Method of determining fuel evaporability and ice cold starting

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in that enrichment percentage (%Enrich) is determined in ICE cold start as the function of memorised fuel evaporability (Vmem) and engine is started using predetermined enrichment percentage (%Enrich). Additionally, forecast start quality (MarkPred) is determined prior to starting the engine. Measured start quality (MarkMeas) is determined during initial increase in engine rpm. Correction (Vcorr) for memorised fuel evaporability (Vmem) is determined as the function of comparison between measured start quality (MarkMeas) and forecast start quality (MarkPred) for memorised fuel evaporability (Vmem) to be edited by using correction (Vcorr) for memorised fuel evaporability (Vmem).

EFFECT: method of determining fuel evaporability and ICE cold starting.

86 cl, 3 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a method of determining fuel volatility, and then perform a cold start of the internal combustion engine.

The present invention mainly applies to the gasoline internal combustion engine, which will be made later reference without limitation the main scope of the invention.

In modern internal combustion engine petrol petrol is injected into the inlet canal near cylinders (prelimary respectively) or injected inside the cylinder (direct injection).

When the engine is in a warmed-up condition, that is, when the engine has reached a temperature close to the operating temperature, when using gasoline grades with different values of evaporation is no significant difference in the behavior of the engine. On the other hand, when the engine is cold and the outside temperature is cool (for example, below 10C), non-volatile portion of gasoline remain liquid after injection, and do not participate in the combustion process; in particular, the non-volatile portion of the gasoline, which remain liquid, deposited on the inlet channel (in engines with predominan injection) and on the cylinder walls, where they bred with lubricating oil or produced unburned through the exhaust valves. To compensate for the fact that tol is to some portion of the injected gasoline takes part in the combustion, it is necessary to increase the amount of injected gasoline, it is necessary to enrich the fuel injection.

The enrichment of the fuel injection is regulated as a function of outdoor temperature (the lower the temperature, the more we need to enrich respectively) and as a function of evaporation of gasoline (the lower the evaporation of gasoline, the more we need to enrich respectively). The purpose of the enrichment process is to ensure the minimum enrichment, which is sufficient to ensure the good running of the engine, as any further enrichment simply increases the fuel consumption by the engine and, moreover, the output of pollutants.

The evaporation of a particular grade of gasoline is a value that indicates the ability of gasoline to pass from a liquid state to a gaseous state, and is defined as the vapor pressure, which is measured when the temperature of the gasoline is of 37.8C (equilibrium between liquid and vapour). Thus, expressed in dimensional units, evaporation some sort of gasoline is the pressure and is usually expressed in pounds per square inch ("psi"); 1 pound per square inch corresponds to 68,9 of hectopascals.

The temperature of external air is an element of data that are available in sovr the modern internal combustion engines either through direct measurement, or by measuring the temperature of the coolant when the engine is cold, the coolant temperature is essentially equal to the outside temperature).

In contrast, the evaporation of gasoline is an element of data that is available only in approximate terms, as it is extremely expensive and difficult to install a sensor that can directly measure the evaporation of gasoline, and for indirect determination of evaporation of gasoline has already been proposed are not sufficiently precise and reliable way. In this regard, it is important to note that the evaporation of gasoline varies as a function of the refinery, which is gasoline, and as a function of the time of year; grade gasoline purchased in the summer months, much less volatile than those bought in the winter months. Cold engine starting, of course, is easier when the ambient temperature is high, but if gasoline is particularly volatile and the outside temperature is high, when gasoline is sprayed, produce large amounts of a pair of gas, which is potentially harmful to health personnel and to the environment. Typically, commercially available grades of gasoline have evaporation from approximately 4 to 14 pounds per square inch, i.e. about the 413 to 965 of hectopascals.

In U.S. patent No. 6079396 A1 disclosed a method of compensating the evaporation of fuel during a cold start of the internal combustion engine. Evaporation of the automotive fuel of the internal combustion engine is evaluated during cold start operations by stabilizing the air intake into the engine and through the analysis of the engine speed during the test period following a cold start of the engine after the engine speed has stabilized and before operation of the engine with closed loop regulation; if the engine speed deviates significantly from the expected engine speed for the current intake air and fuel to the engine, it is diagnosed by the deviation of the fuel volatility. The deviation of the evaporation fuel from the nominal fuel volatility is determined as a function of the deviation of the engine speed; the amount of correction of the fuel volatility is updated as a function of the deviation of the engine speed and applies for the entire ignition cycle, including the simulation period to compensate for the deviation of the fuel volatility.

In the publication EP 1178203 A1 disclosed adaptive passive way of the same ignition cycle to detect in real-time and d the I compensation of evaporation of fuel (or fuel indicator drivability during cold start multi-cylinder engine. The method detects the sign of fuel volatility, which is manifested on the engine speed immediately after the engine starts to work; local short-term reduction in the rate of rotation of the high-amplitude associated with grades of fuel having different evaporation, which can be detected during the first seconds after ignition of the engine, while the engine is in idle-neutral mode of operation. Reduce the frequency of rotation is uniquely correlated with rates of fuel and vehicle handling in the form of calibration tables at different temperatures; thus, the detected actual fuel indicator drivability, and quickly determined the optimal enrichment/depletion of fuel within a few steps after the engine indicates the operational status, even before turning on the transmission.

The present invention is to provide a method for determining fuel volatility, and then perform a cold start of the internal combustion engine, which does not have the above disadvantages and, in particular, is simple and economical to implement.

According to the present invention results from the method of determining fuel volatility, and then perform a cold start on the " internal combustion, during cold start, determine the percentage enrichment of injection as a function of the stored values for fuel volatility; and start the engine using a predefined percentage enrichment injection. Moreover, according to the method additionally determine the predicted value for the quality of the run before running start, determine the measured value for a quality start at initial increase in the frequency of rotation (rpm) of the engine, determine the value of the stored correction values for fuel volatility as a function of the comparison between the measured value for the quality of the run and the predicted value for the quality of the run; and update the stored value for fuel volatility by applying the correction values to the stored value.

Preferably, once the stored value for fuel volatility is updated by applying the correction values to the stored value, provide an additional update that is currently in the percentage of enrichment of injection as a function of the new stored values for fuel volatility.

Preferably, the percentage enrichment of injection is defined as a function of the stored values for fuel volatility and as a function of the rate is atory engine coolant.

Preferably, the predicted value for a quality start is defined as a function of the stored values for fuel volatility and as a function of the coolant temperature of the engine at startup.

Preferably, the stored value for fuel volatility increase, if the predicted value for the quality of the run is worse than the measured value for the quality of the run; and the stored value for fuel volatility decrease, if the predicted value for the quality of the run better than the measured value for the quality of the run.

Preferably, if the cold start of the engine is completed satisfactorily, then the measured value for a quality start is defined as the delay function, which is an increase of rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine.

Preferably, if the cold start of the engine is completed satisfactorily, then the measured value for a quality start is defined as a function of the speed increase speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine.

Preferably, if the cold start of the engine is completed satisfactorily, then the measured value for a quality start is defined as the delay function, which is an increase of rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine, and as a function of speed increase castorena (revolutions per minute) of the engine.

Preferably, the rate of increase of the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine is calculated after a given number of the top dead point (TDC), counting from the TDC, in which the increase in rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine.

Preferably, the increase of engine speed is determined by detecting the presence of the first effective flash and by detecting the difference between the value of the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine, evaluated after a given number of TDC, starting from TDC, which is the first effective flash, and value of the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine prior to the first effective flash.

Preferably, the increase of engine speed is determined only if the difference between the value of the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine, evaluated after a given number of TDC, starting from TDC, which is the first effective flash, and value of the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine prior to the first effective outbreak, more than a predetermined threshold value.

Preferably, the rate of increase of engine speed is determined in the beginning of the third TDC, counting from the TDC, in which the increase of the rotation frequency (the number of the ready in a minute) of the engine, as the difference between the current value of the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine and the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine prior to TDC, in which the increase.

Preferably, the delay with which the increase in rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine determined by measuring the interval of time that has passed between the beginning of the run, and the moment in which detected a significant speed increase speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine.

Preferably, the delay with which the increase in rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine, determined by measuring the interval of time that has passed between the beginning of the run, and the moment in which the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine exceeds a threshold value.

