High-quality cardboard and products made from it

FIELD: paper industry.

SUBSTANCE: cardboard contains at least two layers: the first layer made of raw materials having high density and high module of elasticity; and the second layer to provide voluminousness for cardboard, in which the second layer contains chemical-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP) of broadleaf wood, cellulose and/or CTMP of coniferous wood at the specified ratio of components. At the same time coherence by Scott is achieved, making at least 80 J/m2; index of bending resistance making at least 5 Nm6/kg3 and strength in direction z, making at least 200 kPa. Invention also relates to products made of cardboard.

EFFECT: expansion of multilayer cardboard range and improvement of its quality.

15 cl, 8 tbl

 

The present invention relates to a high-quality cardboard and products made from it.

Prerequisites to the creation of inventions

There are many applications of cardboard. In all these applications to the cardboard impose their own special requirements, so the cardboard should have different properties depending on the intended end use.

Cardboard, which is subject to variation (for example, it should be coated, printed image, it is subject to cutting, creasing and folding) on high speed automatic machines must have the required strength to withstand the stresses and strains that occur during processing. Also during modification are important properties such as flatness and dimensional stability. These properties are usually improved by increasing the bending strength.

The cardboard used for the application of graphical images (for making postcards, brochures, book covers and so on) should have properties that promote good their promotion on the market. The purpose of this cardboard is, in General, the transmission of the message. Because the cardboard is part of the message, it is very important to its appearance. Therefore, the cardboard should have visually arachim appearance, for example, good gloss, smoothness and purity.

Typical applications of cardboard as packaging materials are packaging for dry foods (rice, cereals and the like), liquids (milk, juice, hot liquids, etc), tools (spare parts, etc), cigarettes, medicines, Soaps, etc.. Packing should, in the main, to protect the contents from exposure to the environment, i.e. they should have a high protective properties. The packaging must protect the contents against knocks during transport, handling and storage, the pressure in the storage stack and from excessive temperature and humidity. Thus, the cardboard used for packaging must meet the usual requirements of strength, for example, should have a high Flexural strength, bonding strength layer and a high tensile strength and tensile. In addition, the requirements to the quality of packaging for high-quality consumer goods can be as high as applicable to the glamour magazines.

The weight of the cardboard should also be small, so as to consider the cost of transportation.

Some goods, such as cigarettes, chocolate, drinking water, etc. are very sensitive to unpleasant odors and change flavors. Packaging for such products should,therefore, to protect the odor of the packaged product. Used cardboard, therefore, should have a high chemical purity and good performance when tested on an unpleasant odor and flavor. The deterioration in the quality of certain products, such as milk, may also cause light, and therefore, the cardboard should have a certain ability to protect from exposure to light.

Table 1 shows examples of important properties of the packaging for a number of applications.

Table 1
Examples of important properties of some packages for a number of special applications
Application packagingThe required properties
Food product deep freezeStrength/Flexural strength, compressive strength, protection from unpleasant odors
GlassesThe ability to save the form, the glued surface on the inner side, and a structure suitable for keeping hot liquids, purity, high performance connectivity Scott, visually attractive appearance
Packaging for liquids Flexural strength, suitability for printing, protection from unpleasant odors, cleanliness, bond between layers, visually attractive appearance, glued surface on the inner side and the structure, which is resistant to penetration of liquid, the protective properties

The highest quality available cardboard is made entirely of cellulose, for example, fully bleached sulphate pulp (SBS). This cardboard has a very good appearance, but he must have a large surface density to provide the required Flexural strength. This kind of solid cardboard is usually used for packaging, for example, cigarettes or bottles of liquor. However, packaging made from this type of cardboard, economically inefficient due to the high cost of the material. Not all applications require such a very high quality and therefore are created by other types of cardboard with different properties.

Cardboard usually contains 1-5 layers. Cardboard, which consists of three or more layers, comprises upper and lower layers, and one or more middle layers. An important property of high-quality cardboard is Flexural strength, which is required to achieve good vidoizmenyalos (for example, suitability for printing, creasing, cutting and forming of the packaging is to). High Flexural strength promotes good vidoizmenyalos on the packing machine. Flexural strength is also required to ensure that the protective properties of the outer side of the packaging. High Flexural strength helps to provide rigidity and strength of the package.

Flexural strength is most easily increased by increasing the surface density, as the large surface density usually means high Flexural strength. However, increasing the surface density is undesirable because of the increased cost (the cost of one pack). Therefore, there is an incentive to decrease the surface density while maintaining the Flexural strength.

Usually use the pulp for the manufacture of the upper and lower layers of cardboard, especially fibrous mass of pine wood, which has good strength properties. Cellulose also attached top and bottom layers of good properties for printing. In the outer layer can also add fibrous mass from hardwood to improve surface properties. Cellulose generally has a high purity, which is important in many applications. The middle layer of cardboard may contain wood fiber and/or cellulose. Woody fibrous mass, for example, chemical-thermomechanical pulp (STR, chmi - termomechanical pulp), is a desirable raw material, on the one hand, because it can produce at a lower cost than cellulose. In addition, when producing wood fiber mass is achieved in high yield and, thus, a high efficiency of utilization of raw material. High-quality cardboard SMTR of coniferous wood is the most common woody fibrous mass, used to make the middle layer, because SMTR from coniferous wood in addition to the high volume also contains long fibers, through which you can ensure good internal cohesion. Cellulose is usually also used in the middle layer in combination with a wood fiber mass as a reinforcing material due to its high strength properties. Thus, cardboard, made on the basis of this concept, has a high volume when stored strength. One example of this type of cardboard is described in international patent WO 9902777 A.

