Combined electric energy, heat and cold generation method

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: combined electric energy, heat and cold generation method involves compression of atmospheric air and/or fuel with further being burnt in combustion chamber and conversion of heat of combustion products to mechanical energy by means of heat engine, conversion of mechanical energy to electric in electric generator, supply of some part of heat energy removed from heat engine to be converted in absorption cooling machine to cold energy. Some part of heat energy removed from heat engine is used for heat supply to consumers. Heat energy converted in absorption cooling machine to cold energy is used for cold supply to consumers. If excess cold energy appears during partial loading of absorption cooling machine, it is used for cooling of atmospheric air prior to compression.

EFFECT: increasing efficiency and electric power of the unit owing to using free capacity of cooling machine.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to a power system, can be used for the combined production of heat, cold and electricity at thermal power plants.

The known method of operation of a mobile unit combined production of electricity, heat and cold, in which the generator converts the mechanical energy of a rotating shaft of the engine into electricity, exhaust gases passing through the heat exchanger, give heat to the liquid coolant for heating during the heating season or refrigerant absorption chillers for cooling in summer [1].

The disadvantages of this method of operation can be attributed to the low efficiency associated with the emission of a substantial portion of unused thermal energy through the air cooling apparatus of an internal combustion engine and the refrigeration machine, the low degree of use of cooling power absorption chillers in the summer during periods of lowering the temperature of the surrounding air.

There is also known a method of operation of a cogeneration system: a first internal combustion engine produces useful energy that is converted into electrical energy using a generator, the second internal combustion engine is used to drive the compressor holodilnikami, generating cold in the summer, the heat recovered from the jacket of the engine and of the exhaust gases is used to heat supply in winter [2].

The disadvantage of this setup is the low efficiency of use vent heat of internal combustion engines, a significant cost of electricity to the compressor of the refrigeration machine.

The known method of operation of trigeneration systems, simultaneously carrying out the heat/cold and electricity, in which heating in the cold period is carried out by utilizing the heat of exhaust gases and the coolant of the internal combustion engine, the mechanical energy of the rotating shaft of the motor is converted into electricity, cold is produced in the summer in a compression refrigeration machine [3].

The disadvantages of the method of operation of this installation include low efficiency due to lack of use vent heat of the internal combustion engine and the significant costs of electricity for operation of the compressor of the refrigeration machine.

The closest technical solution (prototype) is a way of inlet cooled air in a gas turbine, in which a heat engine is used to convert the heat of products of combustion into mechanical energy posleduyushim converting it into electric power generator. The second heat engine is used as a source of thermal energy that is converted into energy of cold in the absorption refrigeration machine. Produced in the absorption refrigeration machine cold is used for cooling the atmospheric air before compression. When lowering the load on the cooling system lowers the pressure of the gas supplied to the heat engine [4].

The disadvantage of this setup is that in the period of incomplete loading of the absorption refrigerating machine in the low pressure gas used in thermal engine, raises the temperature of the water supplied from the absorption chillers for air-to-water heat exchanger, which reduces the degree of cooling of the atmospheric air supplied to the compressor, and accordingly to decrease the electric power installation.

The objective of the invention is the increased efficiency and electric power plant by increasing the use of absorption chillers.

This object is achieved as follows.

Compressed air and/or fuel burn in the combustion chamber and the combustion products heat is converted into mechanical energy using a heat engine. Mechanical energy is converted into electric power generator. Thermal energy, which can be found from a heat engine, used for heat supply of consumers and to convert in the absorption refrigeration machine in energy cold for refrigeration consumers. During partial load of the refrigeration machine of excess cooling capacity is used to cool the atmospheric air before compression.

The drawing shows a diagram of one possible settings, which can be implemented this way.

Power unit contains the following elements: 1 - air compressor 2 - combustion chamber, 3 - gas turbine, 4 - heat exchanger cooling disks and turbine blades, 5 - heat exchanger lubrication system of the turbine, 6 - flue gas heat 7 - heat exchanger system of heat supply, 8 - air-to-water heat exchanger, 9 - pump cooling circuit, 10 - pump, 11 - absorption refrigerating machine, 12 - heat consumer, 13 - generator, 14 - consumer cold, 15 - hot water line, 16 - pipe chilled water, 17 - cooling tower chillers, 18 - pump water supply (cooling) of the refrigerator, the 19 - room, 20 - dry cooling tower trigeneration installation.