Preferably, the measured value for the quality of the run is estimated as equal to the constant, positive initial value of which is deducted as the first positive adjustment value that is a function of the delay with which the increase in rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine, and which can be algebraically added to the second setting value that is a function of the speed increasing frequency in the stop (revolutions per minute) of the engine.

Preferably, the first learned value obtained by subtracting a constant excess values for each TDC, which takes place between the beginning of the engine start and when detected quite a significant speed increase speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine.

Preferably, the first learned value obtained by subtracting a constant excess values for each TDC, which comes between the beginning of the engine start and the moment at which the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine exceeds a threshold value.

Preferably, the initial value is 9, and the constant used for the calculation of the first adjustment value equal to 0.38.

Preferably, the second learned value selected from a range by comparing the rate of increase of the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine with a reference speed increase.

Preferably, the range is used to calculate the second setting value ranges from +1 to-2.75.

Preferably, the measured value for the quality of the run is estimated as equal to the constant, positive initial value of which is deducted as the first positive adjustment value if the detected appreciable delay increasing the frequency of rotation system-easy installation the I (revolutions per minute) of the engine, or is algebraically added to the second setting value, if not detected appreciable delay increasing the engine speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine.

Preferably, use the first setting value, if not detected a significant increase of the engine speed after a given number of flashes from the start; and the first learned value increases at a constant excess value for each TDC, which passes between the moment at which starts the engine start, and the moment at which the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine exceeds a threshold value.

Preferably, the initial value of the measured value for the quality of the run is equal to 9, and the constant excessive value of the first tuning value equal to 0.38 for each TDC.

Preferably, the second learned value is a function of the speed increase speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine, and it is chosen from the range by comparing the rate of increase of the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine with a reference speed increase.

Preferably, the rate of increase of the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine evaluates first TDC, following after a specified absolute number of flashes from the start, and the IDA is typiconveney as the difference of speed between the value obtained on n-flash, and the most recent displayed value, the previous absolute first outbreak of the engine, if it is greater than a predetermined threshold value.

Preferably, the rate of increase of the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine is determined in the beginning of the third TDC, the first TDC, following after the third flash in absolute terms from the start, and identifiable as the difference of speed between the value obtained at the third flash, and the latest output value prior to the first flash engine in absolute terms, if it is greater than a predetermined threshold value.

Preferably, the initial value is 9, and the range used to calculate the second setting value ranges from +1 to-2.75.

Preferably, the measured value for the quality start is saturated, so that it is always within the specified range.

Preferably, the predetermined range of the measured value for the quality of the run is from 0 to 10.

Preferably, if a cold engine start is not completed satisfactorily, that is, the engine is stopped, while the evaluation takes place, the measured value for the quality of the starting set equal to the minimum value of full scale.

Preferably, the percentage of enrichment is Prisca vary in time between the initial maximum value by the absolute value and the end value to zero.

Preferably, the percentage enrichment injection is realized by means of the first member, which affects the actual concentration of the mixture, and the second member residual correction, which directly affects the actual amount of gasoline.

Preferably, each member gets on the value of time according to the law of exponential decay.

Preferably, the first time constant of decay of the first member of concentration is less than the second time constant of decay of the second member, the residual correction.

Preferably, the first time constant and the second time constant is calculated as a function of the stored values of fuel volatility and the initial values of the coolant temperature of the internal combustion engine.

Preferably, the first time constant of decay of the first member of concentration is approximately one third of the second time constant of decay of the second member, the residual correction.

Preferably, after updating the stored values for fuel volatility, provide enrichment modify, respectively, or by updating the values of the enrichment as a function of the new stored values for fuel volatility, either by updating dynamics profile attenuation enrichment.

Preferably, the values of the enrichment update based on the value of the relationship between the new percentage enrichment, based on the new stored values for fuel volatility, and the percentage of enrichment used in the original run.

Preferably, the dynamics of the attenuation profile enrichment update by updating the value of the time constant of the decay as a function of the new stored values for fuel volatility.

Preferably, the run is considered significant for the purposes of updating the stored values for fuel volatility only if passed at least the specified amount of time after the internal combustion engine is turned off.

Preferably, the interval time is determined so as to ensure all components of the engine temperature, equivalent to the ambient temperature.

Preferably, the stored value for fuel volatility update only if the initial temperature of the engine coolant before starting is within the specified temperature range.

Preferably, the temperature range has a lower limit, which ensures that each component of the system running perfect operation and high repeatability (lower limit), and the upper limit, which provides the effect of fuel volatility on the quality of the run.

Preferably, the stored value for the evaporation fuel obnova is t, only if the initial temperature of the engine coolant before starting is in the range from -25C to 10C.

Preferably, the stored value for fuel volatility update only when the atmospheric pressure exceeds a threshold value.

Preferably, the stored value for fuel volatility do not update if there are signals of engine trouble, which can affect the quality of the run.

Preferably, if there are signals of engine trouble, according to standard diagnostic system that affect the quality of the run, the percentage enrichment of injection is determined as a function of the stored reference values for fuel volatility, which depends on the values used in the preceding runs.

Preferably, the stored value for fuel volatility do not update if the condition is determined fault, not detective standard diagnostic system, and which can affect the quality of the run.

Preferably, if the condition is determined malfunction that affects the quality of the run, the percentage enrichment of injection is defined as a function of the setpoint recovery for fuel volatility, and value recovery allows about usestat start the car within the allowed number of attempts, regardless of the value of fuel volatility, really present in the tank.

Preferably, if the average of the most recent measured value for the quality of the run below a predetermined threshold value, then determine the condition of the engine failure.

Preferably, if the average of the differences between the most recent estimated values for the quality of the run and the corresponding measured values for the quality of the run is greater than the specified threshold value, then determine the condition of the engine failure.

Preferably, calculate the error rate, which persived value, depending on the number of each TDC failed launch, which leads to stopping of the engine; and if the value of the error rate is greater than the specified threshold value, then determine the condition of the engine failure.

Preferably, the error rate is set to zero after a certain number of continuously following each other and unproblematic cold starts.

Preferably, the error rate is set to zero when the detected problematic launch/re-launch, which occurs within the specified maximum number of retries.

Preferably, if after a given number of TDC from the start, the engine does not start, then when asualt current used percentage enrichment injection.

Preferably, the cold start of the engine evaluate problematic if the difference between the predicted value for a quality start and the current estimate of the measured value for the quality of the run is greater than the specified threshold value.

Preferably, the cold start of the engine is estimated as problematic if the number of TDC characterizing phase, which precedes the beginning of the steady operation of the engine exceeds a specified threshold.

Preferably, once defined the situation is problematic start, perform emergency action, in which the current used, the percentage enrichment injection update as a function of the alarm for fuel volatility, which is equal to the value of the evaporation fuel used at the beginning of the run, minus the given value is negative increment.

Preferably, the value is negative increment is such as to make the alarm value for fuel volatility close to the possible minimum value.

Preferably, the problematic condition of cold re-start control when the engine is not warmed up, the coolant temperature is below the upper limit that provides for the determination of fuel volatility, and the difference between the predicted value for the quality of the VA start and current evaluation of the measured value for the quality of the run is greater than the specified threshold value; in the case of problematic conditions of cold re-start, if the stored value for fuel volatility is high enough to be considered potentially problematic due to the fact that it is greater than the value that provides the ability to run within the allowed number of attempts, regardless of the value of fuel volatility, really present in the tank, and if the presence of a system problem, not signaled standard diagnostic system and is responsible for a problematic start, can be excluded with sufficient certainty, and if the previous run was also problematic, emergency action, in which the current used, the percentage enrichment injection update as the emergency function values for fuel volatility, which is equal to the value of the evaporation fuel used at the beginning of the run, minus the given value is negative increment.

Preferably, the value is negative increment is such as to make the alarm value for fuel volatility close to the possible minimum value.

Preferably, the critical condition of the start/restart control when the coolant temperature is below the lower limit, which allows identificirovat evaporation of fuel.

Preferably, the critical condition of the start/restart control when the start/restart occurs when any condition that is not completely covered by the famous case of experimental data, suitable to fully specify the behavior of the system.