Due to its ability to combine high volume and high internal cohesion SMTR of coniferous wood is the largest source of raw material in the production of high quality cardboard. Unfortunately, high-quality coniferous wood is available only in a limited region the countries of the world, and delivery SMTR of coniferous wood, suitable for the production of cardboard, insufficient to provide the required amount of high-quality cardboard around the world. Use SMTR of coniferous wood is also less cost effective in many countries because of the cost of transportation. This, of course, is the most serious obstacle in the production of high quality cardboard.

Thus, there is a need to replace SMTR of coniferous wood, in which the replacement of raw materials could be used in the production of high quality cardboard. The aim of the present invention, therefore, is to provide a method of manufacturing high-quality cardboard, which does not require the inclusion SMTR of coniferous wood and which has a quality comparable to the quality of the usual high quality cardboard. To reach this aim by making high-quality cardboard according to p. 1 of the claims.

Brief description of the invention

The aim of the present invention is to solve the problem of finding replacement SMTR of coniferous wood, which could be used in the manufacture of high quality cardboard, high Flexural rigidity. To reach this aim by making high-quality cardboard according to p. 1 formula infusion is his invention. High quality cardboard contains at least two layers where the first layer has good surface properties and strength, and the second layer is designed to provide a carton volume, and the second layer contains SMTR of hardwood. This cardboard has an inner strength and Flexural strength, comparable with the properties of the standard of high quality cardboard, made on the basis of SMTR from coniferous wood.

The second layer of cardboard preferably contains 7-100 wt.% SMTR of hardwood and 0-93 wt.% cellulose and/or SMTR of coniferous wood, with (all percentages calculated from the total mass of fibers mentioned second layer, thus achieved the following parameters: cohesion Scott constituting at least 80 j/m2; index Flexural strength of at least 5 Nm6/kg3; and the strength in the z-direction component of at least 200 kPa; and, thus, fulfilled the requirements of high-quality paperboard for the manufacture of products for many different applications.

Even more preferably, the second layer contains 50 to 90 wt.% SMTR of hardwood and 10-50 wt.% cellulose, and/or SMTR from softwood or, most preferably 60-80 wt.% SMTR wood is estwennyj rocks and 20-40 wt.% cellulose and/or SMTR of coniferous wood, in this case, all percentages calculated from the total mass of fibers mentioned second layer and thereby gain high-quality cardboard, more economically attractive.

The carton may further comprise a third layer, located in the cardboard so that the second layer is located between the said first and third layers to obtain a high Flexural rigidity of the cardboard. Cardboard can contain additional layers, located between the said first and third layers, in addition to the second layer. These intermediate layers may be the same as the second layer, or a different fiber composition. Cardboard can, for example, contain only four or five layers.

Preferably, SMTR from the hardwood of the second layer contained SMTR from eucalyptus wood as eucalyptus wood is widely available globally, especially in emerging markets such as Asia and South America, and cost-effective when used.

In one embodiment of the invention, the cardboard has a cohesion Scott 120-350 j/m2; index Flexural strength 8-20 Nm6/kg3; content of hexanal less than 600 h/bn, in the determination within one week after the manufacture of cardboard, and an indicator when tested at the regional absorption (EWT, Edge Wck Test (using lactic acid) - less than 2 kg/m2and/or indicator for EWT (using hydrogen peroxide) is less than 2 kg/m2. Cardboard according to this embodiment is suitable for use as a packaging carton for liquids, as it meets the requirements of cardboard for this purpose.

In another embodiment of the invention the second layer contains 7-80 wt.%, preferably 20-60 wt.% SMTR from hardwood, all percentages calculated from the total mass of fibers mentioned second layer. Cardboard according to this embodiment has: the index of bending strength, comprising at least 5 Nm6/kg3; value of connectedness Scott comprising at least 160 j/m2; elongation at break in the transverse direction, comprising at least 2,5%; content of hexanal constituting less than 600 h/bn (definition within one week after the manufacture of cardboard), preferably less than 400 h/bn; indicator for EWT (using coffee with cream) less than 1.8 kg2/m2. Cardboard according to this embodiment is suitable for use in the manufacture of cups for content of liquids, as it meets the requirements of cardboard for this purpose.

In yet another variant, and the execution of the invention, the cardboard has: an index of bending strength, comprising at least 5 Nm6/kg3; value of connectedness Scott constituting at least 130 j/m2; elongation at break in the transverse direction comprising at least a 2.5%; and the content of hexanal constituting less than 600 h/bn (definition within one week after the manufacture of cardboard), preferably less than 400 h/bn Cardboard according to this embodiment is suitable for use as service cardboard for food, as it meets the requirements of cardboard for this purpose.

In an additional embodiment of the invention the second layer of cardboard contains SMTR from hardwood and has: value connectedness Scott constituting at least 80 j/m2; and gloss paperboard uncoated (ISO-UV; was determined using filter 420 nm) (ISO - international organization for standardization), comprising at least 82%. Cardboard according to this embodiment is suitable for use as paperboard for graphic design because it meets the requirements of cardboard for this purpose.

