Method for destruction of solid rocks or concrete (versions)

FIELD: explosives.

SUBSTANCE: method for destruction of solid rocks or concrete, includes installation and driving of devices filled with mixture of substances in blast holes, initiation of combustion reactions in devices in non-detonation mode, accompanied by development of appropriate pressure in blast holes. Non-detonation mode of combustion is provided by application of mineral oxidiser in the form of pellets with size of 0.1-5.0 mm, which fills up to 95% of sealed device volume, besides prior to installation of device into blast hole, device cover is opened, liquid hydrocarbon fuel is poured into it in stoichiometric amount, cover is closed, and device is shaken. In version of method, dry sealed blast holes are filled with mixture of mineral oxidiser in the form of pellets with size of 0.1-5.0 mm with liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Initiation of combustion reactions is done by means of initiation facility arranged in the form of thin exploding wire, connected to source of high-voltage electric pulse.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to considerably simplify operations at site of works performance, to increase reliability of method actuation, its safety, to reduce cost of works and therefore increase landmine effect from method application.

5 cl

 

The invention relates to the field of construction, and in particular to methods of destruction of solid natural or artificial objects, and can be used for crushing hard rock for roads and tunnels, for the destruction of large monolithic construction sites, etc.

There is a method of destruction of solid objects, consisting in the use of reaction explosives (he)placed in drilled holes and sealed them (Reference to deterrence. Edited Binkowska. M.: Nedra, 1988, 511 S.).

Use "regular" BB for crushing hard rock or concrete is economically inefficient, as the detonation of EXPLOSIVES is manifested blasting action of an explosion, and the object is destroyed into small pieces. In addition, the use of EXPLOSIVES requires a whole set of measures to ensure the security (protection from shock and fragmentation, taking into account the wind rose, the notification of the population and so on).

There is a method of drilling and blasting operations for the destruction of rocks, consisting in drilling holes along the line of the emerging gap, installation and sealing them in charge of a liquid or pasty reagents with bezdetnaya the decomposition reaction initiated by heat or by the introduction of the catalyst (RU 2026987, AS 37/00, 20.01.1995). As reagents to predlagaetvashemu thermally unstable liquid exothermic bezdetnaya the decomposition reaction: concentrated hydrogen peroxide (PV), hydrazine, hydrazinehydrate, ethylene oxide or paste based on them. The ignition charge is carried out using smoke of gunpowder or the introduction of a liquid catalyst. The intensity of the gas, the temperature and accordingly the energy effect regulate dilution water - nariakira liquid. To reduce the energy loss of the well filled with water.

Use as reagents substances such as hydrazine or hydrazinehydrate may in some exceptional cases, but is usually undesirable because of their extreme toxicity (carcinogens, the first class of danger etc), ammonia as one of the decomposition products is also a toxic substance. The use of ethylene oxide, in addition to drugs, is limited both by the low temperature of its boiling point (+13°C)and the risk of formation of detonation mixtures with oxygen. The reaction of the decomposition of highly concentrated PV provides environmentally friendly products of the reaction, but, however, is extremely inefficient due to the low energy process compared to "regular" BB.

Closest to the proposed method (selected for the prototype) is a method of destruction of natural and artificial objects, including installation and stemming in boreholes devices, generators, filled with a mixture of substances, stereometry oxidizer and fuel, and initiating devices burning reactions in deflagration-redecoration mode, accompanied by the corresponding pressure in the bore-holes. As fuel use polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, nylon, aluminum, magnesium, titanium, etc. Redecorations the combustion mode in the method-prototype provide evenly across the cross-section of the device of combustible elements coaxially to the direction of propagation of combustion in the form of tubes or films with an inner diameter or the distance between the films below the critical value for a given substance or mixture of substances. The tube wall thickness or film, the diameter of the tubes or the distance between the films are selected so that the coefficient of excess oxidant was 0.5-1.5, and the burning rate was allowed to reach into the holes of the set values of pressure and energy (EN 2153069, AS 37/00, 20.07.2000).

