Wood-particle composite material and method for its manufacturing
FIELD: wood working industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of production of wood-particle composite materials and relates to wood-particle composite material and method of its manufacturing. Material contains pressed wood-particle filler and binder, material has monolithic low-porosity structure characterized by achieved density of up to 2 g/cm3, thickness of chips makes from 0.1 to 1.0 mm, pores of wood-particle filler are fully filled with binder, such as wood resinous substances that are released from chip filler in process of its hot pressing as composite material is made. Method of manufacturing consists in the fact that filler is pressed as wood chips in presence of binder, at the same time binder is used, which is released from chips as it is pressed with pressure of 2-5 MPa, besides puncheon and die of press are pre-heated to temperature of 220-300°C, and process of hot pressing is carried out in cyclic loading mode.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of wood-particle composite material manufacturing method and to improve quality, due to increased strength, water resistance and fire resistance of manufactured wood-particle composite materials.
The invention relates to the production of wood-strand composites used as structural products in the construction, furniture and a wide range of other industrial technologies.
The most common form related to this class of composite materials are chipboard panels, well known under the abbreviation DSP (see, for example, an article of COMPOSITE MATERIALS (composites) at the Internet encyclopedia Krugosvet for 2007 at the following web address http://slovari.yandex.ru/dict/krugosvet/).
These are known for wood particle composite materials and manufacturing technologies have significant drawbacks:
- This material and its production process are environmentally harmful objects as use as a binder of synthetic resin-oligomers (primarily phenol-formaldehyde resin). Special environmental damage caused when using chipboard in house-building and furniture industries.
- Time technological suitability particle mixture of filler and resin-binder is limited to a short period (hours, maximum a day). This means that the mixture must be processed into the product before the expiration of this period, otherwise, the material goes into marriage.
Technology is what differentiates itself here complexity in operation and multi-stage: preparation of the mixture, molding, long time exposure in the furnace-reactor for carrying out the polymerization of the binder, cooling products and disassembly of the form.
- The print quality chipboard as the strength of the product and its resistance low. This is due to the fact that the resin-binder coats the top surface bonded filler and practically does not penetrate into the pores of the wood grain.
- Articles of wood chipboard belong to the class of flammable materials
- The use of environmentally harmful synthetic binders in the production of particleboard, hardware complexity of manufacture of the product, multi-stage and duration of the technological process, hazardous disposal of products and inputs for carrying out these operations cause economic negatives chipboard production.
In 60-ies of the last selenia attempts were made to develop technologies for the manufacture of wood particle composite materials without the use as a binder of synthetic resin.
Known wood particle composite material containing compressed wood particle filler (see inventor's certificate SU # 233222, CL B27N 3/02, B27K 9/00, 18.12.1968).
From this patent a method of making articles from crushed wood or similar material bessassergo by molding with subsequent hot pressing, thus the shaping of the workpiece in the process of hot pressing is exposed to gaseous ammonia.
In the patent-protected method based on the particle impregnation of the filler ammonia or its compounds. In this way, during the hot pressing of the connection (bonding) elements bonded filler is due to the formation of ammonium complexes wood pulp, which are environmentally dangerous component produced in this manner a composite material. The ammonia is very toxic and explosive gas. Thus, the production of wood particle composite materials protected by this patent the method is environmentally harmful and flammable way, when manufactured according to the method, the materials are characterized by low strength and lack of water resistance.
The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is wood particle composite material containing compressed wood particle filler and binder (see inventor's certificate SU # 197942, CL B27N 3/02, 09.06.1967).
From the same patent known closest to the invention to the technical essence and the achieved result of the method of manufacturing wood particle composite material is in hot pressing products like slabs, where as a binder using wood pulp from sawdust or shavings, crushed to particle size, characterized by a balance of 1.5-2% on a sieve 800 μm, in the presence of water, part of 90-94% of the crushed wood pulp.
The disadvantages of this wood particle composite material and method of its manufacture are as follows.
In the process of preparing a binder impose a number of additional complex, costly and energy-consuming operations:
- crushing particle mass in a hammer mill,
- webropol crushing product in the aquatic environment with a large excess of water (hydrolysis crushed mass),
- screening sieves to isolate the desired fraction 800 μm,
the mixture thus obtained water-binder suspension with particle filler
- heat removing a large amount of moisture in the drying chamber from the product after the pressing operation.
Obtained in this way wood particle composite material is characterized by low strength and lack of water resistance.
Task to be solved by the present invention is directed, is the simplification of the manufacture of wood particle composite material and improving its mechanical properties and other characteristics (in particular, water resistance, and is oarameters).