In an additional embodiment of the invention the second layer of cardboard contains SMTR from hardwood and has: value of St is duties on Scott, constituting at least 80 j/m2; content of hexanal constituting less than 300 hours/billion, preferably less than 200 hours/bn (definition within one week after the manufacture of cardboard); and gloss paperboard uncoated (ISO-UV; was determined using filter 420 nm), comprising at least 82%. Cardboard according to this embodiment is suitable for use as a carton for cigarettes, as it meets the requirements of cardboard for this purpose.

The invention also relates to a packaging made of cardboard according to the present invention, to contain liquids.

The invention also relates to a packaging made of cardboard according to the present invention, to contain food. In one embodiment, the package is preferably designed to contain frozen food.

The invention also relates to a packaging made of cardboard according to the present invention, the content of cigarettes.

The invention also relates to a packaging made of cardboard according to the present invention, to contain drugs.

The invention also relates to a packaging made of cardboard according to the present invention, for the content not the cosmetic products.

Detailed description of the invention

High quality cardboard according to the present invention contains at least two layers, of which the first layer has good surface properties and strength, and the second layer is designed to provide a carton volume. The first layer, which can also be called the top layer is made of material having high density and high modulus of elasticity, preferably made of cellulose, which gives the product good toughness. The first layer also has good properties for printing and provides the product with a surface suitable for printing. Through the second layer of cardboard, which can also be called the middle class, provide the product space, and sufficient strength. According to the present invention, the second layer contains SMTR of hardwood. The combination of the first and second layers attached cardboard high Flexural strength. In some preferred versions of the carton includes a third layer, which can also be called the rear layer. Using the third layer provides the possibility of optimizing the structure of the carton, and at the same time provide a high Flexural strength, such as Flexural strength cardboard can be saved at a high level, even if used in the t of the second layer with a lower internal resistance. The cardboard according to the invention may also preferably contain one or more layers located between the first and third layers. These layers can be called, together with the second layer, middle layer. The middle layer can have the same composition, and the second layer, or a different composition, depending on the desired properties of the cardboard. The cardboard according to the invention are produced in accordance with conventional technology for the production of multilayer boards.

Flexural strength and Flexural rigidity are interrelated properties that depend on the elastic modulus of the material and the thickness of the cardboard. With the aim of reducing costs proposed to make the cardboard with a minimum content of raw materials with a maximum thickness. Flexural rigidity can be determined by the formulas presented in the German standard DIN 53121:1996-12, formula 5.1.2.2. The usual method for optimizing the use of raw material for best Flexural rigidity, is to use raw material with high density and high modulus of elasticity in the surface layers (top and bottom layers) and in the use of raw materials with high volume (low density) in the middle layer. The purpose of the middle layer is, thus, retention of the surface layers to the maximum the nom distance from each other, while maintaining sufficient rigidity in the z-direction.

High quality cardboard is cardboard with high strength to withstand the loads arising from the modification, a good protective properties and good appearance.

Up to the present time for making the middle layer in the production of high-quality cardboard used wood pulp from coniferous wood, because due to the long and strong fibers of softwood provided greater internal cohesion than by shorter fibers of hardwood and, as a consequence, using the pulp from coniferous wood received the product with a large volume while maintaining the strength properties.

When a common desire to improve product quality and to achieve economic efficiency, SMTR of hardwood got into the focus of attention because of its great General availability.

SMTR (chemi-thermomechanical wood pulp) should be considered as a generic designation of all kinds of chemical-mechanical fibrous masses, irrespective of chemicals, temperature and/or pressure used during their manufacture. Thus, SMTR may, for example, be: BCTMP, APTMP, APMP, PRC-ATMP or CMP. In the manufacture SMDR output exceeds 70%, preferably prevyshaet%.

Strength properties SMTR of hardwood below similar properties SMTR of coniferous wood, which is used for the manufacture of cardboard. Therefore, SMTR of hardwood should not be considered as an alternative source for use in the middle layer of high quality cardboard, because the purpose of the middle layer consists of giving volume while maintaining the strength of the cardboard.

Unexpectedly, it was found that SMTR of hardwood can be used as a component of the middle layer in the production of high quality cardboard, without any substantial reduction in strength of the finished carton, compared to the cardboard with a middle layer of SMTR from coniferous wood. This result was completely unexpected, if we take into account lower strength properties SMTR of hardwood. One explanation is that this could be the result of a more uniform layer structure, which is formed when using SMTR of hardwood, in comparison with a layer formed from SMTR from coniferous wood.

It was found that the basic strength properties of boards containing SMTR of hardwood in the middle layer, comparable to the strength properties of the reference to the of Ronov of SMTR from coniferous wood under similar compositions compositions. A significant indicator of connectedness Scott, talking about the strength that was seen as the most likely obstacle when using SMTR of hardwood that had been made, had an acceptable level and was only minimally below this indicator paperboard, containing SMTR from the reference coniferous wood. In addition, it was unexpectedly found that the toughness in the z-direction cardboard from SMTR of hardwood is at a very good level, which is even higher than cardboard, containing SMTR from the reference softwood, despite the fact that the strength in the z-direction SMTR of hardwood lower than the similar indicator SMTR from coniferous wood. This shows that the internal strength of the cardboard from SMTR of hardwood according to the invention is very good. In addition, the index Flexural strength comparable to Flexural rigidity, is also at a good level.

