Method for strengthening treatment of concrete products and device for its realisation

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method for strengthening treatment of concrete products includes exposure of alternating rotary magnetic field with specified value of its intensity and frequency at components used in composition of initial concrete mix, when exposure of alternating rotary magnetic field is provided for all components making concrete without exception after their combination into integral volume directly in the product item itself after realisation of initial mixture components curing operation. This exposure is realised in moulded product without its extraction from used curb. The item itself performs function of closing connecting link in magnetic circuit used for generation of field. Treatment is carried out at intensity of alternating magnetic field 1×104-3×106 a/m; range of its frequencies 20-70 Hz for 1.5-4.5 hours. Cycles of treatment are repeated twice: in 160-180 hours with a delay of 0.3-0.7 hr and in 480-500 hours with a delay of 0.1-0.2 hour. Device used to realise the method comprises circuit developing alternating magnetic field and electric windings-coils mounted on it and connected to external source of AC current supply. One of plates making magnetic conducting circuit has through slot, dimensions of which make it possible to install the concrete product itself in it together with curb used for its moulding, and its body when installed in circuit serves as closing connecting link that closes magnetic flow generated in it.

EFFECT: improved strength characteristics used to erect objects of concrete building structures.

2 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex

 

The invention relate to the construction materials industry and can be used in the manufacture of products from concrete and reinforced concrete.

Known technical solutions in order to improve the strength properties of the resulting concrete products used for mixing the initial mixture is prepared in a special way: used to obtain the water is pre-activated by imposing on coming into the mold cavity, the flow of various physical fields or even a combination of them.

To prepare concrete mix is applied to the apparatus in which incoming to form water is simultaneously the effects of electrostatic, magnetic and ultrasonic fields (see the article on the Internet www.maxmir.com/magnit/magnitoi.htmb).

However, this method, despite achieving some positive results regarding the possibility of increasing the strength of concrete products, characterized by high complexity, which creates certain difficulties in its application in the real sectors of industrial production. This is primarily due to the fact that the implementation of this method is connected with the need for a whole range of process settings on each used to activate the water and affecting the structure of the physical fields. The optimal combination is determined on what westline a large number of checks are made this way of concrete samples.

The known device that includes the apparatus of the generation of magnetic, electrostatic, ultrasonic fields, has a high degree of structural complexity and therefore not very reliable in operation.

Because of all the above known technical solution has not found wide spread in modern industrial production.

Closest to the present invention is a method of pre-activation is used for mixing the concrete mix water (A.S. No. 423767 C04 in 15/00, published 15.04.1974, is a process of mixing water mixes) - next prototype, which on coming into the concrete mix water act a rotating magnetic field with intensity of 1×104-2×105A/m at frequency alternating magnetic field of 50 Hz.

The speed of flow of water in the treatment zone above the physical field to be in the range of 0.5-2.5 m/sec.

But this method also has disadvantages.

An alternating magnetic field activates only one component used for concrete - mixing water, and no matter what an important role she played in the subsequent stages of the process of crystallization of minerals from the components of the concrete mixture, it may not allow the creation of appropriate conditions for sharp quality skach the physic-mechanical characteristics of the molded finished product.

Water treatment alternating magnetic field, improve, first of all, indicators of ukladyvaemost concrete mix, with the strength characteristics of the finished product increased only slightly (according to the description by 15-20%). The revolutionary changes of these characteristics, using only pre-activated when the specified processing modes water, to ensure simply impossible. I.e. the task of strengthening manufactured concrete elements in the case of such known methods (prototype) is solved only partially.

This is quite understandable: flowing in a long time range complex process of crystallization of a large number of components concrete components, in a known manner in no way covered.

Small influence on the beginning of this process has served to these components artificially structured water, which quickly loses previously given her treatment of "special properties". After she finally loses minerals in the body of the concrete grow in accordance with the standard scheme. Thus explains the relatively small increase obtained in a known manner the qualitative characteristics of concrete structures.

To improve the quality of manufactured concrete products offered ways the hardening of concrete products, which includes operation impacts rotating alternating magnetic field with a given value of the intensity and frequency on all components of the mixture.

Processing an alternating magnetic field is produced when connecting directly to the amount of the last operation of mixing the mixture of the concrete already in the molded product. When this processing is carried out at the initial stage of its implementation without removing the body of the product of used formwork.

The body itself undergoing molding concrete products performs the function of closing link in the applied magnetic circuit. Processing is carried out under the following technological values of the used parameters:

the intensity of the alternating magnetic field is 1.0×104-3×106A/m

frequency range - 20-70 Hz

duration of execution of the first phase of 1.5-4.5 hours.

New in the proposed processing is that processing in an alternating magnetic field after the completion of its first phase and resolubilize products are repeated twice: the second stage through 160-180 hours with exposure of the product in the processing circuit within 0.3-0.7 hour. The third stage through 480-500 hours with exposure of 0.1-0.2 hour.

Such exposure allows for maximum efficiency to ensure optimal physical and m is a mechanical indicators in concrete products.

Using the above time intervals can make the necessary intervention in the processes of crystallization taking place in the volume of the concrete, providing the optimal volumetric spatial structure forming its cement stone.

When conducting a detailed analysis of known (prototype) and the proposed technical solutions can clearly identify the presence of fundamental differences in their performance, which explains the difference in obtained with the help of the results.

For example, in a known technical solution prototype processing is subjected to only one component is used for mixing the concrete mix water; and its cultivation is carried out prior to filing of the final in usable form. It should be noted that in the known technical solution is the prototype of the product of the concrete mix no magnetic treatment is not exposed.