Preferably, in case of critical start/restart, if the stored value for fuel volatility is high enough to be considered potentially problematic due to the fact that it is greater than the value that provides the ability to run within the allowed number of attempts, regardless of the value of fuel volatility, really present in the tank, and if the presence of a system problem, not signaled standard diagnostic system and is responsible for a problematic start, can be excluded with sufficient certainty, then perform emergency action, in which the current used, the percentage enrichment of injection is defined as the emergency function values for fuel volatility that is equal to the value of the evaporation fuel used at the beginning of the run, minus the given value is negative increment.

Preferably, the value is negative increment is such as to make the alarm value for the speraesole fuel close to the possible minimum value.

Preferably, the amount of correction can be obtained by multiplying by a constant multiplier of the difference between the measured value for the quality of the run and the predicted value for a quality start.

Preferably, the constant multiplier takes two different values depending on whether the difference between the measured value for the quality of the run and the predicted value for a quality start positive or negative.

Preferably, the amount of correction determined only if the number of successive TDC that occur during the start attempt, exceeds the threshold value.

Preferably, the amount of correction determined only if the number of successive TDC, which caught while attempting to run more than 4.

Preferably, if the difference between the measured value for the quality of the run and the predicted value for a quality start as an absolute value below a predetermined threshold value, the correction value assign a value of zero.

Preferably, the stored value for fuel volatility updating as a function of the correction values through the use of automatic processing of confidence.

Preferably, the stored value for fuel volatility believe you is established, if the difference between the measured value for the quality of the run and the predicted value for a quality start as an absolute value below a predetermined threshold value.

Preferably, when confirmed by the stored value for fuel volatility, the reference value for the fuel volatility imply equal to the stored value for fuel volatility; and automatic processing of reliability based on the number of confirmations reference values of evaporation during the previous cold starts.

Preferably, for each confirmation, the value of the confidence level increases by an amount which depends on the coolant temperature at startup.

Preferably, if the stored value for fuel volatility is not confirmed, then reduce the value of the degree of reliability of the reference values of evaporation.

Preferably, the new stored value for fuel volatility is calculated through a weighted average value between the reference value for the fuel volatility and the value obtained as the sum of the stored values for fuel volatility at the beginning of the run, with the magnitude of the correction that is calculated; and the weighting factors are a function of the number of Acknowledgements reference values for ispar is emoti fuel during the previous cold starts the engine.

Preferably, keep the number of confirmations of the stored values for fuel volatility.

Preferably, keep the number of confirmations of the stored values for fuel volatility and preserve the life of each confirmation.

Preferably, remove the old confirmation.

Preferably, the new stored value for fuel volatility is calculated through a weighted average value between a previously saved proven reference values for fuel volatility and the value obtained as the sum of the stored values for fuel volatility at the beginning of the run, with the magnitude of the correction that is calculated; and the weighting factors are a function of the number of Acknowledgements reference values for fuel volatility during the previous cold starts of the engine and the term in which occurs the above-mentioned confirmation, and is preferred at the latest.

Preferably, in case of emergency actions, with the only exception of the critical start/restart for the purposes of repeatability of its assessment, the stored value for fuel volatility is calculated through a weighted average value between the reference value and alarm value for fuel volatility, which is equal to the value of the evaporation Topley is a, used at the beginning of the run, minus the given value is negative increment; and a weighting factor associated with the reference value of the degree of reliability of the reference values.

Preferably, the value is negative increment is such as to make the alarm value for fuel volatility close to the possible minimum value.

Preferably, the information regarding the fuel level in the tank is an additional condition for the resolution of emergency actions re-launch and to reduce/reset reliability reference values of evaporation.

Preferably, the signal from an oxygen sensor located in the exhaust system of the engine, is used to verify the correctness of the set correction values.

Preferably, the parameters used to compensate for the effect of a film of the fluid is adjusted as a function of the stored values for fuel volatility.

Preferably, the values of enrichment and any other variable of the motor control, which must be adapted to the value of the evaporation fuel gauge directly to the limiting values of evaporation, you want to work with, and the stored value for the evaporation of fuel can get through interpolate the desired value of variables which is really needed for enrichment.

Hereinafter the invention is described in specific variants of its implementation with reference to the accompanying drawings, on which:

figure 1 - schematic view of an internal combustion engine equipped with an electronic control unit, which carries out the method for determining fuel volatility according to the present invention;

figure 2 - block diagram of the processor of the electronic control unit from Fig 1; and

figure 3 is a graph illustrating the variation in time of the number of revolutions of the engine 1 during two different cold starts.

In figure 1, the reference position 1 indicates an internal combustion engine for a vehicle (not shown), and the engine 1 has four cylinders 2 (of which figure 1 shows only one). Each cylinder 2 is connected with the intake manifold 3 through the inlet channel 4 is driven, at least one intake valve 5 and the exhaust manifold 6 through the outlet channel 7, managed at least one outlet valve 8. The intake manifold 3 receives fresh air (i.e. air coming from the external environment) through a throttle valve 9, which is adjustable between a closed position and a maximally open position. The exhaust manifold 6 leads to the system 10 release, having one or n is how many catalytic converters of exhaust gases (not shown in detail), to release into the atmosphere of gases produced by the combustion in the cylinder 2; and in the system 10 release has at least one oxygen sensor 11.

Four injector 12 (one for each cylinder 2) connected to respective inlet channels 4 to inject gasoline cyclically in the intake channels 4; moreover, four candles 13 ignition (one for each cylinder 2) connected to respective cylinders to carry out the cycle the ignition of the mixture present inside the cylinder 2.

Each cylinder 2 is connected with the corresponding piston 14, which slides linearly along the cylinder 2, and mechanically connected to the crankshaft propeller shaft 15 via a connecting rod 16, with the drive shaft 15, in turn, mechanically connected to the frame 17 by means of an intermediate gear clutch 18 to transfer torque to the drive wheels of the vehicle (not shown).

It is obvious that the following management strategy remains valid even in the presence of engine configuration, other than those already illustrated example; for example, there may be used a different number of cylinders other than the cylinder layout, there may be a turbocharger, the air flow can be controlled by electronic control of the intake valve, etc

Finally, the engine 1 includes an electronic unit 19 that controls the operation of the engine 1. As already mentioned, during the cold start of the engine 1 to increase the quantity of injected gasoline in comparison with normal operation of the engine 1, to compensate for the fact that only some portion of the gasoline injected in a cold engine 1, takes part in the combustion. For this purpose, the block 19 contains a control processor 20, which controls the degree of enrichment of the fuel injection during engine start; in particular, the processor 20 determines the amount and duration of the enrichment of the fuel injection during starting of the engine 1. The degree of enrichment of the fuel injection is preferably expressed as a percentage % Enrich; for example, if the percentage % Enrich equal to 20%, the injectors 12 are driven by an electronic control unit 19 controls so as to inject an additional 20% of gasoline relative to the standard operation of the engine 1, that is, relative to a specific reference number of the gasoline used for the nominal calibration of the system (usually used gasoline specified for type testing machine).

An alternative implementation is used for direct calibration of the levels of enrichment (and basically any other variable to control the motor, which must adapt to the values of fuel volatility) for the limiting values of evaporation, you want to work with; in this case, these values are "absolute"and not additional with respect to standard reference values. Then the value of the evaporation identified in this strategy allows to obtain the value actually required for enrichment through interpolation (and mainly through evaporation, which may even be non-linear).

It is important to note that the engine 1 is cold, if the time that the engine 1 is turned off, passed some time interval that is equal to at least the interval required to ensure all components of the engine 1, the temperature equivalent to the temperature of outside air, and thus no longer exposed to the heat generated by the engine 1 during its previous working state. For example, we can assume that this time is six hours.

As shown in figure 2, the processor 20 contains the memory module 21, which contains the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility, and the computing unit 22, which defines the value of the percentage of enrichment injection % Enrich as a function of the stored value Vmem for evaporation t the Pliva and as a function of temperature T engine coolant 1. Preferably, the computing unit 22 contains a three-dimensional matrix, which is determined experimentally, and for each pair containing the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility and temperature IN coolant, provides the appropriate value for the percentage of enrichment injection % Enrich.