Additional benefits SMTR of hardwood include: good surface properties and the visually perceived properties. When compared with the cardboard containing SMTR of coniferous wood, gloss paperboard, containing SMTR from hardwood, was higher, molding properties and smoothness is poverhnosti were the best. These advantages are retained when the calendering the base of the cardboard to the desired density. When using SMTR of hardwood in the middle layer, the gloss cardboard, thus, increased. As SMTR of hardwood is best visually perceived properties, and its use enables better molding properties, the requirements for the visually perceived properties of the outer layers is reduced, and the upper and/or lower layers of cardboard can be made thinner. This is an important aspect in the production of high-quality cardboard, as the suitability for printing and good surface properties are important factors.

Test scoring and folding showed that the cardboard from SMTR of hardwood according to the invention behaves similarly cartons of SMTR from the reference coniferous wood. Test using a solution of lactic acid to simulate the regional penetration into the packaging for liquids showed that the base boards of SMTR of hardwood according to the invention had greater ability to sizing than the cardboard from SMTR from the reference coniferous wood.

In addition to the usual good strength properties (connectedness Scott and strength in the z-direction) and good surface properties is resti (suitability for printing and smoothness) high quality cardboard must be of high purity in relation to the unpleasant smell and taste. In this aspect SMTR of hardwood is preferable SMTR of coniferous wood, due to the lower content of extractives and less content of hexanal in SMTR of hardwood, in comparison with the conventional cardboard from SMTR of coniferous wood and, consequently, the risks related to the problems associated with unpleasant smell and taste, very small. A large part of extractives, especially components of unsaturated fatty acids, which are the main substances that cause the formation of hexanal, remove from SMTR from hardwood to a greater extent in comparison with the conventional SMTR from coniferous wood. These give a good smell and taste of the finished carton.

Fibers used for manufacturing of cardboard, are usually natural fibers. Natural fibers are fibers that are not used in products for the consumer, as opposed to secondary fiber from recycled paper. Internal pulp, thus, defined as natural fibers. For cardboard, designed to be used as packaging for food products and the like, the use of recycled fiber is not normally allowed. Secondary fibrous material is not as clean as natural fibers, and there are limitations in the application of the AI secondary fibrous materials in these kinds of cardboards. According to the invention can be used with all types of hardwood, such as eucalyptus, poplar, aspen, maple or birch. Especially preferred SMTR from eucalyptus wood as when using the get good results, and it is globally accessible, especially in emerging markets such as Asia and South America, and its use is cost-effective.

SMTR of hardwood for use in the manufacture of cardboard according to the invention may have the properties shown below in Table 2.

Table 2
Properties SMTR of hardwood
CSF - sagasti canadian standard method (ml)200-600, preferably 300-400)
Volume, as measured by the standard method SCAN (m3/kg)2-4 (preferably of 2.5-3.5)
The index tensile strength tensile (Nm/g)10-60, preferably 20-50)
The index tensile strength (kPa)2-10 (preferably 3-6)
2/kg)30-60 (preferably 40-50)
The cohesion Scott (j/m2)20-150, preferably 40-100)
Roughness on Bindstone 0.1 M RA S1 (ml/min)500-4000 (preferably 1000-3000)
Gloss ISO (%)40-90, preferably 60-80)

SMTR of hardwood for use in the manufacture of cardboard to contain liquids, preferably, has the properties shown below in Table 3.

Table 3
Properties SMTR of hardwood for the manufacture of cardboard to contain liquids
CSF (ml)200-600, preferably 300-400)
Volume (SCAN) (m3/kg)2-4 (preferably of 2.5-3.5)
The index tensile strength tensile (Nm/g)20-60 (preferably 30-50)
Index tensile strain (kPa)2-8 (preferably 3-6)
The coefficient of scattering (m2/kg)30-60 (preferably 40-50)
The cohesion Scott (j/m2)30-150 (preferably 40-100)
Roughness on Bindstone 0.1 M RA S1 (ml/min)500-4000 (preferably 500-2000)
Gloss ISO (%)More than 40 (preferably more than 60)
The acetone content of extractives (%)Less than 0.5, preferably less than 0.2)
The content of hexanal (h/bn) (when measured within one week after manufacture)Less than 600, preferably less than 400)

As described above, the second, or middle, layer of cardboard contains SMTR of hardwood. In addition, it preferably also contains a reinforcing fibrous mass. As a reinforcing fibrous mass usually use a pulp of the same type as in the manufacture of traditional cardboard from SMTR from coniferous wood. Reinforcing fibrous mass may also be SMTR from softwood or a mixture of cellulose and SMTR from coniferous wood. For the manufacture of the first and usmotreni is, the third layer (the upper and lower layers) use cardboard pulp from hardwood and/or softwood, as in the traditional cardboard from SMTR from coniferous wood.

If the cardboard consists of more than three layers, for example from four to five layers, at least one of the middle layers contains SMTR of hardwood. For example, the top and bottom layers of cardboard can contain cellulose, whereas the intermediate layer, located near the top layer contains SMTR of coniferous wood, and a layer located close to the lower layer contains SMTR of hardwood. By careful selection of the composition of each layer can be optimized properties of the finished carton according to the intended final destination.

