Method for manufacturing of material boards and material board

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: method for manufacturing of boards from chip or fibre material, in particular chip boards, LDF, MDF, HDF and OSB boards, includes the following stages: (S2) - production of dried chip or fibre material, (S3a, S3b) - plasma treatment of dried chip or fibre material, (S4a, S4b) - application of glue onto plasma-processed chip or fibre material and (S5) - pressing chip or fibre material, on which glue is applied into boards. Technological gas used at stage (S3a, S3b) of plasma treatment contains fluorine as additional component. Board contains not more than 50 kg of hard glue per cubic metre.

EFFECT: invention improves quality of boards.

13 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to a method of fabrication of the strand or fiber material, in particular particle boards, plates LDF (low density fiberboard - fibrous plates of low density), MDF (medium density fiberboard - fibrous plates medium density), plates HDF (high density fiberboard - fibrous plates of high density) and OSB boards (oriented strandboard bonded slabs of oriented planar chip, oriented strand Board).

In the known generic method of manufacturing particle boards formed, for example, when processing wood chips are first dried and then sorted by size, for example into two classes, namely large shavings of the inner layer and small chips of the outer layer, and either stored separately or sent directly for further processing. Usually then the chips glue is applied, and it is scattered on the conveyor belt so that the chips of the outer layer is located outside, and shaving the inner layer is in the middle of the non-compacted particle bed, which finally pressed in a continuous process in the plate through the belt press.

Also in the manufacture of fiber boards, such as MDF or HDF boards, do the same, and, however, there is no division into chips of the outer layer and the chips of the inner layer, although fibers are usually formed and the mixture specified share of a given type of fiber.

Usually to achieve the desired mechanical strength properties, such as particle boards, their cubic meter of volume it takes about 90 kg of liquid adhesive, after curing corresponds to approximately 60 kg of solid glue. Such quantities of glue are an important cost factor in the manufacture of the plates.

The objective of the invention is to provide a method of fabrication of the strand or fiber material which would provide a more cost-effective production compared to traditional methods.

This problem is solved by a method of the above kind, which includes the following steps: obtaining the dried strand or fiber material, a plasma processing dried strand or fiber material, applying adhesive to the treated plasma particle or fibrous material and the extrusion strand or fiber material to which applied the glue to the plate.

The crucial difference between the proposed and known methods is, therefore, that the dried strand or fiber material before applying the glue on it is subjected to plasma processing as an additional stage. In this plasma processing between two electrodes to which is applied the high voltage ionizes technologists is a mini gas. The dried chips or fibers processed by the plasma process gas, or forcing them to pour through the plasma, or skipping through the plasma free-poured, for example on the conveyor. In any case, the ions depending on their kinetic energy penetrate into the surface of the chips or fibers, namely to a depth of, for example, up to 10 μm. It causes physical and chemical changes on the surface of chips or fibers are not yet explained. However, it is a scientifically proven fact that this treatment causes improved adhesion surface, so as preferably covered with an adhesive layer better stick to the thus treated surface of the chips or fibers.

It is well known that surface properties can be influenced by plasma treatment. However, it is not expected that this will affect the adhesion of the adhesive with the processed plasma surface chips or fibers, and in addition also to improve it. In addition, it was not meant that arise unexpectedly improved adhesion will remain on for the length of time is important for the service life of the plates and are made from these products. Finally also not expected that the improvement of adhesion will occur and will remain in such an extent that savings are used in the manufacture of glue boards will justify the investment and exploitation installation costs for plasma processing. The merit of the inventors is that they are not considered with all these doubts.

It turned out that due to the first seem unnecessary, additional and costly step of plasma processing for further processing of strand or fiber material in an unexpected way arises the advantage that subsequent application of adhesive to the treated plasma shavings or fibers can be substantially less adhesive than traditional methods, and made the suggested way slabs, despite the smaller amount of glue used, however, meet the mechanical requirements in accordance with the applicable individual plates industrial norms. As the economy of adhesive used per cubic meter of the material of the plates, much higher than that allocated to the production of this cubic meter of the material of the plates of the investment costs, the plate more cost-effective in the manufacture of the proposed method.

In particular, it was found that in a cubic meter of material plates require no more than 75 kg, mostly not more than 67 kg, liquid adhesive, after curing corresponds to not more than 50 kg, mostly not more than 45 kg, solid glue. Compared with the traditional methods is equivalent to a saving of glue over 15%, mainly more than 25%. is one preferred embodiment of the invention is achieved savings glue even about 30%, which corresponds to the use of 65 kg of liquid glue or approximately 42 kg of solid glue. Due to such large savings glue can significantly reduce the cost of manufacturing plates of the proposed method.