The disadvantage of the prototype method is the complexity of the used devices and operations, which increases the fracture process and reduces reliability. In addition, the use of this method for crushing hard and rock ineffective, as used in the compositions are characterized by a low burning rate (~1 mm/sec), which does not ensure rapid outgassing, and, consequently, the explosive effect of the use of the texts in this way is very small.

The task of the invention is to provide such a method for the destruction of solid rock or concrete, which will significantly simplify operations at the work site, to improve the reliability of operation of the method, its safety, reduce cost and to increase the explosive effect of the application method.

The solution of this problem is achieved by the proposed method of destruction of solid rock or concrete, including installation and stemming in boreholes device, filled with a mixture of substances, initiating devices burning reactions in redecoration mode, accompanied by the corresponding pressure in the bore-holes, in which redecorations the combustion mode provides the use of mineral oxidant in the form of granules with a size of 0.1-5.0 mm, filling up to 95% of the volume of the sealed device, and before you install the device in the borehole open the lid, pour in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel in a stoichiometric amount, close the lid and shake the device.

The initiation of the combustion reaction can be performed using means of initiation is made in the form of a thin exploding wires connected to a source of high voltage electric pulse.

The solution of this problem is achieved by pre the proposed method of destruction of solid rock or concrete, includes filling pressurized volume mixture of substances, their sealing and the initiation of combustion reactions in redecoration mode, accompanied by the corresponding pressure in these volumes, in which the pressurized volumes use dry boreholes drilled in the erodible solid object, and redecorations the combustion mode in boreholes provide the use of mineral oxidant in the form of granules with a size of 0.1-5.0 mm, mixed with liquid hydrocarbon fuel, taken in stoichiometric amounts.

Sealing holes can be made by stemming and/or you can use a self-sealing plug. Self-sealing plug is preferable to use when working with short boreholes (less than 1 m). The design of the self-sealing plugs are known and described in the literature. This ensures reliable retention of high pressure in the borehole during the combustion of the composition.

The initiation of the combustion reaction can be performed using means of initiation is made in the form of a thin exploding wires connected to a source of high voltage electric pulse.

The proposed method was developed on the basis of a detailed experimental investigation of the sequence of operations when the variation of parameters of the combustible mixtures and substances (the ratio of oxidizer and fuel, the granule size of the oxidizer), as well as testing different methods of initiating and parameters of high-voltage electric pulse.

The principal result of the test is to establish the possibility of organizing a rapid combustion of two-phase mixture in the turbulent regime at high speed (~100 cm/sec) and achieve 100%completeness of combustion. The experiments were conducted or devices (containers made of polymeric material)placed on the bottom of the borehole (well) with a diameter of 50 mm and a depth of up to 2.5 m, or directly from the boreholes. The container containing granular mineral oxidizer, such as potassium, sodium or ammonium nitrate, or perchlorate, chlorates, and others, with grain size from 0.1 to 5.0 mm, was filled with liquid hydrocarbon fuel (kerosene, diesel fuel, etc.), taken in stoichiometric quantities, and shook. Dry holes were filled with a mixture of granulated mineral oxidizer liquid hydrocarbon fuel, taken in stoichiometric quantity. Boreholes with containers or with a mixture was sealed. Tests showed that complete combustion of the fuel in the quick of turbulent combustion during his initiation from thin exploding delays when applying for her high-voltage electric pulse at a voltage of 3-5 kV with energy cover less than 1 kJ and time of the pulse is less than 0.1 msec. Such a short pulse leads to a sharp increase in local pressure to a value above the critical value (~20 ATM), in which a laminar (layered) mode slow burning goes into a fast turbulent. In the turbulent regime granules of mineral oxidant and the droplets of fuel are emitted from the surface and burn in the free volume, and then, as pressure increases, volume is the ignition and extended burn of the whole mixture. The granule size less than 0.1 mm does not ensure the emergence of a turbulent regime due to a substantial increase in viscous forces. The granule size of more than 5 mm does not provide complete combustion due to the increased time of their complete combustion. For the rapid occurrence of turbulent combustion mode in a container or hole must have an initial free volume. Therefore, the device is initially filled with mineral oxidant to the level of not higher than 95% of full volume.