High quality cardboard divided into a number of different types, depending on their intended final destination. The cardboard every application has different requirements regarding the properties of cardboard, and therefore, it is assumed that each type of cardboard has certain characteristics, such as strength properties; internal cohesion (cohesion Scott, j/ m2); index Flexural strength, Nm6/kg3; strength in the z-direction, kPa; unpleasant smell/taste (who won hexanes, h/bn); a gloss (ISO), %; boundary penetration; elongation at break in the transverse direction,%;, etc. Therefore, the cardboard according to the present invention for various applications is characterized by the parameters corresponding to the intended final destination. The following methods and standards used in the definitions in the attached claims, and the measurements are performed in the example below.

Regional penetration is a measure of the hydrophobicity and the ability to sizing, and it was determined through testing at the regional absorption (EWT) according to the following procedure:

Samples of paperboard covered on both sides with waterproof tape and cut into segments of a certain size. Samples were kondicionirovanie at 23°C, 50% relative humidity for 10 minutes, and then measured the thickness and weight of the images. Then the images were placed in the test solution (bath) for a certain period of time. Composition of bath: lactic acid (concentration 1 wt.%, duration - 1 hour); hydrogen peroxide (concentration of 35 wt.%, 70°C, duration - 10 min.); coffee with cream (1 litre of tap water, 9.5 g of instant coffee and 17.5 g of dried cream, 80°C, duration - 10 min). Then calculate the index of absorption by the formula

where E= the index of absorption (kg/m 2);

W1= weight of the sample before the bath (mg);

W2= weight of sample after a bath (mg);

t= sample thickness (μm);

l= the total length of the edges of the samples.

The content of hexanal determined within one week after production of the cardboard, using the technique of gas chromatography, whereby the sample was heated in the vessel (Perkin Elmer HS 40XL) to a temperature of 90°C was kept for 40 min and separates the gas is sent to a gas chromatograph (AutoSystem XL with FID), which were separated components of the sample. The number of hexanes was determined in h/billion (µg/kg).

The index formation was determined according to the internal standard using the AMBERTEC Beta Formation Tester.

Flexural strength was determined according to standard SCAN-P 29:95 (L&W 15 degrees).

The index of bending strength (F) was calculated by the formula:

F=10^6*Fb/w^3 (Nm6/kg3),

where w= surface density (g/m2);

Fb= Flexural strength (mn).

Index Flexural strength correlates with geometric index of bending strength, which is calculated by the formula:

Fgeom= (Fprodelin*Fpoperen)^0,5,

where Fprodelin= index Flexural strength in the longitudinal direction;

Fpoperen= index Flexural strength in the transverse direction.

To assess suitability for modification of cardboard produced test creasing and folding cardboard For measurements used the width of the big 1,3 mm The size of the sample was as follows: width 38 mm, length 50 mm, the depth of the big select from the following values: 0 μm, 100 μm and 200 μm plus the thickness of the cardboard. Tests on folding was performed using the L&W method when the sample length of 10 mm, the bending angle of 120° and a speed of flexion 90°/s

The following properties were determined according to the specified standards:

the cohesion Scott: TAPPI UM-403 (TAPPI - Technical Association of paper industry USA);

the tensile strength in the z-direction: SCAN-P 80:98;

CSF: ISO 5267-2;

volume (SCAN): ISO 534;

the index tensile strength at elongation: according to SCAN-P 67;

index tensile tearing: ISO 1974;

the coefficient of light scattering: ISO 9416;

roughness on Bindstone: SCAN-P 84;

gloss: ISO 2470;

strength in the z-direction: SCAN-P 80;

elongation at break in the transverse direction: SCAN-P 67;

density: ISO 534.

According to the invention the second layer (middle layer) preferably contains 7-100 wt.% SMTR from hardwood (all percentages calculated from the total mass of fibers of the second layer). The remaining fibrous material layer is a cellulose and/or SMTR from coniferous wood. Depending on the desired end use cardboard composition of each layer is selected to meet the requirements for this particular horse is a specific application. The second layer preferably contains 50 to 90 wt.% SMTR of hardwood and 10-50 wt.% cellulose and/or SMTR from coniferous wood. Even more preferably, the second layer contains 60-80 wt.% SMTR of hardwood and 20-40 wt.% cellulose and/or SMTR of coniferous wood, resulting in a gain cardboard, which, for example, a very suitable as paperboard for folding cartons (FBB-folding box board). All the resulting boards are high quality, with cohesion Scott 80-400 j/m2, index Flexural strength of 5-20 Nm6/kg3and strength in the z-direction 200-500 kPa.

In one preferred embodiment according to the invention, the cardboard has: cohesion Scott 120-350 j/m2; index Flexural strength 8-20 Nm6/kg3; content of hexanal less than 600 hours/billion, in the determination within one week after production of the cardboard; and an indicator when EWT (at tests at the regional absorption) (using lactic acid) less than 2 kg/m2and/or indicator for EWT (using hydrogen peroxide) less than 2 kg/m2. Cardboard according to this embodiment has a high purity, high strength and good performance on the absorption of hydrogen peroxide and/or lactic acid, and all these parameters are important for packaging the cnih materials, intended to contain liquids. The cardboard meets the requirements for materials intended for use as a packaging carton for liquid, and, thus, suitable for the manufacture of packaging boards contain liquids such as milk or juice.