The percentage enrichment injection % Enrich varies in time from some initial maximum absolute values provided by the computing unit 22, in accordance with the above method, to the final zero. Positive values of the percentage of in reality show "enrichment", and, conversely, negative values indicate "exhaustion", and arise, for example, when the reference gas used for the nominal calibration of the system requires a richer mixture requirements for gasoline, which in fact is present in the tank of a vehicle. Preferably, the percentage enrichment % Enrich generated by the first member, which affects the actual concentration of the mixture, and the second member residual correction, which directly affects the actual amount of gasoline. Each member gets a value depending on time according to the exponential decay. Constant time is Yeni recession first member concentrations less than the time constant of decay of the second member, the residual correction, and, in particular, the time constant of decay of the first member of concentration is approximately one third of the time constant of decay of the second member, the residual correction. Time constants are calculated as a function of the stored value (Vmem) and initial temperature (TN) for fuel volatility.

In response to the update of the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility profile enrichment when the movement is modified in the values and dynamics of its attenuation profile. The magnitude of the enrichment re-scaled based on the relationship between the new percentage enrichment % Enrich determined on the basis of the new stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility, and the initial percentage of enrichment. The dynamics of the attenuation profile is modified by updating the value of the time constant of decay as a function of the new stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility.

Before you perform a cold start of the engine 1 computing unit 22 determines the predicted value MarkPred for quality starts (usually from 0 to 10) as a function of the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility and as a function of the coolant temperature of the engine 1. Preferably, the computing unit 22 contains a three-dimensional matrix, the cat heaven is determined experimentally, and for each pair containing the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility and temperature IN coolant, provides (possibly through interpolation) the corresponding predicted value MarkPred for a quality start.

The processor 20 further comprises a block 23 evaluation that determines the measured value MarkMeas for quality starts (usually from 0 to 10) as a function of the time variation of the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine 1 (i.e. the number of revolutions of the propeller shaft 15 of the engine 1). In particular, during startup of the engine 1, and as shown in the example graph from figure 3, the rotational speed of the engine 1 is initially maintained near a very low value (say, from 200 to 400 rpm), driven axial load transmitted to the starter motor; essentially, when the cylinder 2 starts the combustion of gasoline, the rotational speed of the engine 1 increases rapidly until, until it reaches the specified minimum value (for example, from 1000 to 1400 revolutions per minute). The measured value MarkMeas for a quality start is defined after the completion of the required number of outbreaks top dead center (TDC) after the start of the increase of the rotational speed of the engine 1, that is, after completing a specified number after the upper dead point after the start of the increase of the frequencies of the rotation of the engine 1. In particular, it was observed that the measured value MarkMeas for a quality start is defined with sufficient reliability in the beginning of the third TDC, counting from the point at which the increase in rotational speed of the engine 1.

Theoretical analysis reveals that it is possible to control the profile of increasing the frequency of rotation of the engine 1 by means of strategies that have the effect only effective after the fourth flash, that is, from the first TDC after the end of the evaluation run; thus, the effect of management strategies the engine 1 does not affect the evaluation, when the run is evaluated on the basis of the effects of frequency of rotation of the engine 1 only the first three bursts.

Alternatively, the measured value MarkMeas for the quality of the run could be determined as soon as the rotational speed of the engine 1 has reached a certain speed (for example, 800 rpm); in other words, it is assumed that the start-up phase completes successfully, as soon as the rotational speed of the engine 1 has reached a predetermined speed.

Either the predicted value MarkPred for the quality of the run, or the measured value MarkMeas for quality start is transmitted to the computing unit 22, which determines the correction value Vcorr stored value Vmem for fuel volatility as a function of the comparison between the measured value MarkMeas for quality start and p is anotherwoman value MarkPred for a quality start.

Typically, the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility is reduced, if the predicted value MarkPred for quality run better than the measured value MarkMeas for a quality start, and the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility increases, if the predicted value MarkPred for quality run worse than the measured value MarkMeas for the quality of the run; however, the General rule is based on the assumption that if the predicted value MarkPred for quality run worse than the measured value MarkMeas for a quality start, there is a variety of gasoline, which has a higher volatility than expected, and Vice versa. Obviously, there are exceptions to the General rule described above, and these exceptions will be formulated in detail next.

For example, the correction value Vcorr can be obtained by multiplying by a constant multiplier of the difference between the measured value MarkMeas for the quality of the run and the predicted value MarkPred for a quality start. Constant multiplier takes two different values depending on whether the difference between the measured value (MarkMeas) for the quality of the run and the predicted value (MarkPred) for the quality of the run is positive. Preferably, if the difference between the measured value MarkMeas for the quality of the run and the predicted value MarkPred lacazette run by the absolute value below a predetermined threshold value (for example, 0,5), then the correction value Vcorr is assigned a null value.

Or correction value Vcorr, or stored value Vmem for fuel volatility is served in the block 25 update, which updates the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility contained in module 21 of the memory, by applying the correction value Vcorr to stored value Vmem.

Thus, as soon as is determined by the measured value MarkMeas for a quality start, the current percentage of enrichment % Enrich can be modified based on the difference between the measured value MarkMeas for the quality of the run and the predicted value MarkPred for the quality of the run, i.e. on the basis of the correction value Vcorr new stored value Vmem for fuel volatility, which was just calculated; in particular, the current percentage of enrichment % can Enrich pereselitsa, if the measured value MarkMeas for quality run significantly worse than the predicted value MarkPred for the quality of the run and Vice versa.

It is important to note that the correction value Vcorr is considered to be significant, and thus it is applied to the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility to update mentioned the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility, if you meet certain conditions.

Correction value Vcorr is considered to be significant only in case the e hot engine or when there was a certain amount of time after the engine is turned off, which is equal to the time interval required to ensure the achievement of all components of the engine 1, the temperature equivalent to the temperature of outside air, and thus no longer exposed to the heat generated by the engine 1 during its previous working state. In addition, the correction value Vcorr is considered significant only if the initial temperature TN coolant of the engine 1 before you start is within a specified temperature range in which evaporation of the fuel affects the quality of the run (the upper limit), and each component of the starting system is perfectly functional and behaves with high repeatability (lower limit); for example, within a temperature range between -25C and 10C. Another important feature to consider starting significant, is that the latter circumstance is not critical relative to the frequency of its assessment, i.e. not occur conditions that is not completely covered by the famous case of experimental data, suitable to fully specify the behavior of the system; and launches, which, for example, occur at a considerable height above sea level, tend to be excluded.

Finally, the correction value Vcor is not considered significant in the presence of signals of engine trouble, which can affect the quality of the run and are provided with standard diagnostics of electronic unit 19 of the control or if the condition is determined malfunction of the engine 1, despite the fact that not even detected on-Board diagnostic system. Some examples of signals a malfunction of the engine 1, which are external to the system startup and standard diagnostics of electronic unit 19 controls are: signal is "low battery voltage"signal "misfire", "signal failure injection system", the signal failure of the supply system of petrol", "signal failure sensor coolant temperature"signal "sensor failure the engine speed or the signal failure of the sensor of angular position of a shaft".

To determine the condition of the engine failure, which is not signaled standard diagnostic system of the electronic unit 19 of the control unit 25 updates uses the number of TDC of each problematic start of the engine 1, which leads to stopping of the engine 1; if the value of the error rate exceeds the threshold value, then the condition is determined malfunction of the engine 1. The error rate becomes zero after a certain number of continuously following each other and unproblematic cold starts.

Alter the effective way of zeroing error rate is in order to detect problematic launch (or one re-run in sequence), which occurs within a specified maximum number of attempts; the second run is classified as an n-th attempt sequence, if it occurs within the maximum time from a previous run (e.g., 10 minutes).

Cold start of the engine 1 is estimated as problematic if the number of TDC characterizing phase, which precedes the beginning of the steady operation of the engine (engine speed of the engine 1 exceeds the given value, usually 800 rpm), exceeds a certain threshold; the second path estimates run as problematic, is to establish that the difference between the current assessed value MarkPred for a quality start and the measured values MarkMeas for the quality of the run is greater than the specified threshold value.