Step plasma treatment of the dried strand or fiber material can be implemented, for example, due to the fact that periodically the specified number of strand or fiber material is exposed in the low-pressure chamber to the influence of low-pressure plasma. Due to this strand or fiber material is processed by the plasma is uniform, i.e. all surfaces of all individual chips or fibers, so then the surface properties are uniform throughout the particle or fibrous material. Alternatively, it can also continuously moved past the nozzle device under atmospheric pressure plasma.

In both of the alternative methods used in plasma processing process gas may contain as the main component, the oxygen and/or nitrogen and/or argon. When using a low-pressure plasma for plasma treatment as the process gas can be used, for example, air, allowing you to eliminate time-consuming vacuum chamber low pressure before entering techno is oricheskogo gas, as the pressure in the chamber after the input has to be reduced to only necessary for the plasma process values (on the order of 0.5-5 mbar).

In one embodiment of the invention used in a plasma processing process gas may contain as an additional component of the fluorine. It was found that preferably by adding to the process gas fluoride can affect the swelling properties of the chips or fibers under the influence of moisture, i.e. you can reduce the swelling shavings or fibers under the influence of moisture. This leads to a significantly higher resistance made so plates to moisture. Typically in the manufacture of chipboard to reduce unwanted swelling is added to the paraffin wax. Due to the plasma treatment containing fluorine process gas can be completely or at least partially abandon the use of paraffin wax. This provides further reduce costs.

The duration of plasma treatment strand or fiber material is predominantly from 1 to 10 minutes. Because of this, when the maximum flow rate of strand or fiber material can be achieved fairly good surface properties shavings or fibers.

In one embodiment of the invention p is edlozano, that strand or fiber material before plasma treatment is divided into several groups, differing in the size of the individual chips or fibers. In addition, different groups can be processed by the plasma, and then they can be applied glue separately, before they are again United to the pressing plate. Due to this, for example in the manufacture of chipboard, you can ensure that a small chip of the outer layer, and large shavings of the inner layer during plasma processing can be used, respectively, the optimal operating parameters, allowing you to achieve maximum economy of glue.

Mainly between stages plasma processing strand or fiber material and the adhesive may take no more than 30 minutes, particularly preferably not more than 1 minute to ensure that improved by plasma treatment of the surface properties of strand or fiber material will not deteriorate due to long time storage.

Used according to the invention strand or fiber material can include wood chips and/or wood fibers, and/or hemp fibers, and/or straw fibers, so that can be produced not only different types of slabs of wood material, such as shaving the lita plate LDF, MDF, HDF and OSB, and panels that contain hemp fiber and/or straw fibers.

Adhesive can be used, for example, urea-formaldehyde resin or urea-melamine-formaldehyde resin or phenol-formaldehyde resin, preferably with a solids content of 40 to 80%.

In one embodiment of the invention can be provided that during the plasma processing process gas can be introduced in addition to the fluorine well as other substances, for example, to produce slabs with fire protection properties, and/or antibacterial properties, and/or with a reduced tendency to the formation of mold.

The invention relates also to a slab of particle Board or fiber material, in particular the chipboard, plate LDF, MDF Board, HDF and OSB containing per cubic meter not more than 50 kg, mostly not more than 45 kg, solid glue. When this strand or fiber material can include wood chips and/or wood fibers, and/or hemp fibers, and/or straw fibers. Next, the adhesive may contain urea-formaldehyde or urea-melamine-formaldehyde or phenol-formaldehyde resin, preferably with a solids content of 40 to 80%.

Below the preferred implementation of the ISO is retene is illustrated by the example with the accompanying drawing, which depicts a block diagram illustrating the proposed method of manufacture of chip boards.

Shown in the drawing, the preferred embodiment of the invention, first at step S1 to traditional shaving machine serves logs, wood chips, wood waste, etc.

At step S2 supplied timber is processed using a shaving machine in chips, which is dried in conventional drying unit, such as a drum dryer to a residual moisture content of about 2%, and then subjected to screening, resulting in small chips, which later will be used as the chip outer layer particle Board, is separated from the larger chips used later as a chip inner layer chipboard.

At both stages of the proposed method does not differ from traditional methods of fabrication of the strand or fiber material, and for the proposed method is also completely irrelevant, how exactly will happen getting dried strand or fiber material. It is also possible to turn to shaving and drying did not occur immediately on the spot, and dried strand or fiber material shipped from a warehouse.

At step S3a chips of the outer layer is loaded in the camera low pressure is Oia, then air is pumped to the working pressure of 0.5 to 5 mbar. As soon as it reached the working pressure in the chamber is ignited plasma, and in this case remaining in the chamber of the low pressure air is used as the process gas. However, you can also use other process gases, such as argon, and/or enter in the used process gas, one or more additives, such as fluoride. Plasma processing, during which the chips of the outer layer is exposed to plasma, lasts from 1 to 10 minutes.