From the entire set of techniques that is required to modify the physico-mechanical characteristics of the manufactured products, in the known solution uses only single - use pre-activated water volume with a modified structure.

In the known technical solution, the impact on the processed component is executed under tension alternating magnetic field of 1×104-2×10 5A/m, with the same fixed value of the frequency of the alternating magnetic field of 50 Hz; and the flow speed of the water through the treatment zone of 0.5-2.5 m/sec.

The difference in the technological parameters used in the proposed and known technical solutions, understandable and is primarily explained by objectively existing difference in the schemes of realization of technological process.

For comparative analysis of known and proposed method among the differences, it should be noted that due to maintain the flow rate within the specified limits (0.2 to 2.5 m/sec) in the known technical solution, the volume of the liquid under the influence of activating factor very little time slips through magnetic lines of force flow almost instantly). In the proposed embodiment, all of the processed components of the concrete mixture are maintained in the treatment zone for extended periods of time (1.5 to 4 hours). In addition, in the known technical solution is not used, and, in fact, in view of the peculiarities of its implementation, and should not be used again through the specified technology intervals (160-500 hours) cycles overlay on gaining strength mineral of the same alternating magnetic field in a given range of possible changes his PA is amerov. A series of repeated treatments is performed using the optimum timeframes for this process (0.1 to 0.7 hour.) Regarding selection of the zone of influence of the rotating alternating magnetic field, immediately it should be noted that in the known method it is in place, no relation to the passing of the molding product no.

In the proposed method, the generated magnetic flux penetrates produced concrete products "through", covering its entire volume.

All of the above differences provide end up getting obvious positive effect in case of application of the proposed method of treatment instead of known. This is due primarily to the fact that implementation of the proposed method using these differences significantly changes the process flow crystallization create a monolith of concrete and its constituent mineral structures.

Zone transfer is affected by the rotating AC magnetic field itself passing the operation of forming a concrete product causes its volume branched dendritogenesis structures, which include a huge variety of microcentro crystallization with numerous connecting links joining them together in the same space is et. The formation of the volume structure of cement stone in the above form is primarily due to the powerful impact on the components of the monolith components by continuously changing its spatial direction and magnitude of the resultant vector of the alternating magnetic flux.

On crystallizing in the monolith structure when introducing them to the area with the highest concentration of magnetic field lines begin to impact arising there new physico-chemical factors.

Included in the starting zone of crystallization of the molecule components (binder, mineral grains, sand and water) fall under the influence of intensive, with different sides striking, the result vector. Under its influence, there is a transition included in atoms electrons from one orbit to the other, change the spin moments of the electrons are torn old molecular valence bonds and create new ones.

Everything happens on the molecular level, and on the borders of the dock had time to form tiny grains of the mineral. Coupling the latter with each other due to the additional activation included in the free faces of molecular structures, as well as microprosodic water increases significantly. This will inevitably create new areas for growth in the surrounding space, the process is vtorogo small grain interlock with one another, forming in the volume of the monolith of a web of bizarre forms lace dendritogenesis structures. Because the molecules located on the free surfaces of fine crystallization centers created again and again, optionally activated, this leads to an avalanche-like growth of links connecting adjacent micrograins.

They literally "stick" to each other, and their release will be associated with the need to apply significant effort. Complex lace spatial patterns, each of which brings together a huge number of microcentro crystallization in the course of these processes, pervades the entire volume of the concrete monolith. Such dendritogenesis patterns intertwined, forming in the body of the concrete products a kind of spatial network-wide web (similar substitute metal reinforcement). As the heavy blows of the vector AC rotating magnetic flux is carried out with sufficient high frequency (20-70 Hz), it does not promote growth and increase the size of the crystals of the mineral formed at the initial stage of the mixing process, but, on the contrary, creates conditions for the emergence in the volume of the concrete monolith increasing number of new fine centers.

With each subsequent rotation mA the magnetic vector and the angle is changed spatial location such microcentre will occur in different areas of the processed volume, intertwined with each other in a most peculiar way. Due to this, the method provides education in the volume of concrete intertwined spatial structures, consisting of a large number of tiny grains of the mineral.

Periodically repeated exposure to an alternating magnetic field produced on the concrete product, including the initial stage of mixing the initial mixture (1.5 to 4 hours); and through 160-180 hours, 480-900 hours, contributes to strengthening existing and creating new relationships weaves between those formed in the body of the monolith spider extensive spatial structures.

This is possible due to the fact that the process of curing previously obtained concrete monolith is not yet finished, and the influence of an alternating magnetic flux is still able to make some adjustments to the configuration and connection penetrating the body of the concrete monolith such "branches" or "threads" bizarre configuration.

The termination of formation of all kinds of possible relationships observed after three weeks of exposure, and after the expiration of a time interval approximately equal to five hundred hours, adding strength properties of the concrete products offer a way to ensure that can not.

Making the body being processed is the first product in the mounting gap circuit of the magnetic circuit and use the product as a closing link the generated magnetic flux is designed to provide maximum impact intensity applied magnetic field on the process occurring in the concrete crystallization. In this arrangement, the introduction of products directly together with the formwork used in the magnetic circuit, the magnetic resistance to flow becomes minimal, and, therefore, the most effective will be the influence of the magnetic flux passing directly through the treatment area.

The range used to process technological parameters are assigned based on the following considerations. The intensity alternating magnetic field, equal to the value of 1×104A/m is used due to the fact that at smaller values not provided enough of a noticeable increase in strength properties of manufactured products, which decreases the effectiveness of its implementation.