The technical result consists in increasing the productivity of the method of manufacturing wood particle composite material, as well as in improving the quality of manufactured in this way particle composite materials (in particular, DSP), by increasing strength, water resistance and fire resistance made of wood-strand composites.
In parts of the instrument, as an object of the invention, this problem is solved and the technical result is achieved due to the fact that particle composite material contains compressed particle filler and binder, and the material is monolithic, malabarista structure, characterized achieved a density of up to 2 g/CC, chip thickness from 0.1 to 1.0 mm, and the pores of wood-particle filler is completely filled binders, which are woody resinous substances released from the particle filler when its hot pressing in the process of manufacturing a composite material.
In terms of method, as the object of the invention, this problem is solved and the technical result is achieved due to the fact that the method of manufacture of wood particle composite material is that pressed the filler in the form of tree structure is key in the presence of a binder, use a binder selected from the chip when it is pressed with a pressure of 2-5 MPa, while the punch and die press pre-heated to a temperature of 220-300 degrees C, and the hot pressing is carried out in a cyclic mode of loading.
In the course of the study it was revealed that the physico-chemical mechanism for the formation of the proposed composite material and method of its production without the use of synthetic binding is that in the process of pressing in the above structural (density and chip thickness) thermal and modal parameters is the destruction of the cell walls of the wood grain filler, resinous substances (organic binder) go into the interfiber pores and then polymerizes, formation of an end product - solid wood particle composite material.
The principal advantages of the described wood particle composite material and method of its manufacture before the traditional methods of manufacture of such products with synthetic binders and before the above analogue and prototype are:
- The proposed method differs absolute sustainability both in terms of technological process and quality of the final product (completely and clucene synthetic resin-binder).
- Time technological suitability of the source particle material, practically, is not limited, since the resinous substance of wood fibers (binder) "conserved" in the cell membranes; there is only one condition original wood filler is an exception process of oxidation (decomposition), i.e. require storage in a dry and ventilated place.
Technology implementation of the proposed method is simple in operation and is carried out in a short time, essentially in the mode of single-stage process.
Such quality obtained by the proposed method wood particle composite materials (in particular, DSP), as strength, water resistance and fire resistance, is much superior to these traditional settings chipboard as a natural binder fills the intracellular and intercellular pores of the wood-fibrous filler and gives solidity to the final product.
Environmentally friendly disposal of waste products
All of the above causes significant economic advantages obtained by the proposed method wood particle composite materials.
An example of a specific implementation of a method of manufacturing wood particle composite material.
To implement the offer is aemula method were used as filler pine particleboard materials, taken from waste furniture production. The characteristic size (length) of the chip was about 3-10 mm, and a thickness of from 0.1 to 1.0 mm Chips in an even layer thickness of 5 cm was placed in the matrix, press square cross section with a size of 10 cm × 10 cm, the Matrix and the punch press pre-heated to temperatures in the range of 220-300°C. Backfilling chips were subjected to compression by a punch press to a pressure of 2-5 MPa. The compression was carried out in 3-fold cyclic mode with a period of 1-2 minutes the resulting product with a thickness of 0.7-1.0 cm and a density of 1.1 to 2 g/cu cm after cooling was a final product that is significantly superior to similar known materials in strength, water resistance, fire.
During testing it was found that the strength of the specimen at the fracture produced by the described method was much higher than that of sample a traditional DSP. When testing the resistance of traditional DSP collapsed after 0.5 hours in a water environment, whereas the sample made by the described method, found no traces of swelling and loss of strength after a 10-hour stay in the water.
The present invention can find wide application in construction, furniture and other industries in the production of wood particle composite materials used in esmusica as structural products.
1. Wood particle composite material containing compressed devise particle filler and a binder, characterized in that the material has a monolithic, malabarista structure, characterized achieved a density of up to 2 g/CC, the chip thickness is 0.1-1.0 mm, and the pores of the particle filler is completely filled binders, which are woody resinous substances released from the particle filler when its hot pressing in the process of manufacturing a composite material.
2. A method of manufacturing wood particle composite material, which consists in the fact that pressed the filler in the form of wood chips in the presence of a binder, characterized in that the use of a binder selected from the chip when it is pressed with a pressure of 2-5 MPa, while the punch and die press pre-heated to a temperature of 220-300°C, and the hot pressing is carried out in cyclic loading conditions.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: method for manufacturing of boards from chip or fibre material, in particular chip boards, LDF, MDF, HDF and OSB boards, includes the following stages: (S2) - production of dried chip or fibre material, (S3a, S3b) - plasma treatment of dried chip or fibre material, (S4a, S4b) - application of glue onto plasma-processed chip or fibre material and (S5) - pressing chip or fibre material, on which glue is applied into boards. Technological gas used at stage (S3a, S3b) of plasma treatment contains fluorine as additional component. Board contains not more than 50 kg of hard glue per cubic metre.
