Fibre-optic connector

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: fibre-optic connector has first and second half couplings for sealing first and second sections of optical fibre on whose butt ends there are first and second pairs of step-up and step-down optical multi-layer transformers. There is an air gap between the outer layers of the first and second pairs of optical multi-layer transformers. Layers of the first and second pairs of optical multi-layer transformers are made from materials with different refraction indices and are measured from outer layers of step-down transformers of the first and second pairs of optical multi-layer transformers adjacent to the air gap towards the butt ends joined to optical fibre sections. Thickness of each layer is equal to a quarter of the medium wave Xo of the signal transmitted over the optical fibre and the number of layers is selected based on conditions given in the formula of invention.

EFFECT: lower level of power loss arising due to insufficiently close contact or welded joint at the position of the joint and wider range of apparatus for this purpose.

4 cl, 7 dwg

 

The invention relates to the technical field of fiber-optic transmission systems, in particular for fiber-optic connectors, implemented using nanotechnology

Known optical connectors (OS) contact type, in which the minimum power loss in the connectors is achieved by increasing seal the joined optical fiber (S) to each other over the entire surface of the ends S.

A device for connecting optical fibers (see U.S. patent No. 5857045, IPC G02B 6/38, publ. 20.05.1997 year).

The known device includes a socket consisting of a first body of a predetermined length, provided with grooves cut along the length through the center of the contact surface, and the second body similar to the first extending elements for separating the first and second body and provides input optical fibers in the cut grooves and means bending, extending outer surface socket outlet, which securely holds the first and second body together and provides the necessary locking force.

The disadvantage of this device for the connection of optical fibers is relatively high losses in the connector.

Also known connector for optical fibers with separable system (see U.S. patent No. 5067783, IPC G02B 6/36 from 16.10.1990,).

A known optical connector fiber content is tons collected two sleeves, at least one of them contains the locking key. The connector is provided with a separate block containing a tubular part provided with a longitudinal keyway keyway and lock.

The disadvantage of this connector fiber optic cable is relatively high losses at the connection of optical fibers.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed optical fiber connector is a fiber optic connector reciprocating (see RF patent №2126545, IPC G02B 6/38).

Fiber optic connector-prototype contains a frame, first and second coupling halves to be embedded in them, respectively, the first and second segments of the optical fibers and the latch. The latch is made in the form of two flexible latch levers attached to the outer surface of the coupling. Disconnect the connector from the socket part is made by pulling the coupling halves, resulting in a beveled surface of the frame cooperating with the latch levers, lifting them and freeing from the reeds of the socket part.

A disadvantage of the known fiber optic connector is a relatively high level of power loss of signal due to unstable connection. In addition, the resistance change of the contact transition due to gapping ends S, leads to the travesty is the signal.

The aim of the invention is to develop a fiber optic connector, which provides reducing power losses at the connection point in a given range of wavelengths for a wide class of fiber-optic connectors when implemented in practice technologies to achieve the desired refractive indices. The claimed device expands the Arsenal of tools for this purpose.

This objective is achieved in that in the known fiber optic connector containing the first and second coupling halves to be embedded in them, respectively, the first and second segments of the optical fibers and the latch that fastens the first and second coupling halves, revealing each coupling plugged, congruent with the aperture coupling. Each coupling half are keyed and hole for optical fibers. In addition, the ends of the first and second segments of the optical fibers installed cascaded United, respectively, the first pair of raising and lowering and the second pair of raising and lowering the optical multilayer transformers, the number of layers of the step-down and step-up transformer, the first pair is selected, respectively, N11and N12and the number of layers of the step-down and step-up transformer, the second pair is selected, respectively, N21and N22. the ri in the assembled condition of the connector between the outer layers of the first and second pairs of OMCT selected air gap size Δ=(1...2000)λ 0. Layers of the first and second pairs of OMCT is made of materials with differing refractive indices, respectively, n11n12jand n21kn22twhere i=1,2,...N11, j=1,2,...N21rooms layers respectively in panyhose and boost transformers first pair of OMCT a k=1,2,...N21and t=1,2,...N22rooms layers respectively in panyhose and increases the transformers of the second pair of OMCT-based adjacent to the air gap of the outer layers of step-down transformers of the first and second pairs of OMCT towards the ends respectively of the first and second connected sections of optical fiber, and N11=N12and N21=N22. The thickness of each layer is a quarter of the average wavelength λ0the signal transmitted on the optical fiber. The number of layers N11N12N21and N22selected terms and conditions

where nAVand nCC2the indices of refraction of the optical fibers of the first and second

the joined lengths of optical fiber, a Δa1and ΔA2- predefined values working attenuation respectively in the first and second pairs of OMCT.

