Vapour-gas mixture source

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: vapour-gas mixture source has a mixer which has connecting pieces for inlet and outlet of the vapour-gas mixture. The vapour-gas mixture source also has a diffusion pipe filled with working fluid and an auxiliary pipe designed for filling the diffusion pipe with working fluid. Part of the diffusion pipe is filled with substance which retains the working fluid. The level of working fluid in the auxiliary pipe is lower than the level of substance in the diffusion pipe. The substance which retains the working fluid used can be sand, granular material with particle size between 10 and 10000 mcm, porous substances, e.g. ceramic metal etc.

EFFECT: more accurate measurement and maintenance of concentration of the vapour-gas mixture coming out of the source, provision for constant diffusion flow of vapour of working fluid into the mixer.

11 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of analytical instrumentation, namely the metrological provision of gas analysis devices. In the calibration of such instruments are used steam-air or steam-gas mixture in the cylinders at high pressure. Such a mixture of road and transport them tightly regulated. In addition, many of the components of the mixture have a limited shelf life. Because in some instances the device in which the mixture.

In particular, the spread of devices based on diffusion of substances under normal conditions in the form of liquids, the flow of the diluent gas.

A device containing a mixer with fittings for the supply of gas and exhaust gas mixture, the diffusion tube, partially filled with the working fluid, the upper end of which is located inside the mixer. [Automation of chemical plants, M., okba 1979, s, Fig.2]. Fill diffusion tube working fluid is produced through the hole in the upper part of the mixer is closed by a stopper. Gas (air) is supplied through one of the fittings in the mixer, saturated there pairs of the working fluid flowing from the diffusion tube, and discharged through the other fitting. To calculate the concentration of the working substance in the output stream is on air (gas) need to know the flow rate of gas (air) and the mass of the working fluid evaporated per unit of time. Determination of loss of mass can be made by changing the liquid level in the diffusion tube or on the results of periodic weighing device.

A disadvantage of the known device is that the filling of the diffusion cell through the mixer brings the system out of balance and need some time to bring her in stationary state, and the duration of this period is necessary to determine empirically.

In the known device, when determining the concentration of the working substance for changing the level you want the diameter of the diffusion tube was as little as possible. However, the smaller the diameter, the more decreases the concentration of the working substance in the mixture due to the increased diffusion length, which makes it impossible to maintain a constant concentration.

Periodic weighing device, requiring the device is disconnected from the calibrated instrument, in practice, very uncomfortable.

In addition, the accuracy is calculated based on the concentration measurements is very small.

Therefore, the practical use of the known device encounters considerable difficulties. Calculate the concentration based on the use of diffusion equations does not give the required accuracy and is almost never used.

Most near what they claimed is to the device, containing the mixer with the fittings for the supply of gas and exhaust gas mixture, the diffusion tube, partially filled with the working fluid, the upper end of which is located inside the mixer, tube filling diffusion tube fluid [see ibid., s, Fig.4].

Although the known device the problem of filling the diffusion cell solved the problem connected with the fact that the diffusion of the steam flow from the diffusion tube varies in time, because in the process lowering the liquid level in the diffusion tube, still has a place. In other words, provide a constant stream only for a short period of time, when the decrease in liquid level due to evaporation is negligible compared to the total length of the unfilled part of the diffusion tube. This time may not be sufficient for calibration.

The objective of the invention is to provide a constant stream of vapor of the working substance from the diffusion tube into the mixer.

The solution of this task is ensured by the fact that the proposed source of gas-vapor mixtures containing a mixer, having fittings for gas supply and output vapor-gas mixture, partially filled with the working substance in the liquid state diffusion tube, the upper part of which is placed inside the mixer, the sun is omegaeloy tube connected with the diffusion tube and designed to fill diffusion tube fluid, which according to the invention the part of the diffusion tube filled with a substance that keeps the working fluid, and the fluid level in the auxiliary tube is below the top level of the substance that holds the working fluid in the diffusion tube.

Another difference source is that the cross-sectional area of the diffusion tube is from one to one hundred squares of the cross-section of the auxiliary tube.

Among the differences of the source should be noted that the mixer has an additional socket for the supply or removal of gas, connected or booster gas flow or cylinder containing compressed gas or mixture of gases.

Another difference source is that the mixer has a second fitting connected to the upper part of the auxiliary tube.

Another additional feature of the source is that the mixer has two additional fitting for connection to the input and output of the detector, controlling the concentration of vapor in the mixer.

Additional honors from the source is that as the substance that holds the liquid used free flowing granular material.

Among the differences of the source should be noted that the quality of the ve substances holds the liquid used sand.

Another difference source is that as the substance that holds the liquid used porous structure (extruded or sintered granular material, such as metal.

In a preferred embodiment, the source as the substance that holds the liquid used granular material with a grain size of 10 to 1000 microns.