EFFECT: invention improves quality of boards.
13 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of construction and heat insulation materials. Proposed complex comprises crusher, hopper, mixer, reed powder hopper, reed powder feed conveyor for production sandwich panels with vacuum-powder insulation or materials made from cheff or reed powder heated to 190-200°C to separate resin-based adhesive, rolls, molds and acclimatizator heated to over 200°C and oscillating at preset rate, and arranged under said conveyor. Note here that hopper is furnished with mixer and hot water circulation jacket and jacket with branch pipe to feed heat carrier and to dry cheff to 90-95°C. Mixer is communicated with vertical heated mill furnished with hot water circulation jacket.
EFFECT: production of new heat insulation material.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to epoxide-wood composition for production of pressed boards used to cover foam polystyrene plates from external and internal sides on glue in order to protect them against external impact and to increase their service life. Composition includes the following components, with their following ratio, wt %: 37.2-43.5 of epoxide-diane resin ED-20, 3.7-4.3 of amine hardener of polyethylene polyamine, 43-52.1 of pine woodchip filler, 6.3-11.9 of polymer filler. Polymer filler used in composition is foam polystyrene chips - wastes of heat insulation production.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase physical and mechanical characteristics of composition, to recycle wastes of wood processing and heat insulation materials.
2 tbl, 3 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for woodworking and construction industry, and also environmental protection, and may be used in production of different construction materials, furniture panels, etc. Particles of organic filler, in particular wastes of woodworking industry, are ground to size of 1-0.25 mm, fractioned and dried to moisture extent of 3% and below. Then particles of this component and thermoplastic binder are charged with opposite electric charges by means of their supply to surface of rotor that rotates with circumferential speed of 80-120 m/s. As thermoplastic binder you can use domestic waste, such as polyethylene bags, containers. Charged particles of filler and binder are mixed. Mass prepared in mixer is sent through overbridge equipped with bipolar ioniser. Length and diametre of overbridge are such that they provide time of 10-12 sec for mass staying, which is sufficient to achieve residual charge of static electricity by voltage value of 20-500 V/cm. Invention makes it possible to produce cheap items by simple method with density of 0.99-1.00 g/cm3 and flexural length of at least 42 MPa, to recycle wastes, improve ecology and reduce toxicity of items.
EFFECT: production of cheap items by simple method with density of 0,99-1,00 g/cm3 and flexural strength of at least 42 MPa, recycling of wastes, improved ecology and reduced toxicity of products.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: wood industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to production of chipboards. The board includes bottom and top surface layers with fine particles, and an intermediate layer with more coarse particles is placed between these surface layers. The intermediate layer has various density in the areas, where the board is supposed to be attached to an other object. The chipboard production method includes even distribution of fines followed by generation of the first particle matrix to form a bottom surface layer, distribution of more coarse particles followed by generation of the second particle matrix above the fine particle matrix using a distribution device so that at least in one zone the coarse particles are applied in a more thick layer than at least in one surrounding area, even distribution of the fine particles followed by generation of the third coarse particle matrix to form a top surface layer and compression of the first, second and third matrices, whereby the intermediate layer thickness remains virtually unchanged, so the intermediate layer has various density.
EFFECT: produced chipboards feature increased soundproof and heat-insulating properties, and light weight, that facilitates efficient shipment of the processed boards.
9 cl, 13 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of construction beam production out of modified wood involves wood modification by squeezing fine metal powder into lumber cavity, with further formation of lumber face by rolling even surface before feeding it into reverse mold, where lumber is put by metal faces together. Then ultra high frequency (UHF) current is applied to beam ends to mollify metal powder, and modified materials are connected in reverse mold by pressing, at the moment of which UHF current is switched off, and obtained seam is cooled, finished beam is extracted from reverse mold freeing it for next beam pressing.
EFFECT: obtainment of construction beams of specified shape and strength properties.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: converted timber or chip plate is made of eucalyptus breeds and connected by means of binding substance containing isocyanatic or phenol polymeric compound. Eucalypti of the following species were selected: Bluegum (E. Globulus), Karri (E. Diversicolor), Sydney Bluegum (E. Saligna), Marri (E. Calophylla) or Jarrah (E. Marginata).
EFFECT: high surface strength, wet resistance and low swelling ratios.