In the connector latch made in the form of first and second cylinders mounted on the outer surface, respectively, the first and the Torah of the coupling. The cylinders are equipped with a threaded connection.

The refractive indices of the i-th, j-th and k-th, t-th layers of the reduction of n11iincreasing n12jtransformers belonging to the first pair of optical multilayer transformers and step-down n21kand increasing n22ttransformers belonging to the second pair of optical multilayer transformers, calculated by the formula:

whereand- the characteristic refractive indices respectively in the first and second pairs OMCT in the points of connection between them decreasing and increasing OMCTand- the characteristic refractive indices respectively of the first and second pairs of OMCT, in the sections adjacent to the air gap, and nmin1and nmin2- predefined minimum acceptable

value realized refractive indices of the layers adjacent to the air gap, respectively, the first and second pairs of OMCT.

Thanks to this new essential features is ensured smooth coordination of the impedances of connected segments of the optical cable by sequentially increasing and decreasing transformation of the indices of refraction of the optical fibers to the values on which azaela of refraction of air when using the materials of the layers with practically realizable values of refractive indices. This helps to ensure consistent contactless connection of optical fibers and, consequently, to reduce the loss of signal power in connector.

Declared fiber optic connector is illustrated by drawings on which is shown:

figure 1 - General view of the connector;

figure 2 - view of the cross-section of the coupling;

figure 3 is a drawing to explain the General scheme of the connector;

figure 4 - profile of the refractive indices of the optical multilayer transformers;

figure 5 - frequency response attenuation OST (OST);

figure 6 - calculated frequency response of the attenuation of the fiber optic connector when the air gap is Δ=200λ0;

figure 7 - calculation of the wave characteristic of the attenuation of the fiber optic connector when the air gap Δ=2000λ0.

Declared fiber optic connector, shown in figure 1, consists of first 1 and second 2 hollow of the coupling. In the disclose customer of the coupling 1 and 2 installed plugs 3 and 4. The plugs 3 and 4 are keyed in the form of pins 5 and corresponding holes 6 (see also figure 2). The joined segments of the optical fibers 7 and 8 are installed in the cavities, respectively, the first 1 and second 2 parts of the coupling. To avoid possible deformation of the connected segments of the optical fibers 7, 8 in the cavity of the coupling halves 1 and 2 which may be installed rails cylindrical tubes 9 and 10. The plugs 3, 4 provided with holes 11, 12 of diameter d corresponding to the diameter of the cross section of the segments of the optical fibers 7, 8. At the ends of the joined sections of the optical fibers 7 and 8, having a refractive index of nAVand nCC2installed cascaded respectively, the first pair of step-up and step-down 13 and the second pair of step-up and step-down 14 optical multilayer transformers (OMCT), consisting of N11and N12layers respectively down and step-up transformer, the first pair of OMCT and N21and N22layers respectively down and step-up transformer, a second pair of OMCT and the layers of the first and second pairs of OMCT is made of materials with differing refractive indices, respectively, n11in12jand n21kn22twhere i=1,2,...N11, j=1,2,...N21rooms layers respectively in panyhose and boost transformers first pair of OMCT a k=1,2,...N21and t=1,2,...N22rooms layers respectively in panyhose and increases the transformers of the second pair of OMCT-based adjacent to the air gap of the outer layers of step-down transformers of the first and second pairs of OMCT towards the ends respectively of the first and second connected sections of optical fiber, a N11=N12and N21=N22p is item the thickness of each layer is a quarter of the average wavelength λ 0the signal transmitted on the optical fiber, and the number of layers N11N12N21and N22selected from (1) and (2).

The coupling halves 1 and 2 is equipped with a latch 15. In particular, the latch 15 is in the form of first and second cylinders mounted on the outer surface respectively of the first and second coupling halves 1, 2. One of the cylinders is fixed on the outer surface of one of the coupling halves (figure 1 on the second coupling half 2)and the other is installed with the possibility of movement along the coupling (figure 1 - first 1). The coupling halves 1, 2 are clamped with commercially available cylinders threaded connections. The diameter D of the coupling halves 1 and 2 are selected from the technological conditions of their operation, for example, in the interval D=1÷4 see Segments of the optical fibers 7 and 8 are installed in the coupling halves 1 and 2 so that in the assembled condition of the connector between the outer layers of the first and second pairs of OMCT 13 and 14 there was an air gap Δ in the range (1-2000)λ0(see also figure 3 and figure 4). The thickness d of each layer of the first 13 and second 14 pairs of OMCT is selected equal to a quarter wavelength λ0the signal transmitted on the optical fibers, i.e. d=0.25λ (figure 3).