Another difference source is that it is placed in thermostat.

Another difference source is that the mixer is introduced fans.

Technical result achieved in the invention is that due to the above peculiarities of the source, it is provided by the diffusion constant stream of vapor of the working fluid from the diffusion tube into the mixer. The consequence of this is to improve the accuracy maintain the concentration of vapors in the vapor-gas mixture and maintaining the constancy of the concentration for a long time.

The invention is illustrated by drawings.

Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of the proposed source of gas-vapor mixtures (simplified version). Figure 2 shows the circuit implementation of the preferred option source.

The device comprises a mixer 1, made of substances with low Sorb the ionic properties, for example PTFE, and represents a cylindrical container, the bottom of which is hermetically secured diffusion tube 2 made of quartz glass and partially filled with substance 3 such as sand, holding the working fluid 4. One volume of sand can hold up to 30% of the volume of such liquids as water, hexane, acetone, and others On the lower part of the diffusion tube 2 has a fitting 5 on which there is mounted a connecting pipe 6 connecting the diffusion tube 2 with the auxiliary tube 7. In the lower part of the diffusion tube 2 is posted permeable to fluid tube 8, made for example from a technical wool and fixing sand in the diffusion tube 2. The diameter of the diffusion tube cannot be less than the diameter of the supporting tube, and the ratio of the cross-section of the diffusion tube to the cross-section of the auxiliary tube is in the range from 1 to 100. The working fluid 4 fills the connecting tube 6 and a part of the auxiliary tube 7. Level 9 working fluid 4 in the auxiliary tube 7 is located below the upper level of the 11 substances 3, retaining the working fluid 4 in the diffusion tube 2. The mixer 1 is provided with a fitting 12 to enter the gas (air) and fitting 13 to output vapor-gas mixture and feeding it to an object (device gas analysis). The selection of the gas mixture is performed using the pump 4 flow mounted on the outlet fitting 13. For flow measurement of gas-vapor mixture is also a flow meter (not shown). The accuracy class of the meter flow rate should be high to accurately determine the concentration of the working substance in the mixture. The mixer 1 is equipped with additional fitting 15 which is connected with additional booster 16 consumption, powered by a regulated power source 17 and performs the function of regulating the concentration of vapor of the working fluid in the mixture. Output additional booster 16 flow has a flow meter (not shown)

The mixer 1 has also two additional fitting 18, which can be used to connect input and output of the detector is intended for controlling the concentration of steam in the mixer 1 and has a built-in pump flow rate. The mixer 1 is also enshrined microventilation 19, the working blade 20 which are located inside of the mixer 1, is intended to create a uniform concentration of the vapor of the working fluid 4. The mixer 1 and the auxiliary tube 7 is installed in thermostat 21 (shown in dashed line).

The operation of the device occurs in several stages. Below is a description of the operation of the device for the creation of a steam-air mixture.

Step 1 - fill fluid. For this purpose through in rnyu part of the auxiliary tube 7 with a syringe filled with the working fluid 4. In the filling process and after it is absorbing substance 3 fluid 4. This process may take several minutes. Level 9 working fluid 4 in the auxiliary tube 7 must be below the top level of 11 substance 3, absorbing the working fluid 4. If the level 9 of the working fluid 4 will be above the upper level 11 of a substance, the device will work properly.

Step 2 - operating mode. At this stage included the booster 14 flow in the line output vapor-gas mixture. Vapors of the working fluid diffusing in an empty area of the diffusion tube 2, are added into the mixer 1, where it is mixed with purified air entering through the nozzle 12, and is displayed through the fitting 13 to output vapor-gas mixture. When this measured value of mixture flow rate. Time stable concentration typically less than 30 minutes To more accurately determine when a stable concentration inside the mixer 1 and the flow of the mixture produced from the nozzle 13, it is possible to use the detector with built-in pump flow connected to additional fittings 18. As such a detector can be used, for example, the photoionization detector. The establishment of a stable readings of the detector indicates the stabilization of the concentration inside when Estela 1 and therefore, in the flow of the gas mixture produced from the fitting 13.

The regulation of the concentration is performed using additional booster 16 consumption, while guided by the readings of the detector. To ensure the homogeneity of the concentration of the vapor of the working fluid 4 is used, the fan 19, the working blade 20 which are located inside of the mixer 1.

Step 3 - determine the concentration of the vapor of the working fluid 4. At this stage, the fixed position of the level 9 of the working fluid 4 in the auxiliary tube using an accurate measuring device, such as a laser micrometer. After a certain period of time is fixed in the new position of the level 10 of the working fluid. For a more precise definition of the level of the working fluid can be podkrucheno using additive dye, which calibrated the detector has no sensitivity. The concentration of the vapor of the working fluid in the flow of the vapor-gas mixture is determined by the formula:

,

where S is the cross-sectional area of the auxiliary tube 7, Δh is the level difference of the working fluid when the first and second measurements, Δt is the time interval between the first and second measurements; q is the flow rate of the vapor mixture, ρ is the density of the working fluid.