Alternatively, the unit 25 updates could determine the condition of the engine failure, which is not indicated by the standard diagnostics of electronic unit 19 of the control, when the average of the most recent measured values MarkMeas for quality running below a predetermined threshold value (possibly varying as a function of outdoor air temperature). Then the unit 25 updates again could determine the condition of engine trouble, which the OE is not signaled standard diagnostics of electronic unit 19 controls, when the average of the differences between the most recent estimated values MarkPred for the quality of the run and the corresponding measured values MarkMeas for the quality of the run exceeds the threshold value.

As regards calculate the correction value Vcorr stored value Vmem for fuel volatility, it is important to emphasize that the condition is problematic start of the engine 1 is determined when instead of waiting for the end of the evaluation, which takes place slowly (assuming the impossibility of detecting the beginning of the steady-state engine operation), and without opportunity for additional informative value (as rated power becomes very bad and there is no particular point to know its exact final value), is the 'emergency' calculate values. Correction value Vcorr in fact is equal to the specified value DeltaVemergency; therefore, it turns out emergency is Vemergency for fuel volatility, equal to the original value of the start Vmem minus the value DeltaVemergency.

The effect of this action, when the event is problematic start, is to provide a very high level of enrichment to facilitate the starting of the engine 1 by any means; and enrichment corresponds to the value of evaporation is equal to the received value Vemergency.

Of given the e value DeltaVemergency usually such it makes the value Vemergency to take values close to those found at the bottom of the scale for fuel volatility.

It was found that the magnitude of the correction value Vcorr Vmem fuel volatility is calculated only when the ambient temperature is such that different evaporation of the fuel, as shown, has an impact on the quality of the run (for example, when the temperature TN coolant below 10C), and applies the above-described sequence of conditions; the conditions can be briefly summarized by the fact that the engine 1 is not under conditions of repeated start (but after the previous run had sufficient time to warm up the engine 1), there is no failure detected standard on-Board diagnostic system, there is no faults detected standard on-Board diagnostic system, and calling previous bad or failed launches; the machine is at low altitude, and temperature TN coolant below extremely dangerous values (for example, -25C), which indicates the possible limit of repeatability and proper functioning of components, and can lead to undesirable uncertainty regarding the measured values MarkMeas rated capacity for a quality start. Important is to note, that, however, in each of the above situations is provided by the sequence of actions to always try to achieve engine start 1.

If it is concluded that the engine 1 is in a state of re-launch, the possibility of excessive enrichment event problematic start and, if necessary, reduce the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility remains in force. Since it is desirable to limit the use of emergency actions only to those cases where it is absolutely necessary to ensure opportunities are more restrictive conditions, for example, through the use of a designated threshold to identify problematic launch, which is generally more stringent than the nominal threshold (thus, a higher threshold for the difference between the predicted value MarkPred for a quality start and the measured value MarkMeas for the quality of the run).

In addition, emergency enrichment restarting is permitted only if with some degree of certainty possible to exclude the presence of a system problem, not signaled standard diagnosis and responsible for the problematic launch (some situation that can be identified by checking the value of the above indicator on the Casa), and if the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility is high enough to be considered potentially problematic due to the opinion that he could be called; because it was found that there is fuel volatility (below denoted as V_recovery), which corresponds to the enrichment able to get the car to stop within a specified number of attempts (usually two), regardless of the type actually available evaporation, emergency action may be sanctioned by examining whether the value of Vmem more mentioned V_recovery.

Finally, an additional condition to allow emergency action re-start is provided by the fact that the previous run was also problematic: if the machine was previously running well, it is quite improbable that the evaporation fuel could be responsible for problematic re-start. The likely availability of the electronic unit 19 controls, information concerning the level of fuel in the tank, could be a further factor in ensuring reliability in relation to the resolution of the emergency action re-run; and the fact that the fuel level has risen, shows that the tank is refueled, and hence that the value of fuel volatility could izmenilis is.

If during startup/restart of the machine from the onboard diagnostic system is considered to be a fault signal, the identification of evaporation is considered false, and the value of the fuel volatility is used to calculate the enrichment, which is more believable and given the available information. One way of implementing the concept of likelihood is set by using the last stored value Vmem for fuel volatility, which has given rise relative to the measured values MarkMeas rated capacity for a quality start, which is different from the predicted values MarkPred for the quality of the run is less than the hysteresis, which leads, as described above, a zero correction value Vcorr, in fact, introducing a threshold to confirm the accuracy of the estimate, which was made earlier. This value basically represents the reference value Vref fuel volatility, which depends on the values used in the preceding runs.

Therefore, if the evaluation cannot be done because of problems that modify the behavior of the system, the applicable percentage enrichment injection % Enrich determined as a function of the stored reference value Vref for fuel volatility.

The stored value Vmem for ispara the fed fuel is set equal to the most plausible value, even if the fault is detected in the following after starting points.

If the system detects a fault is not detected standard diagnostic system, identification leads to the recovery state, which, as already stated, will remain in force until such time as, for example, will not be detected first unproblematic launch/re-launch within a specified maximum number of attempts. Throughout this time, the system operates in a state of recovery, during which the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility is set equal to the previously described value V_recovery, which corresponds to the enrichment able to get the car to run within a certain allowed number of attempts (usually two), regardless of the type actually available evaporation.

If the nominal capacity is not assessed as fully expected, for example, due to the fact that the machine is at a considerable height above sea level, or the temperature at which it is launched, the following extremely dangerous values, only the probability of maintenance of excessive enrichment event problematic launch remains valid. In this case, the designated threshold is also used to identify problematic launch, which usually is about stricter than the nominal threshold, in order to avoid having auxiliary means for emergency action, unless it is absolutely necessary, and excessive enrichment is allowed only if the estimated evaporation of the fuel is greater than the value V_recovery and if with some degree of certainty, you can exclude the presence of a fault system (by estimating a failure described above). In the described case of an emergency action is simply to enrichment, although, unlike the previous cases, does not include updating the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility.

As already stated above, during startup of the engine 1, the rotational speed of the engine 1 is initially maintained near a very low value (say, between 200 and 400 revolutions per minute), driven axial load transmitted to the starter motor; essentially, when the cylinder 2 starts the combustion of gasoline, the rotational speed of the engine 1 increases rapidly until, until it reaches the specified minimum value (for example, between 1000 and 1400 rpm). If a cold start of the engine 1 is performed satisfactorily, then the control unit 23 of the assessment determines the measured value MarkMeas for a quality start as a delay function, which is increasing the frequency of rotation of the engine 1 and/or as a function of koroshi increasing the frequency of rotation of the engine 1.

One possible way to determine the measured values MarkMeas for quality start is to assign the measured value MarkMeas for quality start some positive constant initial value equal to 9; and if within the specified absolute number of flashes from the start is not detected a significant increase of the engine speed, constant excess value (for example, 0,38) is subtracted from the initial value for each TDC, which passes between the start of the engine 1 and the beginning of the steady-state engine operation, which can be identified from the fact that the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine 1 exceeds a threshold value.

Thus, the measured value MarkMeas for the quality of the run varies with each TDC until then, until it overlaps with the end value. In this case, the learned value is a function of the delay with which the increase of the rotational speed of the engine 1. On the contrary, in the event when within a specified absolute number of flashes from the start, detected a noticeable increase in the engine speed or significant value (greater than threshold) for the difference of speed between the value obtained for n-flash, and the most recent displayed value, preaches the existing absolute first outbreak of the engine 1, setting value selected from a range from +1 to-2.75), is applied to the initial value MarkMeas for quality start by comparing the rate of increase of engine speed 1 reference speed increase. Thus, in the second case, the adjustment value is a function of the rate of increase of the rotational speed of the engine 1. The method which has just been described, is particularly effective for those systems in which the run is strictly repeatable way, and so you can know exactly TDC, which should be expected the first effective flash. In this case, evaluating the increase of engine speed within a specified absolute number of flashes from the start. For example, in the case of sequential phased launch. If you run with a lower level of repeatability of behaviour between performing injection and increase the engine speed (for example, when running the "full group") is preferable to the alternative implementation in which the first setting value that is a function of the delay with which the increase of the rotational speed of the engine 1, is subtracted from the initial value assigned to the measured value MarkMeas for a quality start, and the second setting value which is a function of the speed increase of the engine speed 1, summed algebraically. In this case, the method applies a search first effective flash or search flash, which leads to a difference in rotational speed of the engine between the two continuously following each other TDC, which is more dispersion of a drive motor. Starting with the specified TDC, the rate of increase is estimated as the difference between the value of the engine speed after a given number of TDC and value before TDC, which is an increase of engine speed. On the basis of magnitude speed increase is calculated adjustment with use of the method described above. For each TDC, which comes between the early start and the first effective flash (with the possible exception of the first n TDC, where n is a given number, for example, 1 or 2), a constant excess value (for example, 0,38) is subtracted from the initial MarkMeas quality start. In the event, when there is detected a significant rate of increase of the rotational speed of the engine 1, there is only one assessment per delay, which will be considered complete when the engine speed exceeds a specified threshold, in effect, determines the steady-state operation of the engine.