When tension the same alternating magnetic field greater than 1×106A/m, does not manage to create any additional benefits in terms of obtained results. At the same time dramatically increases the required energy consumption for the process, which negatively affects its economic performance.

You should pay attention to the fact that the measurement of the intensity of the alternating magnetic field is always in the zone of its influence on the amount of processed concrete, i.e. it is directly close to the body placed the frame in the mounting gap products in any non-contact method (e.g., using Hall sensors included in the corresponding measuring bridge device). Measurements made only on the body used magnetic circuit, can show an inflated value, the value of the magnetic field strength in the zone of immediate influence on the concrete may have a value of 101-103times less than required according to the technology. This substantiates the range used in the processing of frequency.

When the frequency of the alternating magnetic field of less than 20 Hz, falling performance indicators produced during execution of the process (not achieved the required characteristics on mechanical properties of the manufactured products).

When the frequency of the alternating magnetic field greater than 70 Hz, also deteriorate the strength characteristics, as too rapid change of position of the resultant magnetic vector does not allow lock solidly established connecting link between the tiny grains structure.

The rationale for the amount of the used time intervals can be based on the following considerations.

The initial stage of processing concrete products is carried out immediately after mixing the concrete mix in the mold.

The exposure time in the generated alternating magnetic flux is 1.5-4.5 hours. When its value is smaller h is m the specified lower limit of 1.5 hours, the magnetic flux does not have time to form in the concrete volume sufficient number of chains joined in a single web of microcentro crystallization - use the same intervals videri larger than 4.5 hours, does not provide at this stage of achieving any additional benefits, but at the same time, this increase is due to the need to attract additional resources for the implementation process.

Intervals of repetition processing through 160-180 hours and 480-520 hours assigned based on considerations of optimal configurations of the processed magnetic radiation structures. The time intervals aging products on the second and third stage is assigned equal to 0.3 hours 0.7 hours and 0.1 hour 0.2 hour, proceeding from the necessity of compliance with the minimum economic cost. It is through such intervals concrete mix is most noticeable changes its strength properties, and therefore, the interference in the processes in these moments will take place most effectively.

The processing intervals assigned taking into account the fact that during the processing time, less than 0.1 hour, and 0.3 h, respectively, we can not guarantee the achievement of the marked improvement obtained by processing the strength characteristics of concrete. Increasing periods of exposure over 0.2 hour and 0.7 hour does not receive any in the necessary benefits but, again, leads to the growth necessary for implementing the method of the cost.

Conducting process directly in the used for forming the product form provides the most favorable conditions for the occurrence of the initial crystallization of the mineral asked in this way the form is in the form of complex-shaped spatial web, including tightly interconnected fine grain belonging to the concrete components.

In the process of magnetization that the product is maintained in the form before the time, until its surface is removed covering concrete layer of water. I.e. the surface of the concrete in this case is a sort of "dried". When you receive this visually observed effect of the initial stage of processing is terminated, and the concrete product is extracted from the casing. Further stages of processing - 2nd and 3rd hold on the already formed concrete structures.

Summarizing, we can conclude that changes made in the proposed method, the new features make it possible to improve the strength characteristics of the product is no longer on the percentage (15-20% in the prototype), and from 10 to 40 times.

Due to the presence of the effect of forming the components of the body of the product crystals in fine form its surface does not have usual the shells, long bundles. The product offers a smooth surface, as if the production was polished. The smoothness is so high that partially reflects the incident angle of the beam of light.

The presence of this factor provides new opportunities for the use of concrete in order to obtain the new number of the decorative elements on the basis of which you can create new architectural forms. The strength characteristics of the resulting new way of concrete structures increases so that it is possible to talk about the replacement or construction of similar structures that do not have bookmarks of steel reinforcement.

Implementation of the proposed method is performed by means of the implementation of a number of necessary process steps.

At the initial first stage using a common, widely used in industry operations, used for this formwork shut water dry concrete mix.

After receiving wet concrete weight used form fill its volume of concrete raw materials installed in the mounting gap of the magnetic circuit. When switching on the electrical windings of the coil creates an alternating rotating magnetic flux, which passes directly through the mass placed in the gap of the contour of the concrete.

The mass of vypolnyayuschii closing torn magnetic path integral connecting link.

Adjust with external source parameters used for processing the magnetic flux in the area of influence provide the formation of a magnetic field necessary for the flow of process parameters tensions (l×104-1×106a/m) and frequency (20-70 Hz).

Makes the product together with the formwork is in the area of processing time needed to "drying". I.e. until there is no longer film covering the outer surface of the water. This time period is usually 1.5-4.5 hours.

After completing this kind of drying the product of concrete with shuttering is removed from the magnetic circuit, and it is resolubilize.

Molded concrete product is stored prior to the expiration of a time equal to 160-180 hours. After a specified period of time, it again, but without the casing, is placed in the mounting groove generating magnetic flux path, and under the same parameters of the magnetic field is processed within 0.3 to 0.7 hour.

Upon completion of the second stage concrete product again removed from the device and goes to storage.

After the exposure time equal to 480-520 hours, the concrete product in recent times placed in affecting mass concrete magnetic circuit, working in the AOR is e which it should be already 0,1-0,2 hour. After removal of the generating magnetic field device, a fully finished product is sent for his direct use in the production cycle for its intended purpose.