In another embodiment according to the invention the second layer contains 7-80 wt.%, preferably 20-60 wt.% SMTR from hardwood, all percentages calculated from the total mass of fibers mentioned second layer. Cardboard according to this embodiment has an index of bending strength, comprising at least 5 Nm6/kg3; cohesion Scott, component of at least 160 j/m2; elongation at break in the transverse direction, comprising at least 2,5%, preferably of 3.5%; the content of hexanal less than 600 hours/bn (definition within one week after the manufacture of cardboard), preferably, less than 400 hours/billion; and an indicator when EWT (using coffee with cream) less than 1.8 kg2/m2. This sort of cardboard has a high rate forming, high purity and good strength in the transverse direction, which meets the requirements of the cardboard Cup, and, thus, is suitable for the manufacture glasses for the content of liquids for example, coffee or other drinks.

In yet another embodiment according to the invention, the cardboard has: an index of bending strength, comprising at least 5 Nm6/kg3; cohesion Scott, component of at least 130 j/m2; elongation at break in the transverse direction, comprising at least 2,5%, preferably of 3.5%; the content of hexanal less than 600 hours/bn (definition within one week after the manufacture of cardboard), preferably less than 400 h/bn Cardboard according to this embodiment has a high purity, combined with good strength and elongation in the transverse direction, and meets the requirements for service cardboard for food, making it suitable for use in the manufacture of packaging cartons for food products, especially packaging cardboard, in which the food product is in direct contact with the cardboard.

In an additional embodiment according to the invention, the second layer of cardboard contains SMTR from hardwood and has: cohesion Scott constituting at least 80 j/m2; and gloss (ISO-UV; was determined using filter 420 nm) paperboard uncoated part at least 82%. Cardboard according to Dunn the mu embodiment has good strength and good visually perceived properties and meets the requirements of paperboard for graphic design, and, thus, suitable for use as packaging boards content, for example, pharmaceuticals or cosmetics.

In another embodiment according to the invention the second layer of cardboard contains SMTR from hardwood and has: cohesion Scott constituting at least 80 j/m2; content of hexanal less than 300 hours/billion, preferably less than 200 hours/bn (definition within one week after the manufacture of cardboard); and gloss (ISO-UV; was determined using filter 420 nm) paperboard uncoated part at least 82%. Cardboard according to this embodiment has good strength and good visually perceived properties, and very good purity, and meets the requirements of cardboard for content of cigarettes.

Example

To assess quality Board according to the invention was carried out series of tests in which the cartons from SMTR of hardwood three different compositions were compared with the respective boards of SMTR from coniferous wood. All cartons subjected to tests, had a three-layer structure including upper and lower layers, and the middle of the th.

Studied strength, surface properties, and properties when folding/creasing various artists. All tests were performed according to the procedures and standards specified above, and all analyses were conducted according to the available standards after conditioning at 23°C and 50%relative humidity.

Fibrous mass

SMTR that used in the middle layer were from eucalyptus wood and softwood. Properties of both fibrous masses fit the normal properties the most important properties are presented in Table 4.

Table 4
Properties SMTR from eucalyptus wood and SMTR from coniferous wood
SMTR from eucalyptus woodSMTR from coniferous wood
CSF (ml)540480
Volume (SCAN) (m3/kg)3.04 from2,82
The index tensile strength tensile (Nm/g)2430,2
Indexapophenia tear (CMA 2/g)310,7
The coefficient of scattering (m2/kg)42,036,5
The cohesion Scott (j/m2)4565
Strength in the z-direction (kPa)102135
Roughness on Bindstone 0.1 M RA S1 (ml/min)25062653
Gloss ISO (%)8475

As shown in Table 4, the greatest differences between the two fibrous masses occurred: internal strength (cohesion Scott and strength in the z-direction), the resistance to tearing (rending index), index tensile strength and the visually perceived properties (coefficient of light scattering and gloss ISO). Differences in strength properties can be explained by the morphology of the fibers, i.e. the fact that eucalyptus fiber is much shorter and smaller than the fiber softwood.

As a reinforcing fibrous masses used Kraft pulp from coniferous wood, with a degree in byvania to 25°SR, and eucalyptus Kraft pulp, ground to 35 SR. The whipping was produced on a pilot paper machine with a refiner model JC00. For the upper and lower layers used Kraft pulp from coniferous wood and Kraft pulp from eucalyptus wood.

Cardboard

It was made six three-layer cardboard, each of which contained the top and bottom layers made of Kraft pulp composition, and a middle layer made of SMTR/Kraft pulp composition, with different formulations of the compositions. The density of the boards was approximately 170 g/m2and lots of layers: top, middle and bottom respectively: 34-108-28. The top and bottom layers for all boards have the same composition: SMTR of Kraft pulp from coniferous wood /Kraft pulp from eucalyptus wood = 30/70.

Strength

Cartons with the middle layer containing 60-70-80 wt.% SMTR from spruce wood (standard) and 60-70-80 wt.% eucalyptus wood (according to the invention), were subjected to comparative tests. Among the mechanical properties, which were determined during the tests were: internal cohesion (cohesion Scott and strength in the z-direction); the index of bending strength (which correlation is associated with Flexural rigidity); and the index of resistance the tear. The tests were performed prior to calendering. Flexural strength was decreased after calendering. Formulations of the compositions of the boards and their properties before calendering shown in Table 5.