Two features characterize the operation of the inventive device is VA.

The first feature is that the liquid level 4 in diffusion tube 2 is always equal to the upper level of the substance 3 (if the auxiliary tube 7 is filled with the working liquid 4 and its level below the top level of 11 substance 3). As the evaporation of the working fluid 4 the rise of the working fluid 4 to the upper level under the action of capillary forces. Thus, the boundary of the evaporation front is not moving in space and the length of the unfilled portion of the tube remains constant, which provides a constant flow throughout the process. The decline of the working fluid 4 is effected by lowering the level 9 of the working fluid 4 in the auxiliary tube 7, and the fluid level in the diffusion tube 2 remains constant. This means that the working fluid is not subject to the regulations of the communicating vessels. Level 9 working fluid 4 must be below the top level of 11 substances, otherwise diffusion and auxiliary tubes begin to function as communicating vessels with the same lowering of the liquid level, similar to that which occurs in the known devices.

The second feature is that due to the constant position of the upper liquid level 4 in diffusion tube 2 increases the speed of lowering of the level 9 of the working fluid 4 in mobile is gateley tube 7. The greater the ratio of the cross section of the diffusion tube to the cross-section of the auxiliary tube, the greater the speed, which ensures more accurate measurements.

Shown in figure 2 an embodiment different from the version of the execution of the source in figure 1 so that the mixer 1 has an additional fitting 22 connected to the auxiliary tube 7 through a flexible tube 23 to equalize the pressure in the mixer 1 and the auxiliary tube 7.

The peculiarity of this option, perform source is that when pouring the working fluid in the auxiliary tube 7 (phase 1) tube 23 is removed from the upper end of the auxiliary tube 7. After filling (or refilling) the working fluid of the upper part of the auxiliary tube 7 connected by means of a tube 23 with the fitting 22. This provides a pressure equalization in the mixer 1 and the auxiliary tube 7 and increases the accuracy of measurement of the difference of levels 9 and 10 in the auxiliary tube 7.

In all versions of the source gas-vapor mixtures increases the accuracy of the concentration inferred from source gas mixture for a long time.

1. The source of gas-vapor mixtures containing a mixer, having fittings for gas supply and output vapor-gas mixture, partially filled with the working fluid diffusion tube, verhaecht which is inside of the mixer, an auxiliary tube connected with the diffusion tube and designed to fill diffusion tube fluid, characterized in that the part of the diffusion tube filled with a substance that keeps the working fluid, and the fluid level in the auxiliary tube is below the top level of the substance that holds the working fluid in the diffusion tube.

2. Source according to claim 1, characterized in that the cross-sectional area of the diffusion tube is from one to one hundred squares of the cross-section of the auxiliary tube.

3. Source according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the mixer has an additional socket for the supply or removal of the gas.

4. Source according to claim 3, characterized in that the additional fitting is connected to the pump flow.

5. Source according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the mixer has a second fitting connected to the upper part of the auxiliary tube.

6. Source according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the mixer has two additional fitting for connection to the input and output of the analyzer.

7. Source according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the quality of the substance that holds the liquid used sand.

8. Source according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the quality of the substance that holds the working fluid that is used granular material with a particle size of from 1 to 1000 microns.

9. Source according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the quality of the substance that holds the working fluid that is used a porous structure, for example, metal.

10. Source according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that it is placed in thermostat.

11. Source according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the mixer is introduced fans.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: instrument engineering.

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6 cl, 2 dwg

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FIELD: chemical technology.

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with a boiling point 400°C, not above. The reaction time for carrying out abovementioned chemical reaction is sufficient to provide the required yield of ester perfluorinated derivative and wherein this yield of ester perfluorinated compound is determined by the gas chromatography method by using a nonpolar column. Also, invention relates to a method for pyrolysis of ester perfluorinated derivative with a boiling point 400°C, not above, to yield the dissociation product wherein this product represents a derivative of acyl fluoride or ketone and wherein pyrolysis time is sufficient to provide the required degree of conversion of ester perfluorinated derivative and wherein the indicated conversion degree of ester perfluorinated derivative is determined by gas chromatography method by using a nonpolar column. Also, invention relates to a method for analysis of ester perfluorinated derivative with a boiling point 400°C, not above, that involves analysis of ester perfluorinated derivative in a sample containing ester perfluorinated derivative by gas chromatography method by using a nonpolar column wherein ester perfluorinated derivative represents compound comprising a fragment of above given formula (1).

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3 cl, 6 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: medicine.

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EFFECT: invention provides highly selective and sensitive gas chromatography/mass-spectrometric method for quantitative determination of carnosine in biological substrates.

1 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

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