According to another variant implementation is delayed each TDC to ensure nonlinear with whom to achieve the rated power.

In each case, the setting value and the reference speed increase the speed of the engine 1 must be chosen appropriately in order to adjust them to the specific features of the investigated system, because each engine is different from other engines, and they can be calculated as function of temperature run.

At the same time it was found that the method used by the unit 23 to measure the measured values MarkMeas for a quality start, must adapt to the functional characteristics of the engine 1, or to the manner in which the engine is operated.

As stated earlier, the measured value MarkMeas for quality start is usually from 0 to 10; so that the block 23 assessment by the appropriate saturation thus, in order to maintain the measured value MarkMeas for quality run continuously in the range from 0 to 10.

If the launch is problematic, rated capacity progressively decreases until, until you define the condition for the identification of problematic conditions run that lead to the resolution of the emergency excess enrichment.

The ignition key is in the implementation of the evaluation and, consequently, in the case of a motor that is not working properly (assessment, indeed, ends up identification on the ysenia the engine speed or the rotational speed of the engine 1, which is larger than a predefined threshold, for example, 800 rpm), is symptomatic of a failed launch and, as such, leads to a set of nominal power to zero.

If the ignition key is removed after activated the emergency action, it will act only on the value MarkMeas rated power, which is reset accordingly and does not affect the update of the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility, which is already installed and is trimmed to a value in such a way as to make the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility corresponding minimal volatile fuel.

If the ignition key is removed before the emergency action, the zero value of the measured nominal power MarkMeas for the quality of the run is used to calculate the correction value Vcorr for correcting the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility by comparing the predicted value MarkPred for a quality start, as discussed earlier.

However, if the ignition key is removed before passing through a number of TDC that is less than a predetermined threshold value (for example, 4), the rated power is set to zero, although this does not affect the purpose of updating the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility or any activitati the excessive enrichment; this avoids classification attempts, which is immediately interrupted by the driver, manually desactivation starting the engine due to a failed startup.

Above it was described as removing the ignition key in the ongoing assessment may lead to the identification of the failed launch, and, as a consequence, the rate of refusal for easy fault finding, not signaled standard diagnostic system, increment by increment based on the number of passed TDC and on the basis of whether activated the emergency action, or had time to prevent it.

According to a preferred variant implementation of the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility is updated as a function of the correction value Vcorr through the use of automatic processing reliability, carried out in the unit 25 updates. The stored value Vmem for fuel volatility is considered confirmed if the difference between the measured value MarkMeas for the quality of the run and the predicted value MarkPred for quality run by the absolute value below a predetermined threshold value (for example 0.5). When the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility is confirmed, the value is stored as a reference value Vref, which takes the importance of the Etalon relative to the value of fuel volatility; the other is the capture, variable Vref is "plausible" value for fuel volatility, which can be used in the event of blinding strategy due to faults detected standard diagnostic system.

Automatic processing of reliability based on the number of consecutive confirmations stored value Vmem for fuel volatility during the previous cold starts.

For each confirm the reliability is increased by a value which is a function of temperature T engine coolant when running, and the reference value Vref for fuel volatility is equal to the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility. When such confirmation is not obtained, the confidence in the reference value Vref of evaporation decreases by the specified value. At the same time discrete value for fuel volatility is calculated based on the correction values (Vcorr) (function of a difference between the measured value MarkMeas rated capacity and predicted value MarkPred rated power) in the case of identification of nominal power; thus, reducing the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility on the value specified DeltaVemergency, and, indeed, setting it directly equal to the value close to the mini the actual value of water evaporation in the event of an emergency action. The stored value Vmem for fuel volatility is calculated through a weighted average value between the reference value and the identified discrete value, where the weighting factor associated with the reference value Vref is equal to the degree of confidence.

In the case of identification of non-emergency condition, the calculation of the stored value Vmem for fuel volatility immediately after the discrete calculations, and a new percentage enrichment injection % Enrich is calculated on the basis of the new stored value Vmem for fuel volatility. In the case of identification of an emergency condition, the calculation of the enrichment is carried out directly on the basis of discrete values (for example, to get the maximum enrichment during startup), and only at the end of the run is computed values Vmem evaporation, which should be used for the subsequent path.

The introduction of the concept of reliability has the advantage of filtering possible mistaken identity caused by the occurrence of discrete problems, not detected by the diagnostic system, or non-reproducible random events in the behavior of the engine for initiating this enrichment. Thus, identification is achieved, which gradually faster longer continuing phenomenon is rd (confidence progressively reduced until, until it reaches zero, and at this point, an average value has no more effect) with the exception of minor disturbances.

The first time should be confirmed by the new value of the evaporation of gasoline, it is overwritten in the reference variable Vref for fuel volatility and is assigned a degree of accuracy equal to the increment of the value.

Conceptually, the situation described above is equivalent to the start, when an average value is calculated between the discrete value of evaporation, which was just defined, and the reference value Vref of evaporation, in which the weighting factors are a function of the number of confirmations of the reference value Vref for fuel volatility during the previous cold starts of the engine 1 and the temperature at which these proofs were made.

Information concerning the level of fuel in the tank, the following condition is to reduce/reset the confidence level of the reference value Vref evaporation.

Alternatively, the value of Vmem fuel volatility can be determined through a weighted average, which applies discrete value of evaporation, which was just calculated, and confirmed previous values of evaporation. In this case, the weighting factors for each talonrakennusalaa evaporation can also be in addition to the number of confirmations, the function of the term in which each confirmation; thus, the oldest confirmation can be deleted.

According to one possible variant of implementation, the signal from the oxygen sensor 11 located in the system 10 release, can be used to verify the previously determined correction values Vcorr, when the signal from the sensor cannot be expected, so that the sensor does not work during the first phase of the launch.

According to an additional variant of implementation, the value of Vmem fuel volatility used to modify the enrichment of the mixture, can be used to modify the parameters that govern the compensation of the effect of a film of the fluid (also known as "wetting of the walls"), in particular, with regard to the compensation mentioned phenomenon, when it is cold, and thus, for temperatures below a predetermined threshold. The effect of the film due to the fact that gasoline is sprayed each injector 12, in contact with the walls of the inlet channel 4 is deposited on them, and then evaporates again with its own dynamics, to participate in subsequent phases of combustion; and the effect of the film is responsible for the control and allocation in transition processes and is especially large when the engine 1 is x is cold.

Various experimental tests have shown that the described method of determining fuel volatility, and then perform a cold start of the internal combustion engine has many advantages; in particular, it is capable of quickly and with a good degree of accuracy to determine the evaporation of the used gas, thus providing the perfect opportunity to perform a cold start under any climatic conditions. Thanks to the implementation of the described method for determining fuel volatility, the same engine can be sold in all markets of the world without special adaptation to the characteristics of gasoline grades on individual local markets, so the engine, essentially, fully able to adapt itself based on the definition of evaporation of fuel used.

1. The method for determining fuel volatility, and then perform a cold start of the engine (1) internal combustion at cold start determine the percentage enrichment injection (%Enrich) as a function of the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility; and start the engine (1) using a predefined percentage enrichment injection (%Enrich), characterized in that it further determine the predicted value (MarkPred) for cachestatus before running start, determine the measured value (MarkMeas) for quality starts with the initial increase in the frequency of rotation (rpm) of the engine (1)determine the amount of correction (Vcorr) stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility as a function of the comparison between the measured value (MarkMeas) for the quality of the run and the predicted value (MarkPred) for the quality of the run; and update the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility by applying correction values (Vcorr) to the stored value (Vmem).