Further execution of the method is illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1

The processing operation in the alternating magnetic field produced by the product made on the basis of standard aggregates and cement grade HRC 400.

After mixing the filling used in the form of a dry mix of ordinary tap water form filling it with a mass of concrete was placed in end-to-end mounting groove made in one of the components of the rectangular magnetic circuit plates (lower part).

Product dimensions representing a cross section of the rectangle correspond to the size of 100×100×800 mm At power-up in the treatment area was formed alternating magnetic field. As the three windings of the coil are connected to three different phases of the external power source, generated in the crystallization zone of concrete stone, the resulting vector of the generated magnetic flux is continuously changed its orientation (magnetic field was as if rotating). The frequency of changing its spatial positioning was determined by the frequency supplied to the device's AC system is from DC. In this particular example, the processing used a magnetic field with intensity of 1×104a/m, with a frequency of 20 Hz. Processing forms with concrete was carried out for 4.5 hours. After the disappearance of covering the upper part of the product water film processing products ended, the magnetic circuit was disconnected, and that his job was terminated.

During the processing, as the plate width of the path was much less than the length of the product (about 4 times), last at equal intervals perestaralas four times so that all parts of the product volume is alternately passed through the impact zone generated in the unit of magnetic flux (processed one end of the installation, then the second, third and finally the second end of the beam). Upon completion of the initial phase of the concrete product is removed from the casing. Visual inspection of its faces showed that they are flat and smooth, as if polished surface with reflective effect.

After exposure of the molded product in over 160 hours of installation it used in the magnetic circuit, where it is processed within 0.3 hour when tension alternating magnetic field of 1×105A/m and a frequency of 60 Hz.

At the end of the second stage of processing, the product was again removed and the magnetic circuit, and they remained in custody for 480 hours. After expiration of this time interval, the product was again placed in the magnetic circuit and processed within 0.1 hours alternating magnetic field with intensity of 3×106A/m and a frequency of 70 Hz. After this stage, the finished product went on strength tests.

The tests showed the following results:

1. Compressive strength - 2900 kg/cm2

Control sample made without the use of magnetic field - 252 kgf/cm2

2. Resistance to axial tensile - 27 kgf/cm2

Control sample of 3.5 kgf/cm2

3. Resistance to cut - 29,0 kN/cm2

Control sample - 3.0 kgf/cm2

4. Flexural strength of 20 kgf/cm2

Control sample is 2.1 kgf/cm2

Example 2

Processing in accordance with the proposed method, crocodiles according to the same scheme that was specified in example 1.

Located in the mold, the product was placed in the zone of influence of an alternating magnetic flux, and is treated for 1.5 hour.

The magnetic field in the treatment zone was 1.5×106A/m and the frequency corresponded to 60 Hz. After "drying" of the concrete, the product was extracted from the device, and it was filmed planking.

Re-treatment was carried out after 180 hours and prevodilac is over 0.7 hour at a magnetic field of 1.6×10 5A/m and a frequency of 40 Hz.

The third stage of processing was carried out at 500 hours.

Shutter speed was 0.2 h, the intensity of the alternating magnetic field was equal to 2×106A/m, and the frequency was equal to 55 Hz.

The finished product after completion of all cycles of treatment had "polished" faces conducted strength tests revealed the following results:

Compressive strength - 3200 kgf/cm2

The axial tensile strength of 30 kgf/cm2

The resistance to shear of 30 kgf/cm2

The bending - 24 kgf/cm2.

The results of the strength tests of the control sample, is not processed in an alternating magnetic field, remain the same as shown in example 1.

Example 3

Processing of concrete products was carried out on the same technological scheme, as in examples 1, 2. At the initial stage of the product in the mold was cured under the influence of an alternating field for 3.6 hours. Its intensity in the treatment area was 2.5×106A/m, the frequency was equal to 36 Hz.

After retrieval from the device and removal of the formwork the concrete product has been aged for 172 hours, then placed in creating an alternating magnetic field device for 0.6 hour. The operation of re-treatment was carried out under tension alternating magnetic 8,0×105A/m and a frequency of 62 Hz. After the end the of the second stage product is sent to storage.

After 490 hours the product was last placed in creating an alternating magnetic field circuit devices, where was maintained for 0.1 hour. The magnetic field when it was 7.2×104A/m, and the frequency of 46 Hz.

After all three stages of processing the product had a smooth polished structure of the surface layers of concrete on all components of the surface facets.

Conducted strength tests showed the following:

1. Compressive strength - 3100 kgf/cm2

2. The axial tensile strength of 29 kg/cm2

3. Resistance to cut - 29,2 kgf/cm2

4. The bending - 23,4 kN/cm2.

Data on the performed tests, the control sample of the same product, but not processed in an alternating magnetic field, match those specified in example No. 1.

Regarding the characteristic features of the apparatus used for implementing the method, you should pay attention to the following important points.

To improve the quality of manufactured concrete products used for hardening of the proposed device comprises generating a rotating alternating magnetic field contour. In this circuit mounted electric coils-coils, which are connected with the corresponding the surrounding phases of the external power source is an alternating electric current.

New in the proposed device is that one of the components of the conductive circuit plates has a through groove, the dimensions of which allow it to installation of the manufactured concrete products together with used to obtain this form. When the body executes it in such circuit closing function of the generated magnetic flux of the connecting link.

Selection of this alternative embodiment are determined as follows. Since the proposed device, in contrast to the known process is not the flow of water, and the volume of the concrete mix, part of the produced product, then the design is modified accordingly: in a closed magnetic circuit generating a magnetic flux in one of its component plates (usually the lower)done end-to-end mounting groove. The dimensions are selected based on the conditions of possibility of the premises prior to their inclusion made of concrete products together with used for its formation formwork.

