Method of producing thin-wall shell with curvilinear work surfaces
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and can be used in producing shell structures with curvilinear work surfaces. Flat thin-wall preform is pressed towards shaping surface of detachable tool. Note here that, simultaneously, curvilinear section with curvilinear work surfaces are formed along with two-layer shaped stiffness ribs jointing the latter together that are produced from preform fragments not involved in forming curvilinear sections of the shell. Shell thickness is made equal to that of preform, while detachable lower die is removed through open zone on the shell extreme edge side.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of shells and efficiency of their production.
6 cl, 16 dwg
The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used in the design and production of various shell structures, including complex spatial curvilinear work surfaces, including spherical, parabolic, hyperbolic, elliptical, cylindrical, conical, and also combined. Such surfaces are used in receiving and transmitting antennas, reflective devices, membranes spacecraft, fairings, and other elements of the aircraft. The proposed solution can be used for various containers, appliances, art, etc.
For the manufacture of shell structures with curved working surfaces widely used technology stamping of thin sheet materials . At the same time as the technological equipment used universal or special pressing equipment and tools that are used are special stamps, consisting, usually, of the matrix and punch . Traditional punching technology has several disadvantages: press equipment is very bulky, not environmentally friendly, and stamps time-consuming to manufacture. At the same time, due to the complexity of the coordination working poverkhnostyami and punches, not always ensure the required precision stamped parts. In the drawing the workpiece material, the thickness of the shell is obtained uneven and, therefore, neravnopolochny. To ensure the required strength and stiffness of such membranes enhance their additional structural elements.
In some cases, it is preferable electro-stamping . At the same time as the equipment is used, the pulse current generator and as a tool - the process unit that includes only the matrix or just the punch, so the manufacturing accuracy can be substantially improved. Eliminated and a number of other disadvantages associated with conventional stamping: solving environmental problems, increasing efficiency and productivity. This method can be adopted for the prototype.
However, to avoid the uneven thickness of the shell, especially in the case of deep drawing, when the magnetic-pulse stamping is not possible. Not, also provide the required rigidity and strength of the casing. In addition, deep stamping, in which plastic deformation is subjected to a large amount of workpiece material, accompanied by increased energy consumption.
The objective of the proposed technical solution is the software with which labilnosti the thickness of the thin-walled shell, especially in the locations of its working surfaces, while reducing the thickness of the flat blanks, which, in turn, leads to weight reduction of the shell. Another aim of the invention is the possibility of manufacturing complex form of spatial thin-walled shells with high accuracy the location of their working surfaces and with high production efficiency.
These goals are achieved by the fact that the flat thin-walled workpiece is formed into force on the workpiece in the direction of the shaping surface of the removable tool while simultaneously form a curved section with a curved work surfaces and connecting them double-layer shaped ribs, which form from fragments of the workpiece, not involved in the formation of the curved sections of the shell, the shell thickness of the perform equal to the thickness of the workpiece, and a removable matrix is extracted through an open area with the perimeter edge of the shell. The height of the ribs, view their profile, as well as the number and location relative to the curved working surfaces depend on the shape of curved surfaces, the dimensions of shells and other specific requirements of thin-walled curved shell. In the manufacture of Obolo is to complicated forms with varying degrees of curvature forming the shell is produced in stages. First flat thin-walled workpiece is rolled into the form of a shell, the edges of which combine and connect to each other inside the shell is placed a removable tool with a forming surface on which is formed into the shell with the formation of curved sections and profiled ribs. To increase the strength and stiffness of the shell layers of profiled ribs interconnected. When profiled ribs protruding beyond the maximum allowable dimensions of the shell, press to curved sections of the shell and interconnected layers of profiled ribs and curved sections of the shell. To obtain a closed thin-walled shell with a curved border edge of one of the open shells with curved sections combine her with the right border edge of the other open shell with curved sections and connect them together. To ensure high quality thin-walled shell with a curved sections simultaneously improving the efficiency of its production of billets, the connection edges of the shell and the connection edge of the open edges of the shells produce electro influence.
The essence of the method is illustrated in the drawings figure 1 is a-16.
In figure 1, 2 shown in reaktsionnoi communication two projections of the thin-walled shell with a working surface, made in the form of a hemisphere with six external profiled ribs.
Figure 3 shows a cross-section of the shell plane passing through the center of the spherical surface.