The number of layers N11and N12the first pair 13 and N21and N22the second pair 14 OMCT selected from conditions (1) and (2)on the basis of the pre-defined acceptable levels working attenuation Δa1 2in the respective first 13 and second 14 pairs OMCT. Refractive index of n1iand n2jthe i-th and j-th layers 16, belonging respectively to the first 13 and second 14 OMCT calculated by formulas (3) and (4).

Declared fiber optic connector works as follows. The main problems in the connection of two segments of optical fibers are reducing the loss of signal power at the point of connection and the impossibility of making layers of transformers of materials using the calculated values of refractive indices that are not included in the set of implementable value of refractive indices. The problem of loss occurs because of technological difficulties ensure perfect alignment of the surfaces of the ends of the joined sections of the optical fibers due to fatal fuzz face surfaces and, as a consequence, the scattering of a significant share of power. Losses increase significantly when the connection of segments of optical fibers with different refractive indices nAVand nCC2because of the abrupt change in refractive index materials optical fibers. The problem of discrepancy of the calculated and the realized values of the refractive index occurs when the calculated refractive index of ncalc<1,35, where the number of 1.35 determine yet the lower boundary of the set of feasible values of the refractive indices in the range of 1.35< ncalc<2,5 [Putilin AS "Optical coatings". The textbook for the course "Optical coatings". SPb: SP NRU ITMO, 2005].

In the claimed connector the influence of these causes of power losses are largely eliminated. This is explained in the following. Segments of the optical fibers 7 and 8 are fixed respectively in the first and second coupling halves. At the ends of the segments of the optical fibers 7 and 8 establish the first pair of lowering and raising OMCT 13 and a second pair of step-down and step-up HOIST 14 (see also figure 3 and figure 4). The functional purpose of the first pair OMCT (see figure 3) is in the preliminary increase of the refractive index of air with N11layers (i=1, 2,... N11) step-up transformer from the n0=1,0003 to values characteristic of the refractive index of G1and the value of the refractive index of the first (i=1) layer is the lowest valid n11,1=nmin1≥1.35, and the subsequent lowering of the characteristic of the refractive index with N12layers (j=1, 2,... N12) step-down transformer from the G1to the value of refractive index of nAVthe first optical fiber 7 (see figure 1 and figure 4). The second pair OMCT (see figure 3) solves a similar problem: increases the refractive index of air in the gap Δ with N21layers (k=1, 2,... N21) the behavior is destructive of the transformer from the n 0=1,0003 to values characteristic of the refractive index of G2(see figure 4), with the value of the refractive index of the first (k=1) layer is the lowest valid n21,1=nmin2≥1,35, and consequent decrease in the characteristic of the refractive index with N22layers (t=1, 2,...N22) step-down transformer from the G2to the value of refractive index of nCC2. the second optical fiber 8 (see figure 1 and figure 4). Full approval of the first 7 and second 8 optical fibers is provided at the air gap Δ. This simplifies the design of the connector and its use in the field.

The procedure for manufacturing OST (OST) can be shown by the example of its calculation with Chebyshev characteristic [Lapshin B.A. New theory and calculation of filters and transformers on sections of transmission lines. - SPb.: Science, 1998]solves two tasks: task a consistent inclusion of the two optical fibers 7 and 8 (see figure 1), separated by an air gap Δ (see figure 3), and the problem of constructing optical transformers on layers of materials with a achievable refractive indices.

Suppose you want to receive a fiber optic connector with a frequency characteristic of the attenuation shown in figure 5 with the following initial data:

- indicators of predomininately first and second optical fibers n AV=nCC2=1.47;

- the maximum attenuation of the fiber optic connector of α=0,02 dB in the wavelength interval from 1613 nm to 820 nm, when the average wavelength λ0=1087 nm; which corresponds to the frequency range from 206 THz up to 346 THz and the average frequency f0=276 THz;

values of the refractive indices of the layers of the multilayer optical coatings must be implemented in the range 1.35...2,5.

