Wood-particle composite material and method for its manufacturing

FIELD: wood working industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of production of wood-particle composite materials and relates to wood-particle composite material and method of its manufacturing. Material contains pressed wood-particle filler and binder, material has monolithic low-porosity structure characterized by achieved density of up to 2 g/cm3, thickness of chips makes from 0.1 to 1.0 mm, pores of wood-particle filler are fully filled with binder, such as wood resinous substances that are released from chip filler in process of its hot pressing as composite material is made. Method of manufacturing consists in the fact that filler is pressed as wood chips in presence of binder, at the same time binder is used, which is released from chips as it is pressed with pressure of 2-5 MPa, besides puncheon and die of press are pre-heated to temperature of 220-300°C, and process of hot pressing is carried out in cyclic loading mode.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of wood-particle composite material manufacturing method and to improve quality, due to increased strength, water resistance and fire resistance of manufactured wood-particle composite materials.

 

The invention relates to the production of wood-strand composites used as structural products in the construction, furniture and a wide range of other industrial technologies.

The most common form related to this class of composite materials are chipboard panels, well known under the abbreviation DSP (see, for example, an article of COMPOSITE MATERIALS (composites) at the Internet encyclopedia Krugosvet for 2007 at the following web address http://slovari.yandex.ru/dict/krugosvet/).

These are known for wood particle composite materials and manufacturing technologies have significant drawbacks:

- This material and its production process are environmentally harmful objects as use as a binder of synthetic resin-oligomers (primarily phenol-formaldehyde resin). Special environmental damage caused when using chipboard in house-building and furniture industries.

- Time technological suitability particle mixture of filler and resin-binder is limited to a short period (hours, maximum a day). This means that the mixture must be processed into the product before the expiration of this period, otherwise, the material goes into marriage.

Technology is what differentiates itself here complexity in operation and multi-stage: preparation of the mixture, molding, long time exposure in the furnace-reactor for carrying out the polymerization of the binder, cooling products and disassembly of the form.

- The print quality chipboard as the strength of the product and its resistance low. This is due to the fact that the resin-binder coats the top surface bonded filler and practically does not penetrate into the pores of the wood grain.

- Articles of wood chipboard belong to the class of flammable materials

- The use of environmentally harmful synthetic binders in the production of particleboard, hardware complexity of manufacture of the product, multi-stage and duration of the technological process, hazardous disposal of products and inputs for carrying out these operations cause economic negatives chipboard production.

In 60-ies of the last selenia attempts were made to develop technologies for the manufacture of wood particle composite materials without the use as a binder of synthetic resin.

Known wood particle composite material containing compressed wood particle filler (see inventor's certificate SU # 233222, CL B27N 3/02, B27K 9/00, 18.12.1968).

From this patent a method of making articles from crushed wood or similar material bessassergo by molding with subsequent hot pressing, thus the shaping of the workpiece in the process of hot pressing is exposed to gaseous ammonia.

In the patent-protected method based on the particle impregnation of the filler ammonia or its compounds. In this way, during the hot pressing of the connection (bonding) elements bonded filler is due to the formation of ammonium complexes wood pulp, which are environmentally dangerous component produced in this manner a composite material. The ammonia is very toxic and explosive gas. Thus, the production of wood particle composite materials protected by this patent the method is environmentally harmful and flammable way, when manufactured according to the method, the materials are characterized by low strength and lack of water resistance.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is wood particle composite material containing compressed wood particle filler and binder (see inventor's certificate SU # 197942, CL B27N 3/02, 09.06.1967).

From the same patent known closest to the invention to the technical essence and the achieved result of the method of manufacturing wood particle composite material is in hot pressing products like slabs, where as a binder using wood pulp from sawdust or shavings, crushed to particle size, characterized by a balance of 1.5-2% on a sieve 800 μm, in the presence of water, part of 90-94% of the crushed wood pulp.

The disadvantages of this wood particle composite material and method of its manufacture are as follows.

In the process of preparing a binder impose a number of additional complex, costly and energy-consuming operations:

- crushing particle mass in a hammer mill,

- webropol crushing product in the aquatic environment with a large excess of water (hydrolysis crushed mass),

- screening sieves to isolate the desired fraction 800 μm,

the mixture thus obtained water-binder suspension with particle filler

- heat removing a large amount of moisture in the drying chamber from the product after the pressing operation.

Obtained in this way wood particle composite material is characterized by low strength and lack of water resistance.