After combustion of the mixture in a well in a confined space during the time of the order of 10-100 milliseconds is achieved by the pressure of combustion products mixture over 10-20 kbar, which leads to cracking of the hard rock fragments ranging in size from 10 cm to 1 m If the energy of the initiating electrical pulse is less than 1 kJ, transition from laminar to turbulent combustion mode is delayed. In many cases, work is not assetsapplications moment. Combustion of the mixture in the quick of turbulent combustion leads to a significant increase in blast effect from the application of the method.

As a result of tests it is established that the proposed method has an efficiency on the order greater than the efficiency of the prototype method and 2-3 times higher than the efficiency of the known method is based on the widely used industrial EXPLOSIVES brand IV. Specific consumption of the mixture of the fuel with the oxidant in the proposed method, the destruction of the rock strength 2000 kg/cm2is equal to only 200-300 g/m3. This is due to the fact that the crushing of rock is the major fragments ranging in size from 10 cm to 1 m in the absence of blasting effect, characteristic of industrial EXPLOSIVES, where a significant portion of energy is spent on unnecessary grinding rocks. Received large fragments can be easily removed using a machine. All this reduces the cost of works. The effectiveness of the proposed method according to the variant of a device can be increased by 20-30% in the filling of the gap between the casing is placed in a well (hole) of the device and the walls of the borehole (borehole) dry sand or filling the gap with water, which is associated with an increase in the pressure of combustion products in an enclosed space.

Accommodation mineral oxidant in a sealed device allows PR is to change hygroscopic oxidizer, such as sodium nitrate, to increase the reliability of ignition and to reduce the time of combustion of the composition.

It was also established that when redecoration mode energy release in the context of rapid turbulent combustion in the well at a depth of 2-2,5 m stemming from the sand there is no expansion of any broken rock, noise at the fast combustion of the mixture and the destruction of the breed does not exceed 60 dB, the intensity of seismic waves by more than an order of magnitude lower compared to industrial EXPLOSIVES detonation of equivalent power. The experiments showed that the proposed method can be effectively used in construction for crushing hard rocks or concrete objects in crowded urban conditions at a distance of 5-10 meters from residential and industrial buildings or highways without interrupting their operation.

Significant savings in the production of the works is achieved due to the small diameter (50 mm) bore-holes (wells), as well as due to the absence of additional costs for transportation, storage and conducting security measures in contrast to detonatsionnoopasnyh explosive charge and is required for initiation of dangerous blasting caps.

The method is easy to use, because it requires only basic simple procedures such as pouring the liquid fuel in the elimination of the ETS and its shaking or filling the hole with a mixture of liquid fuel and oxidizer.

The proposed method is safe because the original device contains only mineral oxidising agent that is not capable of self-combustion. Fuel is added to the device only on the work site, directly before placing it in the hole. The initial mixture of oxidizer and fuel at atmospheric pressure it is difficult to ignite even from open flame and not capable of rapid combustion, therefore, work with a fully-loaded device, and the immediate filling of the holes with a mixture of no threat.

The method is cheap, because the mixture of the oxidizer with the fuel fill or device container in the form of a sheath made of polyethylene with a thickness up to 3 mm with an airtight lid or directly to the borehole. In addition, the way to use cheap mineral oxidant and a liquid hydrocarbon fuel, and for initiating combustion uses a standard source of high-voltage pulse, which is widely used in construction machinery.

Thus, the proposed method will greatly simplify the operation at the work site, to improve the reliability of operation of the method, its safety, reduce cost and to increase the explosive effect of the application method. The method can be widely used for roboto crushing hard rock for roads, and when the destruction of large monolithic buildings, for example when cutting into fragments of concrete construction projects, etc.

1. The method of destruction of solid rock or concrete, including installation and stemming in boreholes device, filled with a mixture of substances, initiating devices burning reactions in redecoration mode, accompanied by the corresponding pressure in the bore-holes, characterized in that redecorations the combustion mode provides the use of mineral oxidant in the form of granules with a size of 0.1-5.0 mm, filling up to 95% of the volume of the sealed device, and before you install the device in the borehole open the lid, pour in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel in a stoichiometric amount, close the lid and shake the device.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the initiation of the combustion reaction is carried out with a tool of initiation is made in the form of a thin exploding wires connected to a source of high voltage electric pulse.