10 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: method includes grinding of woodworking wastes or plant materials, mixing with binder and subsequent pressing. Binder is liquid sodium glass that contains dry substance of glass 30-70; water 70-130 wt parts; at that cold pressing is executed, and binder is taken in amount of 20-50 wt parts per 100 wt parts of wastes. Binder may additionally contain hardener - salts of mineral acids in amount of 3-5 wt parts, in this case liquid sodium glass is preliminarily homogenised with hardener.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to prepare ecologically clean, thermally resistant and moisture resistant items.
8 cl, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: rush stems are flattened in rolls, laid mutually perpendicular and milled into shreddings with particle size of 5-15 mm or into powder with particle size of 100-300 mm, saturated with water solution of bakelite resin in amounts of 1-2% or with water solution of wax emulsion, or mixed with heated up to liquid state bitumen or with particles of wire in amounts of 0,5-2%. Then the raw material is heated up to release of proper bonding agents, pressed either in pressing molds or through shaped hole of pressing mold with required products forming and is hold in acclimatisator until cooling.
EFFECT: invention allows for reducing energy consumption and obtaining strong, durable and ecologically clean construction materials, products and structures.
2 cl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: reed laminose material is made of dace or southern reed, contains odd, maximum 15, quantity of the layers executed from cut lengthways on thin strips of a reed stalks and laid in an is mutual-perpendicular direction. Strips are impregnated by carbamide, urea-formaldehyde or phenol-formaldehyde gluing compositions with hot solidification and are pressed in compression moulds at temperature 100-140°C and pressure 0.8-1.5 MPa. Equipment for manufacture of a reed-layered material has the conveyor consisting from plates for feed of a reed slab, the slab piercing gear, the directive conveyor connected to hydraulic system and executed with possibility of its movement by the rail together with a cutting frame by means of the longitudinal feed gear. Equipment also contains the horizontal dividing device for reed layer partitioning off from a total mass, directive bulwarks for the reed layer feed on a slab, glue feed system for reed impregnation by glue, the elevating device, the device for lowering of a reed layer on size of the removed layer, with possibility of feed of the received laying in system of hydraulic pressing for formation of a reed-layered material.
EFFECT: invention will allow receiving a material with high technological properties.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: wood-working industry; production of pressed building items.
SUBSTANCE: the group of inventions is pertinent to the field of production of pressed building items made out of plant roughage and may be used in wood-working construction industries and other branches of economy. The panel made by pressing out of a carpet without synthetic binding materials consists of a mixture of a birchen bark ground up to a faction of 40-5000 microns and a filler predominantly out of cellulose filaments at the following ratios in respect to the total dry solid matter (in mass %): a birchen bark - 60-95, cellulose filaments - 5-40. In an alternative version of the panel, which is made the same way as the above, the outer surfaces of the carpet are strengthened with lingo-cellulose-polymeric compound including an excelsior and the KF-EC resin with a hardener or an excelsior and triturated secondary polymer taken in amount of 10-12 mass % to the weight of the excelsior. At that the share of the lingo-cellulose-polymeric compound makes 20-40 % to the total dry weight of the carpet. The method allows to use a ground birchen bark without synthetic binding agents for shaping a carpet and its consequent pressing. At that for a carpet formation they use the birchen bark ground up to a faction of 40-5000 microns, and a filler mainly made out of cellulose filaments taken in the following ratio in respect to the total dry weight(in mass %): a birchen bark-60-95, cellulose filaments - 5-40. Before formation of the carpet the filler is moistened up to 18-20 % of absolute humidity and is mixed with ground birchen bark. The carpet is formed with a thickness equal to 200-300 % of the thickness of a finished panel. The group of the inventions ensures simplification of the production process, reduction of its cost, expansion of the range of the List of items.
EFFECT: group of the inventions ensures simplification of the production process, reduction of its cost, expansion of the range of the List of items.
8 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: production of plate materials of the splint-slab type, applicable in the wood-working and building industries.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in processing of husk particles by a binder containing urea-formaldehyde resin, ammonium chloride, Aerosil butadienstyrene methacrylic latex, forming of the mat, cold prepressing and hot pressing. The binder instead of ammonium chloride contains ammonium fluosilicate at the following relation of the components, mass percentage: urea-formaldehyde resin - 82.8 to 93.4, ammonium fluosilicate - 0.6 to 1.2; butadienstyrene methacrylic latex - 4.0 to 12.0, Aerosil - 2.0 to 4.0.
EFFECT: enhanced physico-mechanical characteristics of the plates.