Figure 4, 5 shown in the projection due two projections of the thin-walled shell with a working surface made in the form of a hemisphere with six inner profiled ribs
Figure 6, 7 shown in projection due two projections of the thin-walled shell complicated shape: cylindrical part of the shell ends of the hemispherical part of it with six profiled ribs.
On Fig, 9 shown in projection due two projections of the thin-walled shell complicated shape: conical portion of the shell ends of the hemispherical part of it with six profiled ribs.
In Fig 10, 11 shown in projection due two projections of the thin-walled shell with a working surface made in the form of a hemisphere with six external profiled ribs, pressed against the spherical portions of the external surface of the shell.
On Fig, 13 shown in the projection due two projections of the thin-walled shell complicated shape: cylindrical section of the shell hemispherical ends its plot with six profiled ribs, pressed against the spherical phase is m external surface of the shell.
On Fig, 15 shown in projection due two projections of the thin-walled shell complicated shape: conical section of the shell hemispherical ends its plot with six profiled ribs, pressed against the spherical portions of the external surface of the shell.
On Fig shown closed thin-walled spherical shell, obtained by overlapping edge zones of the two hemispherical thin-walled shells with reinforcing ribs pressed against the spherical surfaces of each of the hemispherical shells, one of which is made directly from a flat thin-walled workpiece, and the second of shells, folded from a flat thin-walled workpiece.
For the manufacture of thin-walled curved shell use the blank, which is cut out from a flat thin-walled material, such as aluminum foil. The workpiece feature between the molding surface of a removable tool and, for example, a planar inductor, electrically connected to the pulse current generator. By passing an impulse of alternating current through the inductor in the workpiece produces a counter. As a result of interaction of the electromagnetic fields of the currents of the inductor and workpiece past with great speed hits the molding surface of the removable tool in tegopoulos shell 1, in which simultaneously formed into curved areas 2 with curved, for example, a spherical working surface 3 and connecting their two-layer shaped ribs 4. The thickness of the shell as in the locations of the curved sections 2 and layer 5 profiled ribs 4 is equal to the thickness of the flat blanks. Removable tool is extracted through an open area with the perimeter edge 6 of the shell 1. In the manufacture of shells complicated forms with varying degrees of curvature forming blanks produced in stages: first from a flat thin-walled workpiece roll shell 7, for example, in the form of a cylinder 8 with a given curvature, the edges 10 of the shell 7 combine and connect to each other. Inside the shell is placed a removable matrix, which is formed into the shell with the formation of curvilinear sections 2 and profiled ribs 4. Layers 5 profiled ribs 4 are connected with electro, laser, spot welding, adhesive or other means. Similarly interconnected layers 5 profiled ribs 4 and the curved section 2 of the shell 1.
To obtain a closed thin-walled shell 11 with a curved border edge 6 of one of the open shell 12 with a curved sections 2 combined with razmernoi her edge edge 6 other open shell 13 with a curved sections 2 and connect them with each other
Experimental samples of thin-walled shells were made of aluminum foil having a thickness of 0.15 mm, the Radius of curvature plots with spherical surfaces varied from 15 to 50 mm, the Obtained membranes have gained and has maintained a defined shape. Layers of ribs was performed with predetermined gaps between them in layers, and virtually no gaps. When running the shell with ribs, pressed to its curved sections, the shape of the shell are not visually changed, the rigidity is relatively high, and appearance meets the requirements of the design.
Implementation of the proposed method:
- to ensure a constant thickness of the shell, including its working parts;
to provide additional strength and rigidity to the membrane by formation of a profiled ribs made of the same workpiece during a single operation;
to ensure high precision in the formation of working curvilinear surfaces by eliminating one of the elements of die tooling;
- reduce process cycle by eliminating intermediate operations;
to accelerate the production of membranes and reduce the consumption of energy required for forming membranes, due to the use of high-efficiency equipment.
All this allows to improve the quality of Obolo the EC and the efficiency of their production.
Sources of information
1. Romanovsky VP Reference cold stamping. M: mechanical engineering, 1971.
2. Ively, Simpatic, Ltheta. Handbook of magnetic pulse treatment of metals. Publisher at the Kharkov State University. Publishing Association "high school", 1977. 55 C. (prototype).