You should take into consideration the fact that remaining after such installation clearances should not significantly increase the magnetic resistance in the resulting gap circuit. That is, they must remain at the lowest possible level.

The body is placed in such a through groove in the plate circuit of the product at the moment generated by the I in the circuit of the magnetic flux, will serve as closing it within the last a kind of connecting link.

Making all of these features provides the maximum concentration used magnetic fields directly in the body, passing hardening processing products, with a minimal loss of his power.

In figure 1, figure 2 depicts the proposed device is installed inside a processing circuit izgotovliaemye product (figure 1), as well as its cross-section along section A-A (figure 2).

The proposed device comprises the following structural elements.

The components of the rectangular closed magnetic path plate 1 made of a conductive material, for example, typed sheets of iron transformer (not shown). In the body of these plates 1 are installed in the designated boxes, electrical coils-coil 2 (see figure 1). Each of these three windings of the coil 2 through the connecting conductors and terminals (not shown) connected to any one phase of the external power source is an alternating electric current (not shown). Flow of electrical alternating current from such source through the thyristor control unit. Changing its adjustment in the treatment area, you is to provide for the change of technological parameters (magnetic field strength, its frequency by varying applied to the windings of the coil 2 current, voltage and so on) - not shown.

In the bottom plate 1 of the magnetic circuit, there is a groove B (see Fig. 1) to install undergoing processing concrete products 3 (see figure 1, figure 2). Article 3 at the initial stage of processing is placed in the casing 4 and is installed in the groove B, together with the latter. During installation of the product 3 with the casing 4 between the plates 1 magnetic circuit and placed in the groove B by elements of the building structure are mounting clearances (see figure 1), the value of which is assigned based on the optimal conditions to allow mounting, but at the same time, these gaps should not be too large, to avoid a sharp increase in emerging presence of additional magnetic resistance (in practice, the magnitude of the gaps should be 1.0 to 1.5 mm).

In the process of generating an alternating magnetic flux in the magnetic circuit, when passing through the volume of the concrete mix, creates a zone C (see figure 1), representing the spatial ellipsoid. Inside the body is the last rotation affect the components inside the concrete result of the spatial vector of the alternating magnetic field.

The surface of the concrete mixture 3, n is held in the form of 4, covered by the film of water On (see figure 1, figure 2). Her disappearance during processing after a certain time interval is like a signal for termination of its initial implementation phase (see figure 1, figure 2).

The operation of the device when performing hardening of concrete products is as follows.

The components of the concrete mix components are placed into the internal cavity of the mold used 4 and shut water. This forms the body of the product, including the volume of concrete that does not have at this initial stage it is still no strength properties.

Received for procurement of products 3, together with the form 4 is installed in the through groove B in one of the plates 1 of the contour generator.

Available mounting clearances and allow you to place these elements of design inside is used to handle the device.

After the installation of the body of the product 3 and the casing 4 through the groove B of the electric winding of the coil 2 are connected to the phases of the external power source is an alternating electric current. When power is applied to each of the windings of the coil 2 is formed of an electromagnetic field. By installing them in the body of the plate 1 from the conductive material in the past, a magnetic flux circulating in your path and nesb is tenderly mud through the body is installed in the through groove B of products 3 (concrete mix, in this case, begins to perform the function of closing the connecting line circulating inside the loop alternating magnetic flow). As each of the three used in the arrangement of the windings of the coil 2 is connected to a separate feed phase three-phase alternating electric current, the result vector generated by the power circuit of the magnetic flux for obvious reasons, will not only variables, but also rotating in space.

This allows us to form a zone of impact fell under his influence the volume of the concrete mix in the form of spatial ellipsoid (area C in figure 1).

Checking the strength values of the AC rotating magnetic field is near the surface of the product 3 to any in a contactless manner, for example, Hall sensors and the measuring bridge device (not shown). Control the frequency of the alternating magnetic field is carried out by measuring the frequency supplied through regulatory thyristor AC adapter (using a standard unit of frequency). This thyristor unit is used to set the required parameters of voltage and current, and therefore, the parameters themselves are generated in the circuit of the magnetic field (not shown).

Under heavy influence of changing its magnitude and direction in the space of the result vector of the alternating magnetic flux components recognize the Noah mixture crystallize in the form of a complex shape are related to each other spatial structures (web of branches). The components of these structures micrograins mineral stone have a fine structure and "burdened" by a lot of connections with them lying around the same neighbors.

This provides a relatively quick set of necessary strength properties of the workpiece 3 in the casing 4 (1.5-4.5 hours). In order to ensure the formation of the above optimal structure of the mineral stone along the length of the product 3, the latter periodically move inside the path of the magnetic circuit, changing its positioning relative to the generating magnetic flux working surfaces E of the plates 1 (located in front part of plate 1 facing the cavity of the groove B - see the letter E, figure 1).

Such movement of the product 3, together with the casing 4 is produced at regular intervals of time, until all areas of the produced products 3 will not be covered under the influence of applied magnetic field as a whole, and the initial processing will not be completed. Visual signal the end of the first stage of processing will be ' out of control ' covering the upper part 3 of the water film On (see figure 1, figure 2). After the top face of the prisoner form 4 products 3 will be completely "dry", turns off all electrical windings of the coils 2 from an external power source. The magnetic circuit stops the gene is the situation of the magnetic flux. At this point, the processing is completed.