Task to be solved by the present invention is directed, is the simplification of the manufacture of wood particle composite material and improving its mechanical properties and other characteristics (in particular, water resistance, and is oarameters).

The technical result consists in increasing the productivity of the method of manufacturing wood particle composite material, as well as in improving the quality of manufactured in this way particle composite materials (in particular, DSP), by increasing strength, water resistance and fire resistance made of wood-strand composites.

In parts of the instrument, as an object of the invention, this problem is solved and the technical result is achieved due to the fact that particle composite material contains compressed particle filler and binder, and the material is monolithic, malabarista structure, characterized achieved a density of up to 2 g/CC, chip thickness from 0.1 to 1.0 mm, and the pores of wood-particle filler is completely filled binders, which are woody resinous substances released from the particle filler when its hot pressing in the process of manufacturing a composite material.

In terms of method, as the object of the invention, this problem is solved and the technical result is achieved due to the fact that the method of manufacture of wood particle composite material is that pressed the filler in the form of tree structure is key in the presence of a binder, use a binder selected from the chip when it is pressed with a pressure of 2-5 MPa, while the punch and die press pre-heated to a temperature of 220-300 degrees C, and the hot pressing is carried out in a cyclic mode of loading.

In the course of the study it was revealed that the physico-chemical mechanism for the formation of the proposed composite material and method of its production without the use of synthetic binding is that in the process of pressing in the above structural (density and chip thickness) thermal and modal parameters is the destruction of the cell walls of the wood grain filler, resinous substances (organic binder) go into the interfiber pores and then polymerizes, formation of an end product - solid wood particle composite material.

The principal advantages of the described wood particle composite material and method of its manufacture before the traditional methods of manufacture of such products with synthetic binders and before the above analogue and prototype are:

- The proposed method differs absolute sustainability both in terms of technological process and quality of the final product (completely and clucene synthetic resin-binder).

- Time technological suitability of the source particle material, practically, is not limited, since the resinous substance of wood fibers (binder) "conserved" in the cell membranes; there is only one condition original wood filler is an exception process of oxidation (decomposition), i.e. require storage in a dry and ventilated place.

Technology implementation of the proposed method is simple in operation and is carried out in a short time, essentially in the mode of single-stage process.

Such quality obtained by the proposed method wood particle composite materials (in particular, DSP), as strength, water resistance and fire resistance, is much superior to these traditional settings chipboard as a natural binder fills the intracellular and intercellular pores of the wood-fibrous filler and gives solidity to the final product.

Environmentally friendly disposal of waste products

All of the above causes significant economic advantages obtained by the proposed method wood particle composite materials.

An example of a specific implementation of a method of manufacturing wood particle composite material.

To implement the offer is aemula method were used as filler pine particleboard materials, taken from waste furniture production. The characteristic size (length) of the chip was about 3-10 mm, and a thickness of from 0.1 to 1.0 mm Chips in an even layer thickness of 5 cm was placed in the matrix, press square cross section with a size of 10 cm × 10 cm, the Matrix and the punch press pre-heated to temperatures in the range of 220-300°C. Backfilling chips were subjected to compression by a punch press to a pressure of 2-5 MPa. The compression was carried out in 3-fold cyclic mode with a period of 1-2 minutes the resulting product with a thickness of 0.7-1.0 cm and a density of 1.1 to 2 g/cu cm after cooling was a final product that is significantly superior to similar known materials in strength, water resistance, fire.

During testing it was found that the strength of the specimen at the fracture produced by the described method was much higher than that of sample a traditional DSP. When testing the resistance of traditional DSP collapsed after 0.5 hours in a water environment, whereas the sample made by the described method, found no traces of swelling and loss of strength after a 10-hour stay in the water.

The present invention can find wide application in construction, furniture and other industries in the production of wood particle composite materials used in esmusica as structural products.

1. Wood particle composite material containing compressed devise particle filler and a binder, characterized in that the material has a monolithic, malabarista structure, characterized achieved a density of up to 2 g/CC, the chip thickness is 0.1-1.0 mm, and the pores of the particle filler is completely filled binders, which are woody resinous substances released from the particle filler when its hot pressing in the process of manufacturing a composite material.

2. A method of manufacturing wood particle composite material, which consists in the fact that pressed the filler in the form of wood chips in the presence of a binder, characterized in that the use of a binder selected from the chip when it is pressed with a pressure of 2-5 MPa, while the punch and die press pre-heated to a temperature of 220-300°C, and the hot pressing is carried out in cyclic loading conditions.



 

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1 tbl

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