Table 5
Formulations of the compositions and properties of cardboard to calendering
Test # Share SMTR from eucalyptus wood (%)Share
SMTR from spruce wood (%)
Kraft Zell-vine
SW (%)
Kraft
pulp
from MCA-
litovoi wood
(%)
Density (kg/m3)Connected-ness Scott (j/m2)Index Flexural strength (Nm6/kg3)Strength
in the direction of z (kPa)
The index of resistance to tearing (CMA2/g)
1 standard080416412164to 25.325413,9
2 standard07092142920723,129114,0
3 standard060271348926918,342714.4V
480041640913932,627710,3
570092143717324,933111,3
660027 1346925621,642212,1

The comparison shows that the internal cohesion (cohesion Scott) cardboard according to the invention (containing SMTR from eucalyptus wood) (test No. 4-6) is comparable with the internal coherence of the reference carton (containing SMTR wood spruce) (tests # 1-3), which was unexpected, taking into account the value of connectedness Scott's most SMTR from eucalyptus wood (see Table 4). Strength in the z-direction even more cartons containing SMTR from eucalyptus wood than cardboard, containing SMTR from spruce wood.

The cardboard according to the invention differs from the reference cardboard for resistance to tearing. However, this difference is less than that which could be expected, considering the great difference in the length of the fiber XMTR from eucalyptus wood and SMTR from spruce wood.

Index Flexural strength of the cardboard according to the invention even more than in the reference Board. The reason for this may lie in the fact that the carton contained SMTR from eucalyptus wood, had more volume than the cardboard containing SMTR from spruce wood.

Surface properties

The index fo is mounia and the surface roughness of the boards were determined according to standard methods, described above. The surface roughness is a way to determine the smoothness of the surface, which is an important parameter for printing. The index formation was determined by deviations of the surface density using equipment Ambertec, which was measured by small deviations of the density.

Table 6
The index of the molding and the surface roughness of the cartoons
Test # CardboardThe index formation, determined using equipment Amberetec Norm. Stdev.Roughness on Bindstone 0.1 M RA S1 (ml/min), accuracy
+/-10%
1 standardThe spruce 800,761813
2 standardThe spruce 700,791653
3 standardThe spruce 600,861928
4Eucalyptus wood 80 0,651337
5Eucalyptus wood 700,781729
6Eucalyptus wood 600,831895

Index molding showed improved forming cartons according to the invention. The improvement was most significant when a large content SMTR, comprising 80 wt.%.

The smoothness of the surface of the cardboard according to the invention is similar to the smoothness of the surface of the reference Board. The surface becomes more rough with increase in the content of the reinforcing fibrous mass, possibly due to the deterioration in the molding when using long fiber pulp from coniferous wood.

The ability to sizing

The ability to sizing (fluid loss) cardboard investigated by adding different AKD in the middle layer, while maintaining proceedest surface (outer layers) constant. Were testing at the regional absorption (EWT) using lactic acid according to the procedure described previously. Master carton contains 60 wt.% SMTR from spruce wood in the middle layer with the addition of AKD 2.5 kg/so the Cardboard according to the invention contained 60 mA is.% SMTR from eucalyptus wood with a variable content of additives AKD. All samples of cardboard utverjdali roll, i.e. curing happened when the cardboard kept in the form of rolls. The concentration of the solution of lactic acid in the bath was 1%, the treatment lasted 1 hour.

Table 7
The absorption of liquids with different content of additives AKD
CardboardAdditive AKD (kg/t)Regional absorption (EWT) lactic acid (kg/m2)
The cardboard with a fiber content of spruce wood 60 wt.% (standard)2,50,199
The cardboard with the content of eucalyptus fiber 60 wt.%1,50,223
The cardboard with the content of eucalyptus fiber 60 wt.%2,5is 0.135
The cardboard with the content of eucalyptus fiber 60 wt.%3,50,146

When AKD content of 2.5 kg/t of cardboard according to the invention had more proceedsto than the corresponding reference cardboard. Any on the additional improvement was achieved by increasing the content of AKD.

Folding and creasing

The composition subjected to the tests of cartons contained in the middle layer 80 wt.%, and respectively 60 wt.%, SMTR of softwood and 80 wt.%, and respectively 60 wt.%, SMTR from eucalyptus wood. Formulations of the compositions of the other layers, and the surface density of the boards were the same as described above.

Table 8
Force at the creasing and the time of folding in the transverse direction of carton
CardboardThe depth of BiH (mm)Force at the creasing (N)The relative maximum point folding (Nm) L&W
The cardboard with a fiber content of spruce wood 80, wt.%01260,64
The cardboard with a fiber content of spruce wood 80, wt.%1001730,55
The cardboard with a fiber content of spruce wood 80, wt.%2002190,48
The cardboard with the content of eucalyptus fiber 80, wt.%01180,65
The cardboard with the content of eucalyptus fiber 80, wt.%1001600,54
The cardboard with the content of eucalyptus fiber 80, wt.%200229044
The cardboard with a fiber content of spruce wood 60, wt.%01070,76
The cardboard with a fiber content of spruce wood 60, wt.%1001420,66
The cardboard with a fiber content of spruce wood 60, wt.%2001810,55
The cardboard with the content of eucalyptus fiber 60, wt.%01090,76
The cardboard with the content of eucalyptus fiber 60, wt.% 1001380,56
The cardboard with the content of eucalyptus fiber 60, wt.%2002010,52

Test scoring showed that the cardboard according to the invention and reference cardboard behave exactly the same way. With increase in the content of the reinforcing fibers is less effort required for creasing the cardboard to the desired depth. The test fold after scoring showed that the cardboard according to the invention and the reference Board from softwood behave in a similar manner.