The method of operation is as follows.

In the compressor 1 is in the process of compression of atmospheric air. From the compressor 1, the air enters into the combustion chamber 2, where the via nozzles continuously supplied under pressure of the sprayed fuel. From the combustion chamber 2, the products of combustion are directed into the turbine 3, in which the energy of combustion is converted into mechanical energy of rotation of the shaft. In the electric generator 13 this mechanical energy is converted into electricity. Thermal energy is diverted from the gas turbine through the heat exchanger lubrication system 5, system cooling disks and blades 4 and the flue gases 6, the pipe 15 is passed to heat exchanger 7 to supply 12 warm in the cold season. In the warm period of the heat energy used for heat supply, and the other part of the energy transfer absorption refrigerator 11, which converts thermal energy into the energy of the cold used to supply cold consumers 14. The water cooled in the heat exchanger 7, the pump 9 is passed to heat in the heat exchangers 4, 5, 6. In the absence of heat demand the excess heat is removed through dry coolers 20 into the atmosphere. During operation of the refrigeration machine 11 thermal energy is supplied to the generator and to the evaporator, while in the absorber and condenser heat is given. For the discharge of heat into the atmosphere serves as the loop circulating water systems, including cooling tower 17 and pump 18. During partial load absorption chiller 11 chilled water is passed through line is the gadfly 16 in an air-to-water heat exchanger 8, outside space 19 for pre-cooling the atmospheric air supplied to the compressor 1 for compressing atmospheric air and feeding into the combustion chamber 2, and is heated in the heat exchanger 8 water pump 10 is passed into an absorption refrigerator 11 for cooling.

The technical result, which can be obtained by carrying out the invention, is to increase the degree of use of absorption chillers due to cooling during partial load of atmospheric air prior to compression. Pre-cooling of atmospheric air by reducing the work of compression can reduce fuel consumption in a heat engine to increase efficiency and power output.

The LIST of USED SOURCES

1. Patent No. 2815486 (France), publ. 19.04.2002, IPC F01N 5/02-F02B 63/04; F02G 5/02; F25B 27/00; F25B 30/04; F01N 5/00; F02B 63/00; F02G 5/00; F25B 27/00; F25B 30/00; (IPC 1-7): H02K 7/18; F01N 5/02; F02B 63/04; F02G 5/02; F25B 27/02.

2. Patent No. 2005331147 (Japan), publ. 02.12.2005, IPC F25B 27/00; F25B 25/02; F25B 27/02; F25B 27/00; F25B 25/00; F25B 27/02; (GR-7): F25B 27/00; F25B 25/02; F25B 27/02.

3. Patent No. 20040061773 (Korea), publ. 07.07.2004, MCP F02G 5/00; F02G 5/00; (IPC 1-7): F02G 5/00.

4. Patent No. 8246899 (Japan), publ. 24.09.1996, IPC F02C 3/22; F01K 23/10; F02C 6/00; F02C 7/143; F25B 15/00; F02C 3/20; F01K 23/10; F02C 6/00; F02C 7/12; F25B 15/00; (IPC1-7): F02C 7/143; F02C 3/22; F02C 6/00; F25B 15/00.

The way the combined production of electricity, heat and cold, vklyuchayushchie atmospheric air and/or fuel with subsequent combustion in the combustion chamber and converting the heat of products of combustion into mechanical energy using a heat engine, the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy in the generator, the transfer of heat energy is taken away from a heat engine to convert to an absorption refrigerating machine in energy cold, used, at least for cooling the atmospheric air before compression, characterized in that the part of the heat energy is taken away from a heat engine is used for heat supply of consumers, and converted to absorption refrigerating machine thermal energy into the energy of the refrigeration is used for cooling of consumers, when it occurs during periods of incomplete loading of the absorption refrigerating machine of excess energy cold it is used for cooling the atmospheric air before compression.



 

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Power installation // 2396450

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