1. A method of manufacturing a thin-walled shell with a curved working surfaces, comprising forming force removable tool on a flat thin-walled workpiece toward the shaping surface of the removable tool, characterized in that the moulding is produced while forming curved sections with curved work surfaces and connecting them double-layer corrugated ribs that form of fragments of the workpiece, not involved in the formation of the curved parts of the shell, with the shell thickness of the perform equal to the thickness of the workpiece, and a removable tool forming surface is extracted through an open area with the perimeter edge of the shell.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the flat thin-walled workpiece is rolled into the form of a shell, the edges of which combine and connect to each other inside the shell is placed a removable tool with a forming surface on which oraut shell with the formation of curved sections and profiled ribs.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the layers are profiled ribs are connected.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the profiled ribs pressed against the curved sections of the shell and interconnected layers of profiled ribs and curved sections of the shell.
5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the edge the edge of one open shells with curved sections combine her with the right border edge of the other open shell with curved parts, connect them together and get a closed thin-walled shell with a curved sections.
6. The method according to one of claims 1, 2, 5, characterized in that the billets, the connection edges of the shell and the connection edge of the open edges of the shells produce electro influence.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of metal forming, in particular to devices for forming of metal cans bottom, for instance in steel and aluminium composite cans made of two parts. Device has light structure and includes external jacket and cylinder jacket, which holds abutment of clamping ring, transmission piston and spring element. Abutment of clamping ring includes displacement facility, providing for floating displacement of clamping ring and alignment of clamping ring and convex puncheon relative to compression ram of bodymaker.
EFFECT: simplification of design due to adjustment of clamping ring.
20 cl, 35 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal forming, particularly to methods of producing sleeves with sub micro- and nano-crystalline structures. Hollow workpiece is produced with its inner surface to be processed by multiple axial reciprocation of male mould with simultaneous rolling and squeezing of outer surface in roller-type lower die. Roller-type lower die is rotated with angular speed of rotation equal to ωld. Note here that collet is rotated with constant speed of ωc=0,001ωld.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: hollow workpiece is obtained and further treatment of its inner surface is performed with repeated back-and-forth axial movement of puncheon with simultaneous rolling and crimping of external surface in roller-type matrix. Edges of workpiece are fixed with applied axial force and created axial stress which is close to and does not reach the workpiece material yield point.
EFFECT: increasing efficiency of obtaining metal bushings with gradient submicro- and nanocrystalline structure.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: in surface sections of thin-walled shell, in which holes shall be made, there formed are closed cavities made with restricting devices in the form of a housing and matrix arranged inside the closed cavity. There used is matrix with sharp edge along its contact line with thin-walled shell, and closed cavity is filled with elastic medium. Proper directed force impact is applied with local pressure differential in the zone restricted with the closed cavity in order to make a hole. Holes are made in several sections of the shell per a cycle.
EFFECT: reducing labour input and facilities production costs.
2 cl, 2 ex, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: steel cylindrical shell contains two surfaces made of corrugated sheet, bump of which are mutually perpendicular, herewith bumps of one of cylindrical surfaces are directed lengthwise of cylinder generatrix and vertexes of corrugation, crimps of both surfaces are contact to each other. Additionally ratio of shells parametres are received experimentally.
EFFECT: reduced metal consumption and increases rigidity of shells.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of metal plastic working by pressure, in particular to processes of production of heat exchange pipes with profiled tips produced with application of effect from localised directed plastic deformation of pipe material. Method includes straightening, cutting as per measure, cleaning of external surface of pipe ends. Then expanding- calibration of pipe end is carried out by means of rigid puncheon. Radial clamping within the limits of calibrated section length part is carried out with provision of cylindrical section of crippling. Annular ledge is formed in two stages by preliminary and final filling of matrix finishing gravure volume with pipe material. End of pipe is installed in cavity of split matrix by external conical section opposite to finishing gravure of matrix. Split matrix comprises finishing gravure in the form of annular groove of trapezoid cross section and preliminary gravure in the form of annular groove. Further shaping of annular ledge is carried out by means of burnishing.
EFFECT: invention provides for production of heat exchange pipes with profiled tips that do not depend on geometrical dimensions of pipe in transverse direction and grades of processed materials.
3 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of metal plastic working and may be used to mould thin structural elements, having round cross section that is constant or variable along axis, including cylindrical-conical or conical pipes, and arranged, in particular from aluminium alloys. Cylindrical initial pipe produced by extrusion from material with a certain yield point and proportional elongation is exposed to plastic deformation in cold condition by means of controlled circular pressing of rollers that are not equipped with drive. Processing of external surface of initial pipe is carried out with production of structural element with a certain yield point using rotary mandrel or without mandrel till various relative reduction of initial pipe diametre with production of structural element. Device comprises foundation, fixed front stock with clamp and mandrel fixed in it, support with moulding rolls and movable support arranged near moulding rolls of support with the possibility to lift one roller with axis, which is perpendicular to axis of mandrel, and one or two additional rollers, axes of which are parallel to axis of mandrel. Besides there is extensible grip provided for detachment of pipe from mandrel. Movable support with rollers is intended for alignment of moulded pipe. There are also rollers provided for alignment and support of mandrel.