3. The method of destruction of solid rock or concrete, including the filling of the pressurized volume of the mixture of substances, their sealing and the initiation of combustion reactions in redecoration mode, accompanied by the corresponding pressure pointed to by the x volumes characterized in that as the pressurized volumes use dry boreholes drilled in the erodible solid object, and redecorations the combustion mode in them provide the use of mineral oxidant in the form of granules with a size of 0.1-5.0 mm, mixed with liquid hydrocarbon fuel, taken in stoichiometric amounts.

4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the sealing of the bore-holes is made by stemming and/or use a self-sealing cap.

5. The method according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the initiation of the combustion reaction is carried out with a tool of initiation is made in the form of a thin exploding wires connected to a source of high voltage electric pulse.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method includes drilling vertical main and additional wells, besides selection of explosive for charging of additional wells is done by value of explosive detonation speed identified from the ratio with account of explosive detonation speed for charging of additional wells D0, m/s; ultimate tensile strength of solid inclusion rocks, Pa and ultimate tensile strength of host rocks, Pa. Additional wells are drilled with depth with account of solid inclusion soil elevation in depth of the main wells, between which appropriate additional well is located - m; number of the main wells, between which according additional well n is located, and diameter of additional wells - dwell∂, m.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of crushing of various solid inclusions with account of the main properties of host rocks, inclusions and applied explosives.

2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: device for destructing rock lumps consists of explosion substance in shell in form of elongated cumulative charge (ECC) 1 with metal foil placed in cumulative recess of ECC, of fuse out of initiating explosion substance (ES) in form of cartridge, and of "П"-shaped case made of split parts with air pockets 12 in vertical walls; also pockets are connected to chamber through orifices 7. The device contains a hold down fixture packing a two-part gasket 14 and 15 between a lump and the device. The "П"-shaped case is made of several parts out of materials of different strength and connected with bolts: main, several additional ones and un upper one.

EFFECT: raised efficiency of rock lumps destruction.

6 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: benches are developed by pillar and peripheral splits, wells are drilled within the limits of peripheral split, charged and exploded, peripheral split is developed as advanced relative to pillar split, main and auxiliary wells are drilled in massif of pillar split as horizontal along pillar, arranging a row of auxiliary wells higher than the middle of bench, wells are charged by their stemming with low-density material on both sides and exploded.

EFFECT: reduced amount of rocks dropped to lower arranged horizons, decreased volumes of additional handling related to lifting of exploded rocks dropped at lower arranged benches to the horizon of their primary location, increased efficiency of mining works.

1 ex, 2 tbl, 8 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: blasting in mining 4 or tunnelling face 9 is performed with shaft method. At that, within the contour of ore bode the blasting is performed by overmilling the ore mass owing to the fact that charges 13 are located as per the net determined with the value of diametre of the area of shattering action of those charges. Blasting of enclosing rocks within extraction power or the outline of the mine working is performed with coarse grinding by locating the charges at the distance equal to the diametre of their crack formation area. Separation of rock mass into ore and rock is performed by means of sieving at unloading points.

EFFECT: invention allows creating the conditions for providing high quantitative and qualitative properties of mining activities, as well as increasing the level of their mechanisation.

5 dwg

FIELD: blasting.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of blasting in mining and may be used in blasting of rocks by borehole charges of explosives in open pits. Method for blasting provides for drilling of blastholes, formation of gas cavity in bottom part of one or several blastholes, arrangement of explosive charge in each blasthole over air cavity with intermediate detonator and facilities for initiation of the latter and execution of explosion. Drilling of blastholes is carried out until elevation of underlying ledge foot, and prior to formation of gas cavity, reflector of shock waves is installed at the bottom of blasthole. As reflector of shock waves, it is possible to use loose substances with various density, value of which is in direct proportion to rock pressure. Intermediate detonator is installed over gas cavity in active part of explosive charge at the distance from lower end of specified charge within the limits of 1-1.5 of gas cavity height. Gas cavity may be formed with the help of elastic reservoirs filled with compressed air or other gas with maximum nondestructive pressure for these reservoirs or filled with granulated cellular polystyrene.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce costs for execution of blast-hole drilling works and to reduce scope of drilling works.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: blasting.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry, also to construction, and may be used in blasting of rocks in open pits, trenches, ditches. Method for breaking of rock unit by explosion is carried out in mining enterprises, where it is necessary to arrange water drain. In order to develop layers with various physical properties in rock massif, prior to explosion, directly under unit, at specified depth in layer of water saturated rocks, screen is created by means of water pumping from this layer, thus reducing its level in massif till required location of screen. Depth of screen location is identified by required depth of breaking or mining of rocks, by length of blasting wells or height of ledge.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of crushing at all technological stages of mining production and to reduce energy inputs in process of blasting.