The casing 4 and the product 3 is extracted from the groove B; is resolubilize. Formed in the product 3 mineral stone even after the completion of the first phase has a sufficiently high strength characteristics in comparison to the control samples (superior to conventional concrete products for all tested parameters in 3-6 times). The surface of the concrete components on his face like"; application : " and partially reflects sent her a ray of light.

After making certain temporary extracts the product 3 is placed without the casing 4 in the same groove B of the magnetic circuit, and is processed there in the same way as in the first phase.

Signal the end of processing in this case will be after a set period of time of exposure.

At the end of the second stage, the product 3 is also removed from the groove B of the magnetic circuit and the groove 6 of the magnetic circuit and is placed in interim storage.

Similarly, the device is made and the third stage of processing.

The implementation of additional processing steps in the proposed device allows to further increase the strength characteristics of products 3, which after applying these steps increase 10-30 times consider is Ino inherent in the ordinary.

The proposed device has a relatively simple design and has a high operational reliability.

Application of the method of processing using to implement the proposed device provides a significant increase obtained in the manufacture of quality characteristics of concrete products. This positive effect can be observed not only in relation to measured during testing of concrete samples limits the mechanical strength, but also on indicators of their appearance (effect of "polishing" faces).

In the process of implementation of the proposed method, and used the device does not use harmful radiation or materials that have a negative impact on the environment or human health.

The implementation of the method and manufacturing device does not require substantial economic costs, and has the shortest possible payback period in the case of widely implemented in industrial production.

1. Method of hardening of concrete products, including the effects of varying a rotating magnetic field used in the original concrete mixture component with a given value of its intensity and frequency, characterized in that the influence of rotating AC MAGN what these fields are subjected to all the components of the concrete components, without exception, moreover, this effect is produced when connecting directly to the volume of the original mixture of concrete, past the mixing operation, in the molded product, and carry out the process without removing body products from the casing, and the body of the product performs the function of closing the connecting line used for processing the magnetic circuit, and the processing performed when the intensity of the alternating magnetic field of 1·104-3·106a/m in the frequency range of 20-70 Hz for 1.5-4.5 hours, and after operation resolubilize concrete products processing carried out two more times through 160-180 h with exposure of the product during the 0,3-0,7 h, and then through 480-500 h with exposure of 0.1-0.2 PM

2. The device for implementing the method hardening of concrete products containing generates a rotating alternating magnetic field circuit, mounted on an electric winding-coils connected to an external source of AC power, wherein one of the components of the conductive circuit plates has a through groove, the dimensions of which allow it to installation of the manufactured concrete products together with used for its formation formwork, and his body itself, the installation path is the connecting link, closing it generates magnetic the th thread.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: tile made preferably from glass, ceramics, contains channels in staggered order. Diametres of channels make ½ - ¼ of tile thickness, and distance between axes of channels makes 1.5-1.8 diametre of channel. Top of channels is filled with melted colourful glass balls with diametre of 1.2-1.6 of channel diametre. As a result of channels filling with melted glass balls, wavy or smooth surface is produced with ornament.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of raw materials, reduced time of drying, annealing and baking and increased mechanical strength of tile.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: mix for salt glasing contains the following components in wt %: boric acid - 3-5; sodium chloride - 93-96; blue stone - 1-2.

EFFECT: development of smooth coloured coating.

1 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water-repellent agent on the basis of long-chain olefins produced by hydroxyl acetoxylation of industrial fractions of alpha-olefins C16-18 or C20-26 by heating of specified fraction of olefins and hydrogen oxide taken in mole ratio of 1:(1.8-2), with surplus of acetic acid for an hour with further separation of upper oil product-containing layer, its washing by alkalescent aqueous solution, water and drying.

EFFECT: present water-repellent agent expands arsenal of available water-repellent agents and solves problem of recycling of industrial α-olefins produced in process of oil processing into useful products.

2 cl, 3 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of construction materials and can be used as thin-layered hydroinsulation protective coating of concrete and other porous surfaces in industrial and civil construction. Raw material mixture contains, wt %: Portland cement 30.3-32.3, sand with maximal fraction size 0.63 mm 40.4-40.9, finely milled dolomitic limestone with specific surface equal 200 m2/kg, 8.1-8.6, complex additive 3.2-3.7, water 16.0-16.5, said complex additive contains, wt %: microsilica with specific surface equal 2000 m2/kg, 47-49, alumina cement 24.5-25.0, gypsum CaSO4·2H2O 9.8-10.2, plasticiser C-3 3.7-4.0, silicic acid sol H4SiO4 with density 1.014 g/cm3 and pH=3.5±0.5 3.0-3.4, bentonite clay with specific surface equal 500 m2/kg, 10.0-10.4.

EFFECT: reduction of unmixing, increase of water-holding capacity, reduction of water absorption, increase of protective coating compression strength.

1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of construction materials and can be used as thin-layered hydroinsulation protective coating of concrete and other porous surfaces in industrial and civil construction. Raw material mixture contains, wt %: Portland cement 30.3-32.3, sand with maximal fraction size 0.63 mm 40.4-40.9, finely milled dolomitic limestone with specific surface equal 200 m2/kg, 8.1-8.6, complex additive 3.2-3.7, water 16.0-16.5, said complex additive contains, wt %: microsilica with specific surface equal 2000 m2/kg, 47-49, alumina cement 24.5-25.0, gypsum CaSO4·2H2O 9.8-10.2, plasticiser C-3 3.7-4.0, silicic acid sol H4SiO4 with density 1.014 g/cm3 and pH=3.5±0.5 3.0-3.4, bentonite clay with specific surface equal 500 m2/kg, 10.0-10.4.