At step S3b chips of the inner layer is treated with plasma is similar to step S3a. Individual plasma processing chip of the outer and inner layers has the advantage that, on the one hand, the process parameters such as working pressure, duration of treatment and the composition and/or concentration of the process gas can be individually paired with this type of chip, and on the other hand, various additives can be incorporated in this process gas in suitable composition and concentration for each individual type of chip.

Following the steps S3a, S3b on the steps S4a, S4b chips are the outer and inner layers separately applied adhesive. As the bonding means is applied, as in the traditional ways of making struzhechnaja, urea-formaldehyde, urea-melamine-formaldehyde or phenol-formaldehyde resin.

Because plasma processing chips has been improved wetting of their surfaces, you can use about 30% less adhesive than traditional methods for the production of particle boards, and mechanical strength properties of the finished chipboard due will not be harmed. While traditional methods require about 90 kg of liquid adhesive per cubic meter boards to make them required in accordance with industry standards mechanical strength properties, the proposed method allows to manage the ideal way about 63 kg of liquid adhesive per cubic meter boards. This is a significant cost savings already justifies, thus, additional costs, and the additional working step plasma treatment of the plates in the proposed method of their manufacture.

In addition, by suitable additives in the process gas during plasma processing can preferably also be affected by other properties of the chips. The addition of fluorine has, for example, the preferred influence on the swelling properties of the chips, so that it is possible to withdraw completely or partially from the usual still supplements paraffin emulsion is AI in the manufacture of chipboard to reduce swelling of the finished plate, and thus, to achieve further cost reduction.

After applying glue to the step S5 shavings outer and inner layers crumbles together on the conveyor belt so that the surface of the formed layer composed of a non-compacted chips of the outer layer, which is applied the glue and shaving the inner layer are located inside this layer. Finally, the chips are pressed and heated, for example in traditional tape media, to obtain chipboard.

In the proposed method is completely irrelevant, as separately will be conventional and known in themselves phases locations shavings and pressing. Thus there any way to connect the layers and pressing chips, which caused the glue is usually used in the manufacture of slabs of strand or fiber material.

1. The method of fabrication of the strand or fiber material, in particular particle boards, plates LDF, MDF, HDF boards and OSB plates, comprising the following steps:
(S2): getting dried strand or fiber material;
(S3a, S3b): plasma processing dried strand or fiber material;
(S4a, S4b): applying the adhesive to the treated plasma particle or fibrous material;
(S5): pressing strand or fiber material, catarinense glue, in plates,
characterized in that in stage (S3a, S3b) plasma treatment process gas contains as an additional component of fluoride.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in stage (S4a, S4b) applying adhesive on each cubic meter boards use no more than 75 kg, mostly not more than 67 kg, liquid glue or not more than 50 kg, mostly not more than 45 kg, solid glue.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that used in step (S3a, S3b) plasma treatment process gas contains as the main component, the oxygen and/or nitrogen and/or argon.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the specified number of strand or fiber material periodically treated with plasma of low pressure.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the duration of stage (S3a, S3b) plasma treatment strand or fiber material is from 1 to 10 minutes

6. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the strand or fiber material before plasma treatment (S3a, S3b) are divided into several groups, differing in the size of the individual chips or fibers, with different groups treated with plasma (S3a, S3b), and then put glue on them individually, before they again unite for pressing (S5) in the oven.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that between stage (S3a, S3b) PLA is constant processing strand or fiber material and step (S4a, S4b) applying the adhesive on it is not more than 30 minutes, mostly not more than 1 minutes

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the strand or fiber material includes wood chips and/or wood fibers, and/or hemp fibers, and/or straw fibers.

9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in stage (S4a, S4b) apply adhesive using urea-formaldehyde or urea-melamine-formaldehyde or phenol-formaldehyde resin, preferably with a solids content of 40 to 80%.

10. Slab of particle Board or fiber material, in particular bonded plate, LDF, MDF Board, HDF and OSB, for example, manufactured by the method according to any one of claims 1 to 9, characterized in that it contains per cubic meter not more than 50 kg of solid glue.

11. The stove of claim 10, characterized in that it contains per cubic meter not more than 45 kg of solid glue.

12. The stove of claim 10, wherein the strand or fiber material includes wood chips and/or wood fibers, and/or hemp fibers, and/or straw fibers.

13. Stove according to any one of p-12, characterized in that the adhesive (S4a, S4b) contains urea-formaldehyde or urea-melamine-formaldehyde or phenol-formaldehyde resin, preferably with a solids content of 40 to 80%.



 

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1 dwg, 1 tbl

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4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

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1 tbl

FIELD: wood-working industry.

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2 tbl

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