2 cl

FIELD: weapons.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining, hydrotechnical construction and other industrial branches exploiting large-weight explosives and can be used in large-section drafts. Encased explosive is placed in casing from thermosetting film and explosive is compacted to preset density along with forcing excess air from aforesaid casings. Immediately after compaction, thermosetting film is heated by hot air. Casings with lower-density explosives are arranged on draft bottom, said casings having excess air not yet forced from casings. Then casing with explosives and air completely forced therefrom are placed on draft bottom. Charge upper part accommodates casing with explosive and air forced out as much as possible. Heating temperature is determined subject to properties of thermosetting film and requirements to explosive thermal safety and varies from 120°C to 200°C. In making the explosive charge, approximately equal density of explosive is ensured across entire charge, deviation from preset density not exceeding 10 to 15% depending upon external conditions.

EFFECT: higher quality.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: blasting.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining, more specifically - to methods for production of cutting cavities when drilling underground mine tunnels by blast-hole drilling method in coal and mining industry under conditions of non-explosive mine atmosphere. Method includes drilling of central well and neighboring peripheral blast holes perpendicularly to bottomhole plane, charging of peripheral blast holes with cylindrical tier charges, and charging of central well with concentrated tier charges, and blasting of all charges in a certain sequence. Concentrated charges are arranged in well at the level of inertial plug located between charges in peripheral blast holes. Blasting of all charges is carried out with continuous moderation, starting from those adjacent to wellhead part of pass to more deepened, and in each tier - by alternation of simultaneous explosion of all cylindrical charges in peripheral blast holes with concentrated charge in well.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of making deep cutting cavity and to eliminate possibility of charges compression.

3 dwg

FIELD: blasting.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry, namely to methods for shooting of ore from massif with flaky texture. Method includes drilling of parallel rows of vertical wells at the angle χ to line of internal bench edge, charging of wells with charges of explosive substance (ES), assembly of internal well and surface blasting nets and row short-delay blasting of ES charges with production of flat blast compression wave in each row. Angle χ is identified from the following ratio: χ = (-1)nπ/2 + θ + (-1)n+1γ-arcsin(ctgα·tgψ), where π is angle equal to 180°; n is index of cutting direction, nl in case direction of cutting goes from left to right when looking at internal edge of bench and n=0 in case direction of cutting goes from right to left at the same view; θ is angle between line of ore layers spreading and line of internal edge of bench; γ is angle between line of wells rows and line of crossing of impact compression wave front plane with horizontal plane; α is angle of ore layers falling; ψ is angle between plane of impact compression wave front plane and vertical line. It is possible to accept the value of angle among two values of angle χ, which correspond to various directions of cutting, when it is most close to 90°.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve efficiency of softening of intergrain ore joints and technical and economical characteristics of the following ore processing.

2 cl, 10 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: blasting.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry, construction, and also to chemical industry, and may be used in detection of relative serviceability of industrial explosives with high critical diametres. Method for detection of relative serviceability of explosives includes drilling of wells from upper surface of ledge, placement of explosives in them and explosion with rock tillage as ledge collapses. Results of tests of basis and tested explosives are used to compare difference in change of destroyed rock volumes before and after explosion in absolute indices. Then coefficient of relative serviceability of explosive is detected, by division of change in volume of rock of new explosive caused by explosion into change of volume of rock produced as a result of application of basis explosive. At the same time volumes of rock unit before and after explosion are efficiently detected with the help of laser scanning.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce expenses and increase efficiency of blast-hole drilling works.