EFFECT: reduction of unmixing, increase of water-holding capacity, reduction of water absorption, increase of protective coating compression strength.

1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of construction materials and can be used for hydroinsulation protection of concrete surface of repaired and newly built buildings in industrial and civil construction. Raw material mixture contains, wt %: Portland cement 36.62-38.40, construction sand fraction 0.16-0.63 mm 26.88-27.48 construction sand fraction 0.63-1.25 mm 17.72-18.32, bentonite clay with specific surface equal 500 m2/kg, 0.50-0.54, complex additive 0.90-0.94, dolomitic limestone with specific surface equal 200 m2/kg, 8.84-9.14, water 6.76-6.96, said complex additive contains, wt %: superplasticiser C-3 29.4-30.2, 20% solution of silicic acid sol with pH-3.5±0.5 23.2-23.6, lithium nitrate 46.6-47.0.

EFFECT: increase of depth of raw material mixture penetration inside concrete base, increase of concrete base strength and reduction of water absorption by protective coating.

1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of construction materials and can be used for hydroinsulation protection of concrete surface of repaired and newly built buildings in industrial and civil construction. Raw material mixture contains, wt %: Portland cement 36.62-38.40, construction sand fraction 0.16-0.63 mm 26.88-27.48 construction sand fraction 0.63-1.25 mm 17.72-18.32, bentonite clay with specific surface equal 500 m2/kg, 0.50-0.54, complex additive 0.90-0.94, dolomitic limestone with specific surface equal 200 m2/kg, 8.84-9.14, water 6.76-6.96, said complex additive contains, wt %: superplasticiser C-3 29.4-30.2, 20% solution of silicic acid sol with pH-3.5±0.5 23.2-23.6, lithium nitrate 46.6-47.0.

EFFECT: increase of depth of raw material mixture penetration inside concrete base, increase of concrete base strength and reduction of water absorption by protective coating.

1 tbl

Glase charge // 2396222

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to silicate technology and deals with compositions of glases for application onto ceramic tiles, products of decorative arts. Glase charge includes, wt %: frit 58.0-64.0; caolin 1.0-2.0; copper melting slag 35.0-40.0, frit having composition, wt % : PbO 48.0-52.0; Na2O 4.0-6.0: K2O 4.0-6.0; SiO2 14.0-16.0; B2O3 14.0-16.0. Temperature of glasing constitutes 800-820°C.

EFFECT: reduction of temperature of glase burning.

2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of ceramic proppants designed for use in oil industry when extracting oil through hydraulic fracturing. In the method of preparing proppant, which involves depositing of a mixture of phenol formaldehyde novolac resin (PFNR) and urotropin onto hot ceramic granules, lowering temperature of the granules and subsequent deposition of a layer of a water repellent solution, the mixture of PFNR and urotropin is deposited in amount of 14-20% of the mass of PFNR on magnesium silicate granules heated to 135-145°C, in amount which provides 0.5-0.9 of the mixture of PFNR of the mass of the granules, and the said subsequent deposition of the water repellent layer is carried out at low temperature between 60 and 90°C, using chlorosulphonated polyethylene in toluene as the said solution, where the chlorosulphonated polyethylene is taken in amount of 0.2-0.5% of the mass of granules. The magnesium silicate proppant is characterised by that it is obtained using the method described above.

EFFECT: higher acid resistance of the magnesium silicate proppant with retention of sufficiently high conductivity of layer of splitters in order to intensify oil extraction.

2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of ceramic proppants designed for use in oil industry when extracting oil through hydraulic fracturing. The polymer-coated proppant is in form of ceramic granules with a polymer coating consisting of a hardened epoxy resin (ER) with polyethylene polyamine (PEPA) in which a mixture of particles of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and phenol formaldehyde novolac resin (PFNR) is embedded, where the said mixture has particle size of 100-120 mcm and also contains solid particles of phenolformaldehyde resol resin (PFRR) with size of 5 mcm or less, taken in the following ratio in wt %: said PFNR 50-70, said PFRR 30-50, with ratio of ER with PEPA and mixture of PFNR with HMTA and with PFRR (per dry substances) between 1.5:1 and 1.5:3. The invention is developed in subclaims.

EFFECT: increased adhesion strength of polymer-coated proppants used at temperature above 80°C.

4 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: construction, particularly devices for thermal treatment of reinforced structures during in-situ structure erection with the use of automatic temperature condition control means.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises form, heat-sensing means, heaters and computer. Heat-sensing means are placed in form. Heaters are laid on reinforcing cage of monolithic reinforced concrete structure and fixed thereto. Heat-sensing means are linked to automatic digital power regulator including indication and control unit and digital control unit connected with control computer by means of signal converter. To provide visual control automatic power regulator is provided with concrete temperature display panel, which indicates concrete temperature in each measurement point and volumetrically weighed average concrete temperature.