The present invention is described in the examples of the preferred embodiment. However, the person skilled in the art it is clear that you can create a number of variations and modifications of the invention without deviation from the scope of the invention described in this application.

1. High-quality paperboard, containing at least two layers:
the first layer is made of material having high density and high modulus of elasticity; and
the second layer to provide cardboard volume, characterized in that
the second layer contains 7-100 wt.% chemi-thermomechanical pulp (SMTR) of hardwood and 0-93 wt.% cellulose and/or SMTR from coniferous trees is Sina, all percentages calculated from the total mass of fibers mentioned second layer, making reach connectedness Scott constituting at least 80 j/m2; index Flexural strength of at least 5 Nm6/kg3and strength in the z-direction component of at least 200 kPa.

2. Cardboard according to claim 1, characterized in that the second layer contains 50 to 90 wt.% SMTR of hardwood and 10-50 wt.% cellulose and/or SMTR of coniferous wood, or preferably 60-80 wt.% SMTR of hardwood and 20-40 wt.% cellulose and/or SMTR of coniferous wood, with all percentages calculated from the total mass of fibers mentioned second layer.

3. Cardboard according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that it includes a third layer, located in the product so that the second layer is located between the said first and third layers.

4. The carton according to claim 2, characterized in that SMTR of hardwood second layer contains SMTR from eucalyptus wood.

5. The carton according to claim 3 for use as a packaging carton for liquids with: cohesion Scott, component 120-350 j/m2; index Flexural strength, the components of 8-20 Nm6/kg3; content of hexanal less than 600 hours/bn, when determining during one the week after the manufacture of cardboard and measure when tested at the regional absorption with the use of lactic acid, less than 2 kg/m2and/or indicator when testing at the regional absorption with the use of hydrogen peroxide less than 2 kg/m2.

6. The carton according to claim 3 for the manufacture glasses for the content of liquids, in which the second layer contains 7-80 wt.%, preferably 20-60 wt.%, SMTR from hardwood, all percentages calculated from the total mass of fibers referred to the second layer where the above-mentioned cardboard has: an index of bending strength, comprising at least 5 Nm6/kg3; cohesion Scott, component of at least 160 j/m2; elongation at break in the transverse direction, comprising at least 2,5%, preferably at least 3.5 percent; the content of hexanal less than 600 h/bn in the determination within one week after the manufacture of cardboard, preferably less than 400 hours/billion; and an indicator when testing at the regional absorption using coffee with cream less than 1.8 kg/m2.

7. The carton according to claim 3 for use as service carton for food products with: the index of bending strength, comprising at least 5 Nm6/kg3; cohesion Scott, component of at least 130 j/m2; elongation at break in the transverse direction, comprising at least 2,5%,preferably at least 3.5% and the content of hexanal less than 600 hours/billion when determining within one week after the manufacture of cardboard, preferably, less than 400 hours/bln

8. The carton according to claim 3 for use as paperboard for graphic design, in which the second layer contains SMTR from hardwood and has: cohesion Scott constituting at least 80 j/m2and gloss ISO-UV paperboard uncoated defined using filter 420 nm, at least 82%.

9. The carton of claim 8 for use as a carton for cigarettes with the contents of hexanal less than 300 hours/billion, preferably less than 200 hours/billion when determining within one week after the manufacture of cardboard.

10. Packaging to contain liquids, characterized in that it is made of cardboard according to any one of claims 1 to 6.

11. Packaging to contain a food product, characterized in that it is made of cardboard according to any one of claims 1 to 4 or 7.

12. Packaging according to claim 11, containing the frozen food product.

13. Packaging to contain cigarettes, characterized in that it is made of cardboard according to claim 9.

14. Packaging to contain drugs, characterized in that it is made of cardboard according to any one of claims 1 to 4 or 8.

15. Packaging for content of cosmetic products, characterized in that it is made of cardboard according to any one of claims 1 to 4 or 8.



 

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17 cl, 16 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex

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12 cl, 5 dwg, 4 tbl, 3 ex

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3 cl, 34 ex, 4 tbl

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3 cl, 34 ex, 4 tbl

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2 cl, 17 ex, 16 tbl

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SUBSTANCE: device to produce the leaves from the pseudo caulis of the banana plants from Musaceae family each whereof has longitudinal axis, contains workstation whereto the pseudo caulis can be delivered, means for the pseudo caulis to lean to provide its rolling along its longitudinal axis within workstation, and the device to separate the fibres intended to contact the rolling pseudo caulis practically along its whole length and made to enable the removal of the sustained fibre leave from the pseudo caulis during the rolling.

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33 cl, 10 dwg, 22 tbl

FIELD: paper.

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20 cl, 25 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex

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EFFECT: providing of process efficiency and preventing of environmental pollution.

19 cl, 2 dwg

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