6 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: proposed borehole tamping represents a cylinder with diametre commensurable with borehole diametre. Said solid cylinder is accommodated in the borehole at the depth of mass with intensive fracturing. Note here that cylinder top face is skewed and secured by ropes to crossarm arranged above borehole head. Cylinder skewed part top has a cut made parallel to bottom face with width making 0.1-0.2 diametre of tampering wherein one or several rods extended above them by 1-1.5 cm. Below skewed part bottom and perpendicular to borehole wall, one or several rods are arranged to extend above them by 1-1.5 cm. End of two ropes are secured to face skewed part at 2-3 cm from tamping edges. Note that one rope is secured nearby edge of tamping skewed part, while another end is secured to bottom edge.

EFFECT: intensified rock crushing, reduced consumption of explosive, lower costs.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: spaced-filled tamping consists of section above charge of ES (explosive substance) or air interval filled with loose material; metal spacing tamping is located above this section; tamping is made, for example in form of hollow cylinder cut along axis wherein hollow spacing cone is inserted from beneath. The tamping out of inert material is filled from top onto the metal spacing tamping at height not less, than three diametres of a borehole. The section above charge or air interval is filled with loose material at height of diametre of the borehole.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of explosive rock breaking due to blockage of products of detonation in charge cavity and elimination of metal tamping escape from borehole after destruction of rock around it.

7 dwg

FIELD: blasting.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of blasting in mining and may be used in blasting of rocks by borehole charges of explosives in open pits. Method for blasting provides for drilling of blastholes, formation of gas cavity in bottom part of one or several blastholes, arrangement of explosive charge in each blasthole over air cavity with intermediate detonator and facilities for initiation of the latter and execution of explosion. Drilling of blastholes is carried out until elevation of underlying ledge foot, and prior to formation of gas cavity, reflector of shock waves is installed at the bottom of blasthole. As reflector of shock waves, it is possible to use loose substances with various density, value of which is in direct proportion to rock pressure. Intermediate detonator is installed over gas cavity in active part of explosive charge at the distance from lower end of specified charge within the limits of 1-1.5 of gas cavity height. Gas cavity may be formed with the help of elastic reservoirs filled with compressed air or other gas with maximum nondestructive pressure for these reservoirs or filled with granulated cellular polystyrene.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce costs for execution of blast-hole drilling works and to reduce scope of drilling works.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry for maximum unloading of mine soil rocks, which are inclined to dynamic destructions. Method for prevention of rock bursts in rocks of mine soils, including drilling of wells into layer of hard rock, their charging and explosion of explosive charges. In lower part of layer, wells are charged with more powerful charges and exploded in tillage mode, and in upper part pf layer wells are charged with reduced charges, and controlled blasting is carried out. Wells in upper part of hard rock layer are charged in a row. Wells are arranged in rows symmetrically versus longitudinal axis of mine. Wells are drilled pairwise at the angle to mine soil in plane of mine cross section. Wells are drilled pairwise at the angle versus mine soil in planes arranged at the angle to plane of its cross section. Wells are drilled in such a manner so that they cross vertical plane, passing through longitudinal axis of mine, at the height of 0.15-0.25 m from lower limit of hard rock layer, where m is layer strength.

EFFECT: invention provides for increased efficiency of dynamic events prevention in mine soil and safety of mining works execution due to differential softening of some parts of hard rock layer, which lies near mine soil.

