - value of transmission density at absorption band 510 nm; C - concentration of asphalt-free oil in toluol, %; L - absorption layer thickness of solution of asphalt-free oil in used liquid measuring cavity, cm; and by value Kla it is calculated content of resins in oil by empirically established formula:
EFFECT: simplicity and acceleration of analysis.
1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to methods of research and analysis of motor fuels and their components applied in oil processing industry, The method of determination of octane number of motor petrol and its components by research in range of 100-110 points consists in testing of researched product at an installation containing an internal combustion carburettor engine with variable compression ratio and a device for measurement of detonation intensity; further, the method consists in comparing research fuel detonation intensity with two reference fuels with a known octane number at degree of compression facilitating an average level of detonation with other things being equal; also mixtures of toluene with isooctane are used as reference fuels with known octane number; notably, share of toluene in reference mixture is determined from the chart prepared beforehand.
EFFECT: safety of analysis due to exclusion of toxic tetraethyl lead from reference fuels.
2 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: detection is carried out by application of finely dispersed aerosol of indicator formulation onto investigated surface with subsequent visual detection of indicator effect. Indicator composition is prepared using alcohol solution of tetrabutyl ammonia hydroxide, having properties of surface-active substance that helps to increase sensitivity and specificity of detection. For storage, transportation and application of suggested indicator composition, aerosol device is used, being made of low and high density polyethylene mix. Aerosol device and indicator composition have considerable advantages compared to existing facilities for detection of explosives as simplicity of handling does not require special training of personnel.
EFFECT: low time of detection will make it possible to take appropriate protection measures.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: facility for evaluation of coefficients of residual water saturation and replacement of non-mixing fluids in rock consists of hollow case with pressure tight cover; in case there is installed bush sleeve for sample placement connected to feeding and receiving puncheons; facility is also equipped with cartridge-trap. Notably, by means of a tail piece the receiving puncheon communicates with an axial channel and an end capillary of controlled cross section; the end of the tail piece is positioned in the cartridge-trap, while the receiving and feeding puncheons are interconnected by means of the channel. Additionally, the receiving puncheon has a lug in an upper part, a collar in a middle part and recesses for a wrench in a lower part. The said hollow case has internal side conic surface; the case is coupled with the receiving puncheon by means of thread on external side surface and a sleeve nut. The said collar is conjugated with lower ends of a thrust ring and a bushing put on the upper lug of the receiving puncheon; the bushing is equipped with an axial orifice of a conic shape in its upper part. An upper edge of the said thrust ring is conjugated with a lower edge of the sleeve. The upper part of the tail piece is equipped with a spring-loaded head including a cylinder collar and conic surface conjugated to conic surface of the bushing. An upper end of the spring is conjugated with a lower end of a cylinder collar of the tail piece head; while its lower end is conjugated with an upper end of the threaded bushing conjugated with threaded surface on an internal upper part of the cavity of the receiving puncheon. The upper end of the bushing for sample placement has conic side surface and is conjugated with the lower end of the case lug.
EFFECT: upgraded accuracy of measurements, and simplification of facility design simultaneously facilitating research of samples of various types of rock.