FIELD: production of building materials, applicable in the wood-working, furniture and building industries.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in mixing together of wood particles with urea-formaldehyde resin, butadienstyrene methacrylic latex, ammonium chloride and Aerosil, forming of the mat, cold prepressing and hot pressing. The binder instead of ammonium chloride contains ammonium fluosilicate at the following relation of the components, mass percentage: urea-formaldehyde resin - 82.8 to 93.4, ammonium fluosilicate - 0.6 to 1.2, butadienstyrene methacrylic latex - 4.0 to 12.0, Aerosil - 2.0 to 4.0.
EFFECT: enhanced physico-mechanical and ecological characteristics.
FIELD: wood-working industry, in particular, methods for decreasing the content and emission of formaldehyde intended for fiber boards.
SUBSTANCE: the process of production of fiber boards is conducted with employment of aminated adhesive resins with an addition of substances binding the formaldehyde by compacting in running presses or continuous-action presses and by cooling. After compacting, but before cooling the fiber board is subjected to a short-time curing at 80 to 100C during 6 to 16 hours, depending an the expected level of decrease and emission of formaldehyde and used parameters of the process of production.
EFFECT: reduced content and emission of formaldehyde in the fiber board.
5 cl, 3 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: wood-working industry, applicable in furniture, building, packaging and machine-building branches of industry.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in the fact that filings and sawdust composed of: coniferous needles - 80%< filings - 10%, sawdust - 5% and wood fibers - 5% are added to the ground pulp of coniferous needles. The obtained mass is fed to the forming unit, which forms the sheets, which are fed to a press, where they are compacted at a pressure of not more than 10 Mpa at a temperature of not higher than 250C during not longer than 30 S. The obtained coniferous-needle material is cooled down, packed and delivered to the consumers.
EFFECT: produced material with breaking load, high density, low water absorption.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: manufacture of substantially flat articles, for instance particle boards and other articles of industrial wood residue or vegetable raw materials by hot pressing thereof.
SUBSTANCE: method for particle board production involves performing hot molding at temperature of 120-200°C and under pressure of 2.5 - 30.0 MPa for panel forming. Industrial waste, molasses, concentrated corn steep or mixture thereof are used as binding material, wherein lime and starch-containing materials are added to mixture including industrial wood residue or vegetable raw materials and the binding material before hot molding operation beginning.
EFFECT: increased ecological safety and increased strength of the panels.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: production of plate material.
SUBSTANCE: proposed composition is made on base of dispersed raw material with modifying additive; plate material is made by molding the said composition at temperature of 160-190°C and pressure of 65-95 kg/cm2; molding time of 1 min per 1 mm of plate thickness. Used as modifying agent are acid by-products of oxidation of cyclohexane of caprolactam process at mass ratio to wood wastes of 50-70:30-50, respectively.
EFFECT: facilitated procedure of production of composition.
FIELD: wood-working industry.
SUBSTANCE: fiber or chip is dried, then it is mixed with glue at a temperature of below 100C, and a plate is formed at a temperature above 140C, wood is decomposed into solid and liquid components that are used as the glue. The installation for manufacture of the plate has a drying device, device for application of glue onto the fiber or chip, device for compaction, transport facilities for transferring the fiber or chip from the drying device to the device for application of glue, mixer having means for cooling the body. The contents of glue in a plate obtained with the use of the installation makes up 45 to 55 kg per cubic meter of plate.
EFFECT: produced plate with a lower contents of glue as compared with plates produced by the known methods.
31 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: compositions used for manufacture of plates from wood laminate.
SUBSTANCE: composition for manufacture of plates contains rice shell or rice shell and sawdust mixture used as filler, liquid sodium glass having modulus of 2.4-3.6, and silicon dioxide. Artificial silicon dioxides or siliceous dust-like wastes of various industries may be used as silicon dioxides, with SiO2 content making at least 80%. Composition components are used in predetermined ratio.
EFFECT: improved strength and water tightness, and increased efficiency in utilization of various wastes.
FIELD: wood-working industry, and namely the method of manufacture of the structural unit, in particular, slab of wood fiber, wood chip and/or sawdust, and pressing of fiber, chip, and/or sawdust with applied glue for formation of the structural unit, in particular, slab.
SUBSTANCE: at first the wood fiber, chip and/or sawdust are decomposed by steaming into liquid components and hard components. The liquid components are separated and cooled inside the closed hermetic system up to their discharge from the system. During this process the ecological load caused by odor is sharply reduced. The invention also includes a device for realization of the method and a structural unit manufactured on it.
EFFECT: produced an ecologically pure method for manufacture of slabs and a device for its realization.
46 cl, 3 dwg