5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: blasting.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining and may be used to charge blast holes in process of blasting performance. Method for dispersal of charge in blast hole includes creation of air gaps with the help of pneumatic well sealer, diametre of which exceeds well diametre. Sealer is placed into bag, transverse dimension of which is more than well diametre, is freely fastened in bag, compressed till transverse dimension that is less than diametre of well, lowered into well onto connector tube to a specified depth, which is adjusted with the help of connector tube. Sealer is pumped with air till specified pressure, connector tube is separated from pneumatic well sealer and is extracted from well. Primed cartridge and part of charge are placed onto sealer. The next pneumatic well sealer is lowered as compressed on the same connector tube to a specified depth, and the whole sequence of actions is repeated to achieve economically and technically justified number of pneumatic well sealers in a well. As pneumatic well sealer they use toroid leak-tight inflatable chamber with nipple, outer diametre of which exceeds well diametre.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to disperse charge in wells of any diametre and to reduce charging prime cost.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method for dispersal of charge in watered well includes creation of air gaps with the help of pneumatic locks, prior to lock lowering into well, a sinker is fixed onto connection tube, connection tube with fixed sinker and attached pneumatic well lock is lowered into well down to a specified depth. Lock is pumped with air up to a specified pressure, connection tube is separated from it and is withdrawn together with sinker from well. Then the whole sequence is repeated. Sinker is made in the form of welded structure, which consists of hollow cylinder with cover framed with dome, which is made of bars, in cylinder cover there is a hole made with diametre equal to 1.1 of connection tube external diametre, at the same time lower ends of dome bars are fixed to lower ring of oval shape, made of the same bar, upper ends of dome bars are fixed to upper ring, internal diametre of which is also equal to 1.1 of connection tube external diametre, lower part of cylinder is fixed to dome by means of links, and with its cover it is fixed to dome.

EFFECT: reduced specific consumption of water-emulsion explosives.

2 cl, 1 ex, 3 dwg

Combined plug // 2372583

FIELD: oil and gas production.

SUBSTANCE: combined plug, including thrust part, for instance in the form of cylinder with expanding top-down cavity into which from below by cable traction it is draw in thrust cone. Cylinder is implemented in the form of sleeve from elastic material, for instance from rubber. Walls of sleeve allow variable elasticity maximal in bottom. Thrust cone, implemented of organic material, for instance from plastic mass, rest into bottom of sleeve. In cavity of sleeve and from above up to wellhead it is located particulate part, for instance from drilling sludge.

EFFECT: reliability growth of detonation products locking in charging cavity up to moment of total destruction of surrounding rock.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: suspended borehole plug is implemented in the form of cylinder, diametre of which is commensurable to diametre of well. Cylinder is implemented as solid, installed into borehole at the depth if massif with intensive cleat. Bottom butt of cylinder is implemented as inclined, and top is affixed by string to crossbeam, located over wellhead.

EFFECT: invention provides to intensify rock crushing process, to reduce unit discharge of BB, to increase quality of rock crushing, to simplify design.

1 ex, 2 dwg

Combined plug // 2371670

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: combined plug includes suspended plug, allowing casing with axial cavity, in which below by cable traction it is pulled into expansion cone. Casing with axial cavity is implemented in the form of hollow truncated cone from flexible material of variable plasticity with the greatest flexibility in bottom part, for instance from rubber. Expansion cone is implemented from organic material, for instance from wood or plastic mixture, and from above to suspended plug it is located poly-factional particulate part with predominance of crushed stone of fraction 10-20 mm in first portions.

EFFECT: invention provides increasing of locking reliability of detonation production in charging cavity up to moment of total destruction of enveloping rock by combined plug.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: in combined expansion-fill plug, including suspended plug, for instance in the form of slotted cylinder with no less thanc three long slots and conical extension of cavity downwards from bottom, in cavity of which from the bottom it is inserted expansion cone, connected to cable traction, according to invention, slotted cylinder and expansion cone are implemented from organic material, for instance cylinder from rubber-cord strip or plastic mixture, expansion cone - from wood or plastic mixture, and from above over expansion plug it is located fill part, for instance from chipping.

EFFECT: effectiveness increase of explosive crushing of rocks ensured by locking of detonation products in charging cavity up to moment of total destruction of surrounding rock of combined expansion-fill plug, composed from expansion suspended plug and filling part above it.

1 dwg

FIELD: earth or rock drilling, particularly means adapted to reduce mutual impact influence of explosives during well development and operation.

SUBSTANCE: method involves arranging one or more shock-absorbing members near one or more explosive doses, which prevent propagation of shock caused by detonation of the explosive doses. Shock-absorbing members include porous material, for instance gas-filled liquid or porous solid material, having 2%-9% porosity. Shock-proof screen may be arranged between detonating cord and explosive doses. Hollow charges may be placed in capsule.

EFFECT: increased reliability and capacity.

57 cl, 30 dwg

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