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as soon as the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility is updated by applying the correction values (Vcorr) to the stored value (Vmem), provide an additional update that is currently in the percentage of enrichment injection (%Enrich) as a function of the new stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the percentage of enrichment injection (%Enrich) is determined as a function of the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility as a function of temperature (TN) engine coolant (1).

4. The method according to claim 1, wherein the predicted value (MarkPred) for a quality start is defined as a function of the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility as a function of temperature (TN) coolant the engine in the I (1) at startup.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility increase, if the predicted value (MarkPred) for quality run worse than the measured value (MarkMeas) for the quality of the run; and the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility decrease, if the predicted value (MarkPred) for quality run better than the measured value (MarkMeas) for the quality of the run.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that, if the cold start of the engine (1) is completed satisfactorily, then the measured value (MarkMeas) for a quality start is defined as the delay function, which is an increase of rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1).

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that, if the cold start of the engine (1) is completed satisfactorily, then the measured value (MarkMeas) for a quality start is defined as a function of the speed increase speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1).

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that, if the cold start of the engine (1) is completed satisfactorily, then the measured value (MarkMeas) for a quality start is defined as the delay function, which is an increase of rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1), and as a function of speed increase speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1).

9. The method of claim 8, trichosis fact, that speed increase speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1) is calculated after a given number of the top dead point (TDC), counting from the TDC, in which the increase in rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1).

10. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the increase of engine speed is determined by detecting the presence of the first effective flash and by detecting the difference between the value of the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine, evaluated after a given number of TDC, starting from TDC, which is the first effective flash, and value of the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1)prior to the first effective flash.

11. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that the increase of engine speed is determined only if the difference between the value of the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine, evaluated after a given number of TDC, starting from TDC, which is the first effective flash, and value of the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine prior to the first effective outbreak, more than a predetermined threshold value.

12. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the rate of increase of engine speed (1) determine the beginning of the third TDC, starting from TDC, to the th there is an increase in rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1), as the difference between the current value of the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine and the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine prior to TDC, in which the increase.

13. The method according to claim 8, characterized in that the delay with which the increase in rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1) is determined by measuring the interval of time that has passed between the beginning of the run, and the moment in which detected a significant speed increase speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1).

14. The method according to claim 8, characterized in that the delay with which the increase in rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1), determined by measuring the interval of time that has passed between the beginning of the run, and the moment in which the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1) exceeds the threshold value.

15. The method according to claim 8, characterized in that the measured value (MarkMeas) for the quality of the run is estimated as equal to the constant, positive initial value of which is deducted as the first positive adjustment value that is a function of the delay with which the increase in rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1), and which can be algebraically added a second on Troitskoe value which is a function of the speed increase speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1).

16. The method according to item 15, wherein the first learned value obtained by subtracting a constant excess values for each TDC, which takes place between the beginning of the engine start (1) and when detected quite a significant speed increase speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1).

17. The method according to item 15, wherein the first learned value obtained by subtracting a constant excess values for each TDC, which comes between the beginning of the engine start (1) and the moment at which the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1) exceeds the threshold value.

18. The method according to item 16, wherein the initial value is 9, and the constant used for the calculation of the first adjustment value equal to 0.38.

19. The method according to item 15, wherein the second configuration is selected from a range by comparing the rate of increase of the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1) with a reference speed increase.

20. The method according to claim 19, characterized in that the range used to calculate the second setting value ranges from +1 to-2.75.

21. The method according to claim 8, characterized in that the change in the n value (MarkMeas) for the quality of the run is estimated as equal to the constant positive initial value of which is deducted as the first positive adjustment value if the detected appreciable delay increasing the engine speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1), or to which algebraically adds the second learned value, if not detected appreciable delay increasing the engine speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1).

22. The method according to item 21, wherein the applied first learned value, if not detected a significant increase of the engine speed after a given number of flashes from the start; and the first learned value increases at a constant excess value for each TDC, which passes between the moment at which starts the engine start (1), and the moment at which the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1) exceeds the threshold value.

23. The method according to item 22, wherein the initial value measured value (MarkMeas) for the quality of the run is equal to 9, and the constant excessive value of the first tuning value equal to 0.38 for each TDC.

24. The method according to item 21, wherein the second learned value is a function of the speed increase speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1), and it is chosen from the range by comparing the speed enhancement is the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1) with a reference speed increase.

25. The method according to paragraph 24, wherein the rate of increase of the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1) is estimated in first TDC, following after a specified absolute number of flashes from the start, and identifiable as the difference of speed between the value obtained for n-flash, and the most recent displayed value, the previous absolute first outbreak of the engine, if it is greater than a predetermined threshold value.

26. The method according to paragraph 24, wherein the rate of increase of the rotational speed (revolutions per minute) of the engine (1) determine the beginning of the third TDC, the first TDC, following after the third flash in absolute terms from the start, and identifiable as the difference of speed between the value obtained at the third flash, and the latest output value prior to the first flash engine in absolute terms, if it is greater than a predetermined threshold value.

27. The method according to p. 25, wherein the initial value is 9, and the range used to calculate the second setting value ranges from +1 to-2.75.

28. The method according to item 15, wherein the measured value (MarkMeas) for a quality start is saturated, so that it is always within the specified range.

29. The method according to p, wherein the specified range of the measured EIT is possible (MarkMeas) for the quality of the run is from 0 to 10.

30. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that, if the cold start of the engine (1) is not satisfactory, that is, the engine is stopped, while the evaluation takes place, the measured value (MarkMeas) for the quality of the starting set equal to the minimum value of full scale.

31. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that the percentage of enrichment injection (%Enrich) vary in time between the initial maximum value by the absolute value and the end value to zero.

32. The method according to p, characterized in that the percentage of enrichment injection (%Enrich) is realized by means of the first member, which affects the actual concentration of the mixture, and the second member residual correction, which directly affects the actual amount of gasoline.

33. The method according to p, characterized in that each member gets the value of time according to the law of exponential decay.

34. The method according to p, wherein the first time constant of decay of the first member of concentration is less than the second time constant of decay of the second member, the residual correction.

35. The method according to p, wherein the first time constant and the second time constant is calculated as a function to the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility and the initial values of temperature (T) is Kladusa liquid of the engine (1) internal combustion engines.

36. The method according to p, wherein the first time constant of decay of the first member of concentration is approximately one third of the second time constant of decay of the second member, the residual correction.

37. The method according to p, characterized in that after the update of the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility, provide enrichment modify, respectively, or by updating the values of the enrichment as a function of the new stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility, either by updating dynamics profile attenuation enrichment.

38. The method according to clause 37, wherein the amount of enrichment update based on the value of the relationship between the new percentage enrichment (%Enrich), defined on the basis of the new stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility, and the percentage of enrichment (%Enrich)used in the original run.

39. The method according to clause 37, wherein the dynamic profile of the attenuation enrichment update by updating the value of the time constant of the decay as a function of the new stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility.

40. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that the run is considered significant for the purposes of updating the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility only if passed at least the specified time interval with t the th moment as the engine (1) internal combustion engines turned off.

41. The method according to p, characterized in that the interval time is determined so as to ensure all components of the engine (1) temperature, equivalent to the ambient temperature.

42. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility update only if the source temperature (TN) engine coolant (1) before starting is within the specified temperature range.

43. The method according to 42, characterized in that the temperature range has a lower limit, which ensures that each component of the system running perfect operation and high repeatability (lower limit), and the upper limit, which provides the effect of fuel volatility on the quality of the run.

44. The method according to item 43, wherein the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility update only if the source temperature (TN) engine coolant (1) before starting is in the range from -25C to 10C.

45. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility update only when the atmospheric pressure exceeds a threshold value.

46. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility is not about Blaut, if there are signals of engine trouble (1), which can affect the quality of the run.

47. The method according to item 46, wherein, if there are signals of a failure of the engine (1)according to standard diagnostic system that affect the quality of the run, the percentage enrichment injection (%Enrich) is determined as a function of the stored reference value (Vref) for fuel volatility, which depends on the values used in the preceding runs.

48. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility do not update if the condition is determined fault, not detective standard diagnostic system, and which can affect the quality of the run.