EFFECT: decreased power inputs and possibility to control thermal field transformation after heater switching-on or switching-off in correspondence with thermal limiters of valid regulation documents.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: building industry; methods of production of the construction products at the building industry works.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of building industry, in particular, to the method of production of the construction products at the building industry works and may be used for manufacture of the reinforced concrete, including the spatial structures with the heat-insulating layer. The technical result of the invention is reduction of the power input, improvement of the quality and expansion of list of products. The method of manufacture of double-layer reinforced concrete products includes the consecutive formation of the constructive and the heat-insulating layers of the reinforced concrete and its thermal treatment. The heat-insulating layer with the average density of 450-500 kg/m3 made out of the vermiculite-concrete mixture with flowability of 3-5 cm is molded by the vibrobeam with the simultaneous its reinforcement by the woven net in top level. After the structure achieves the plastic strength of 0.015-0.025 MPa, then begin the molding the constructive layer and conduct the thermal treatment by the method of the contact heating from the side of the heat-insulating layer.

EFFECT: the invention ensures reduction of the power input, improvement of the quality and expansion of list of products.

FIELD: method and equipment for manufacturing gypsum plates.

SUBSTANCE: method involves the following steps: first step includes molding plate; second step includes hardening by hydration process until hydrated article is produced with hydration extent within the range from 33% to 80%; third step includes continuing hydration process in at least one rotating drum by rotating plate around central axis; fourth step includes drying process. Intermediate cutting process may be provided between second and third steps, said cutting process may be effectuated in accordance with wire principle. Apparatus has linear zone for partial hardening and hydration, and at least one hydration drum comprising central axis around which multiplicity of branches are arranged. Each branch in drum may be divided into multiplicity of levers, with surface of said levers making from about 50% to about 99% the surface of respective branch. Drum may have from 10 to 150 branches, preferably from 40 to 120 branches. Hardening and hydration zone and drum may be arranged in two axes extending in parallel with one another.

EFFECT: improved quality of articles, improved maintenance and operating conditions.

12 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly for concreting cast-in-place and precast reinforced concrete structures along with concrete curing temperature regulation.

SUBSTANCE: method involves laying and compacting concrete mix under continuous concrete mix curing temperature control; heating central concrete layers with heating reinforcement when outer concrete layers are in elasto-plastic state. Heating reinforcement is spaced a distance "a" from surface. The heating is carried out simultaneously with surface heat-shielding. Distance "a" is determined as a=δeq(tav-ts)/(ts-ta), m, where δeq - thickness of conditional equivalent concrete layer corresponding to surface thermal resistance, Rs, m; tav - time-average concrete temperature calculated by estimated time of heating directly in heating area, deg; ts - time-average temperature at concrete surface calculated by estimated heating time, deg; δeq is determined as δeq=Rs·λ·F, m, where Rs is heat resistance of rigging with form Rr including thermal resistance Ra of heat transfer from rigging to ambient air, h·deg/kcal; Rs=Rr+Ra=(δr/( λr·F))+(1/(α·F)), h·deg/kcal, where δr is thickness of rigging, m; λr is rigging heat conductivity factor kcal/(m·h·deg), α is rigging surface heat-transfer coefficient kcal/(m2·h·deg), λ is concrete(reinforced concrete) heat conductivity kcal/(m·h·deg); F=1m2 - rigging surface area for thermal resistance calculation, m2. Amount of heat Q used to heat part of member to be heated having length (height) of 1.0 m and cross-sectional width of 1.0 m is determined from Q=(tav-ts)(m+(τ·λ·F/a), where m is constant equal to 60-180 kcal/deg and τ is calculated heating time, hours. The heating reinforcement is heating wires or pipes adapted for hot water circulation.

EFFECT: reduced temperature stresses and prevention of crack formation during structure concreting, as well as possibility to regulate curing temperature.

4 cl, 1 ex, 4 dwg

FIELD: apparatus or processes for treating or working, namely curing, setting or hardening, the shaped articles.

SUBSTANCE: method for gypsum panel forming involves shaping the panel, hardening and hydrating thereof and drying the panel during panel rotation. Device to realize above method is also disclosed.

EFFECT: increased panel quality, decreased production and maintenance costs and improved operating conditions.

20 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: building industry branches, namely apparatuses for heat treatment of constructions of reinforced concrete erected in building site with use of automatic control of heat treatment processes.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes concrete form having electric heating units mounted in its boards for convection-irradiation heating of concrete mixture and heating members mounted in bottom of concrete form for convection-irradiation heating; temperature pickups having individual control circuits and connected to inlets of heat regulators. Outlets of heat regulators are connected through switching units having magnetic starters with respective electric heating units. Each control circuit includes at least six temperature pickups placed in monolithic construction and pickup for measuring temperature of environmental air. Said pickups are connected with inlets of respective programmed heat regulator for supplying control signals.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of constructions.

3 cl, 4 dwg

The invention relates to the manufacture of building products, namely the method of laying cinder blocks

The invention relates to techniques for manufacturing products based on cement with the use of heat treatment at atmospheric pressure

The invention relates to the field of construction, namely the manufacture of precast concrete in the field using a variety of carriers to accelerate the hardening of concrete

The invention relates to the construction and manufacture of building products of concrete with the use of automatic process control of heat treatment

FIELD: building industry branches, namely apparatuses for heat treatment of constructions of reinforced concrete erected in building site with use of automatic control of heat treatment processes.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes concrete form having electric heating units mounted in its boards for convection-irradiation heating of concrete mixture and heating members mounted in bottom of concrete form for convection-irradiation heating; temperature pickups having individual control circuits and connected to inlets of heat regulators. Outlets of heat regulators are connected through switching units having magnetic starters with respective electric heating units. Each control circuit includes at least six temperature pickups placed in monolithic construction and pickup for measuring temperature of environmental air. Said pickups are connected with inlets of respective programmed heat regulator for supplying control signals.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of constructions.

3 cl, 4 dwg

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