Given the conditions of the problem values of nAVnCC2and α from formula (1) and (2), Δα=0,016 dB, determine the number of layers increasing and decreasing optical transformers: N11=N12=N21=N22=2. Sets the minimum allowable realizable value of the refractive index of the outer layers of the step-up transformer, the first and second optical multi-layer coatings n11,1=n21,1=1,35. Auxiliary coefficients G1and G2- the characteristic refractive indices down and step-up transformers at the points of their virtual connections respectively of the first and second optical multi-layer coatings is determined from formula (3)...(6).andwhere g1=g2=1,0626. Then by the formulas (3)...(6) determine the values of the refractive indices of each layer, respectively: n11,1=1,35; n11,2=2,1790; n12,1=2,3994; n1,2 =1,8023; n21,1=1,35; n21,2=2,1790; n22,1=2,3994; n22,2=1,8023.

Figure 6 shows the calculated frequency response of the attenuation of the fiber optic connector with the magnitude of the air gap Δ=200λ0=200×1,087=217,4 μm=0,2174 mm Maximum attenuation at a given frequency range from 206 THz up to 346 THz (wavelength range from 1465 nm to 867 nm) is α=0,0188 dB, which meets the specified requirement α=0,02 dB.

Figure 7 shows the calculated wave characteristic attenuation of a fiber optic connector with the magnitude of the air gap Δ=200λ0=200×1,087=2174 μm=2,174 mm Maximum attenuation at a given frequency range from 206 THz up to 346 THz (wavelength range from 1465 nm to 867 nm) is α=0,0188 dB that also meets the specified requirement α=0.02 dB.

The calculation results of the working of the attenuation of the fiber optic connector shown in Fig.6 and Fig.7 show a small dependence of the attenuation declared fiber optic connector from the value of Δ of the air gap, which ensures a reliable connection S in extreme conditions of construction and operation of fiber optic communication cables.

The example demonstrates the ability to build fiber-optic connectors with small power losses due to reflections in the specified wavelength range. When COI is whether the claimed optical fiber connector can be achieved formulated technical result in any selected range of wavelengths (infrared, the visible, ultraviolet) on layers of materials with realized values of refractive indices.

1. Fiber optic connector containing the first and second coupling halves to be embedded in them, respectively, the first and second segments of the optical fibers and the latch that fastens the first and second coupling halves, characterized in that in the opening of each half-coupling mounted bracket, congruent with the aperture coupling, are keyed and hole for optical fiber, additionally, on the ends of the first and second segments of the optical fibers installed cascaded respectively, the first pair of raising and lowering and the second pair of raising and lowering the optical multilayer transformers, the number of layers of the step-down and step-up transformer, the first pair is selected, respectively, N11and N12and the number of layers of the step-down and step-up transformer, the second pair is selected, respectively, N21and N22in the assembled condition of the connector between the outer layers of the first and second pairs of optical multilayer transformers selected air gap size Δ, and the layers of the first and second pairs of optical multilayer transformers are made of materials with differing refractive indices, respectively, n11in12jand n21kn 22twhere i=1, 2,...,N11, j=1, 2,...,N21- number of layers, respectively, in panyhose and boost transformers first pair of optical multilayer transformers, and k=1, 2,...,N21and t=1, 2,..., N22- number of layers, respectively, in panyhose and increases the transformers of the second pair of optical multilayer transformer-based adjacent to the air gap of the outer layers of step-down transformers of the first and second pairs of optical multi-layer transformer in the direction of the ends respectively of the first and second connected sections of optical fiber, a N11=N12and N21=N22moreover , the thickness of each layer is a quarter of the average wavelength λ0the signal transmitted on the optical fiber, and the number of layers N11N12N21and N22selected terms and conditions


where nAVand nCC2the indices of refraction of the optical fibers of the first and second connected sections of optical fiber, a Δa1and Δ2- predefined values working attenuation respectively in the first and second pairs of optical multilayer transformers.

2. The connector according to claim 1, characterized in that the retainer is made in the form of first and second cylinders mounted on the external surface is ti, respectively, the first and second parts of the coupling and provided with a threaded connection.

3. The connector according to claim 1, characterized in that the gap Δ is chosen in the interval Δ=(1...2000)λ0.

4. The connector according to claim 1, characterized in that the refractive index of the i-th, j-th and k-th, t-th layers of the reduction of n11iand increasing n12jtransformers belonging to the first pair of the optical multilayer transformatorov, and decreasing n21kand increasing n22ttransformers belonging to the second pair of optical multilayer transformers, calculated by the formula:





whereand- the characteristic refractive indices respectively in the first and second pairs of optical multilayer transformer connection points of their lowering and raising of the optical multilayer transformers,
and- the characteristic refractive indices respectively of the first and second pairs of optical multilayer transformers, in sections adjacent to the air gap, a nmin1and nmin2- pre-defined minimum value realized refractive indices of the layers adjacent to the air gap, respectively, per the St and second pairs of optical multilayer transformers.



 

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