49. The method according to p, characterized in that, if the condition is determined malfunction that affects the quality of the run, the percentage enrichment injection (%Enrich) is determined as a function of the setpoint recovery (V-recovery) for fuel volatility, and value recovery (V-recovery allows you to run your machine within the allowed number of attempts, regardless of the value of fuel volatility, really present in the tank.

50. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that, if the average of the most recent ISM is indigenous values (MarkMeas) for the quality of the run below a predetermined threshold value, then determine the condition of the engine failure (1).

51. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that, if the average of the differences between the latest predicted values (MarkPred) for the quality of the run and the corresponding measured values (MarkMeas) for the quality of the run is greater than the specified threshold value, then determine the condition of the engine failure (1).

52. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that the calculated error rate, which persived value, depending on the number of each TDC failed launch, which leads to stopping of the engine (1); and if the value of the error rate is greater than the specified threshold value, then determine the condition of the engine failure (1).

53. The method of paragraph 52, wherein the error rate is set to zero after a certain number of continuously following each other and unproblematic cold starts.

54. The method of paragraph 52, wherein the error rate is set to zero, when detected not problematic launch/re-launch, which occurs within the specified maximum number of retries.

55. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that, if after a given number of TDC from the start of the engine (1) is not triggered, then the current gain is used, the percentage is concentrating injection (%Enrich).

56. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that the cold start of the engine (1) assess problematic if the difference between the predicted value (MarkPred) for the quality of the start-up and ongoing evaluation of the measured values (MarkMeas) for the quality of the run is greater than the specified threshold value.

57. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that the cold start of the engine (1) assess how problematic if the number of TDC characterizing phase, which precedes the beginning of the steady operation of the engine exceeds a specified threshold.

58. The method according to p, characterized in that, once defined, the situation is problematic start, perform emergency action, in which the current used, the percentage enrichment injection (%Enrich) update as a function of the alarm (Vemergency) for fuel volatility, which is equal to the value of the evaporation fuel used at the beginning of the run, minus the given value is negative increment (DeltaVemergency).

59. The method according to 58, wherein the increment value is negative (DeltaVemergency) is such as to make the alarm value (Vemergency) for fuel volatility close to the possible minimum value.

60. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that the condition is problematic cold re-start defines the when the engine (1) is not warmed up, temperature (TN) coolant below the upper limit that provides for the determination of fuel volatility, and the difference between the predicted value (MarkPred) for the quality of the start-up and ongoing evaluation of the measured values (MarkMeas) for the quality of the run is greater than the specified threshold value; in the case of problematic conditions of cold re-start, if the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility is high enough to be considered potentially problematic due to the fact that it is greater than the value that provides the ability to run within the allowed number of attempts, regardless of the value of fuel volatility, really present in the tank, and if the presence of a system problem, not signaled standard diagnostic system and is responsible for a problematic start, can be excluded with sufficient certainty, and if the previous run was also problematic, emergency action, in which the current used, the percentage enrichment injection (%Enrich) update as a function of the alarm (Vemergency) for fuel volatility, which is equal to the value of the evaporation fuel used at the beginning of the run, minus the given value is negative increment (DeltaVemergency).

61. The method according to p, Otley is audica fact, what is a negative increment (DeltaVemergency) is such as to make the alarm value (Vemergency) for fuel volatility close to the possible minimum value.

62. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that condition critical start/restart control when the temperature (T) coolant below the lower limit, which allows to identify the evaporation of fuel.

63. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that condition critical start/restart control when the start/restart occurs when any condition that is not completely covered by the famous case of experimental data, suitable to fully specify the behavior of the system.

64. The method according to item 62, wherein, in case of critical start/restart, if the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility is high enough to be considered potentially problematic due to the fact that it is greater than the value that provides the ability to run within the allowed number of attempts, regardless of the value of fuel volatility, really present in the tank, and if the presence of a system problem, not signaled standard diagnostic system and is responsible for a problematic start, may be the clucene with a reasonable degree of certainty, then perform emergency action, in which the current used, the percentage enrichment injection (%Enrich) is defined as the function of the alarm (Vemergency) for fuel volatility, which is equal to the value of the evaporation fuel used at the beginning of the run, minus the given value is negative increment (DeltaVemergency).

65. The method according to p, wherein the increment value is negative (DeltaVemergency) is such as to make the alarm value (Vemergency) for fuel volatility close to the possible minimum value.

66. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that the correction value (Vcorr) can be obtained by multiplying by a constant multiplier of the difference between the measured value (MarkMeas) for the quality of the run and the predicted value (MarkPred) for the quality of the run.

67. The method according to p, characterized in that the constant multiplier takes two different values depending on whether the difference between the measured value (MarkMeas) for the quality of the run and the predicted value (MarkPred) for quality run positive or negative.

68. The method according to p, characterized in that the correction value (Vcorr) determine only if the number of successive TDC that occur during the start attempt, exceeds the threshold value.

9. The method according to p, characterized in that the correction value (Vcorr) determine only if the number of successive TDC, which caught while attempting to run more than 4.

70. The method according to p, wherein, if the difference between the measured value (MarkMeas) for the quality of the run and the predicted value (MarkPred) for quality run by the absolute value below a predetermined threshold value, then the magnitude of the correction (Vcorr) assign a value of zero.

71. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility updating as a function of the correction values (Vcorr) through the use of automatic processing of confidence.

72. The method according to p, wherein the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility is considered confirmed if the difference between the measured value (MarkMeas) for the quality of the run and the predicted value (MarkPred) for quality run by the absolute value below a predetermined threshold value.

73. The method according to item 72, wherein, when confirmed by the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility, a reference value (Vref) for fuel volatility imply equal to the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility; and automatic processing of reliability based on the number of confirmations of the reference value Vref) evaporation during the previous cold starts.

74. The method according to p, characterized in that for each confirmation is the confidence level increases by an amount which depends on the temperature (TN) coolant during startup.

75. The method according to p, wherein, if the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility is not confirmed, then reduce the value of the confidence level of the reference value (Vref) evaporation.

76. The method according to item 72, wherein the new stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility is calculated through a weighted average value between the reference value (Vref) for fuel volatility and the value obtained as the sum of the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility at the beginning of the run, with the magnitude of the correction (Vcorr), which is newly calculated, and the weighting factors are a function of the number of confirmations of the reference value (Vref) for fuel volatility during the previous cold starts of the engine (1).

77. The method according to item 72, wherein retain the number of confirmations of the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility.

78. The method according to p, characterized in that preserve the number of confirmations of the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility and preserve the life of each confirmation.

79. The method according to p, characterized in that it removes the oldest confirmation.

8. The method according to p, wherein the new stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility is calculated through a weighted average value between a previously saved proven reference values for fuel volatility and the value obtained as the sum of the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility at the beginning of the run, with the magnitude of the correction (Vcorr), which is newly calculated, and the weighting factors are a function of the number of confirmations of the reference value (Vref) for fuel volatility during the previous cold starts of the engine (1) and the term in which occurs the above-mentioned confirmation, and preferred is the latest.

81. The method according to p, characterized in that in case of emergency actions, with the only exception of the critical start/restart for the purposes of repeatability of its assessment, the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility is calculated through a weighted average value between the reference value (Vref) and the alarm value (Vemergency) for fuel volatility, which is equal to the value of the evaporation fuel used at the beginning of the run, minus the given value is negative increment (DeltaVemergency); and a weighting factor associated with the reference value (Vref)equal to the confidence level of the reference value (Vref).

82. the manual on p, characterized in that the increment value is negative (DeltaVemergency) is such as to make the alarm value (Vemergency) for fuel volatility close to the possible minimum value.

83. The method according to p, characterized in that the information relating to the fuel level in the tank is an additional condition for the resolution of emergency actions re-launch and to reduce/reset the confidence level of the reference value (Vref) evaporation.

84. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that the signal from the oxygen sensor (11)located in the system (10) release of the engine (1), is used to validate a given value of the correction (Vcorr).

85. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that the parameters used to compensate for the effect of a film of the fluid is adjusted as a function of the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility.

86. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 30, characterized in that the values of enrichment and any other variable of the motor control, which must be adapted to the value of the evaporation fuel gauge directly to the limiting values of evaporation, you want to work with, and the stored value (Vmem) for fuel volatility allows to obtain by interpolation the target value of the variables that action is indeed required for enrichment.



 

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