EFFECT: improved strength properties.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: method includes profiling by means of fabrication of cylindrical thin-walled hollow products with transient, essentially, parallel to longitudinal axis of hollow product by profiles. In radial direction relative to longitudinal axis of hollow product outside, at least one shaping tool is activated by driven impact, herewith it oscillate impact on surface of hollow product each time only in perpendicular direction. Shaping tool makes relative displacement relative to hollow product at the rest equal depth of feeding in radial direction, which it will not be achieved required length of profile. Additionally it is implemented in the form of punch, which allows forming operation area, corresponding shape of manufactured profile of external side of hollow product, herewith axis of working profile or working surface is directed under sharp corner relative to longitudinal axis excluding area which is located beeline from surface of hollow product, which in the capacity of gauging area is directed parallel to longitudinal axis.
EFFECT: there is provided accurate profiling of thin-walled cylindrical hollow products with particular geometry.
16 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: there are implemented set-up labors on pipes - dressing, cutting sufficiently, finishing of external surface of ends, expansion - calibration of pipe end by rigid punch, cascading radial breaking-down of calibrated section by segments of split die. Herewith it is used matrix, containing finishing, preliminary etchings and working between them. Then it is reshaped calibrated section for maximal and minimal cogged sections and conic transition point between them, with following shaping compensation volume by means of burnishing of cavity of maximal cogged section. Additionally shaped edge line is formed by two compensation volumes in the form of doughnut and thickened section of cloth. Additionally collar is formed successively: at stage of cascade radial breaking-down - its external tapered surface, and at burnishing - intermediate compensatory volume in the form of thickened section of cloth of calibrated section with following giving to it of final shape of collar in finishing etching of matrix by means of shear lateral deformation in cloth of calibrated section at its radial annular overclamping. Thickened section of cloth in final form is formed by repeated burnishing of edge line cavity after receiving of collar with extrusion of pipe material into prliminary etching.
EFFECT: upgraded quality.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building field, particularly for manufacturing of sealing elements of rotating shafts of machines and devices. Blank is manufactured from standard rolled iron or cut metallic strip of calculated dimension by rolling-up. During wrapping of edge blank by means of divided collet is clamped in holder of turning lathe to the central disk. Then connector of wrapped blank is welded and received frame is dresses by pressing on arbor.
EFFECT: there is simplified process and reduced metal consumption.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to physics of superstrong pulsed magnetic fields, pressure of which can be used for studying properties of substances compressed with pulsed pressure and obtaining substances with new properties. The device for compressing substance has a source of pulsed magnetic field 1 with an explosive charge 3 and at least one sample of substance. On the axis of the device there is a current conducting rod 3 with channels 4 for placing samples, where at the centre of the rod there an annular constriction 5, formed by cones, whose peaks face each other. The length of the annular constriction is equal to the diametre of the rod. The wall above the channel in the rod where the sample is located has thickness which is greater than thickness of the skin layer, and the length of the rod is greater than the length of the explosive charge.
EFFECT: provision for directed movement of the sample along the axis, which enables determination of place of installation of sample catchers and so preserving the sample after removing the load.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: metallurgical industry branch, possibly magnetic-pulse crimping of elongated tubular blanks or tubular blanks with thickened end portions.
SUBSTANCE: inductor is in the form of pack of flat plates coated with insulation. Said plates are arranged in pairs in mutually parallel planes, they are turned one relative to other by angle 90° and they have zone free from insulation on both sides of plate and symmetrical relative to cutout formed on one side of plate. Cutout of each plate corresponds to diameter of worked tubular blank; said plates are electrically connected in series to three-dimensional helix.
EFFECT: lowered energy consumption, enlarged manufacturing possibilities.
FIELD: manufacturing equipment for plastic working of cylindrical blanks with use of magnetic devices.
SUBSTANCE: inductor includes set of electrically connected in series metallic discs having insulated layers and radial cutout from inner opening till periphery. Radial cutout is in the form of sector with angle 120°. Each metallic disc has insulated layer only at one side and along its end surfaces and it engages by its non-insulated surface with non-insulated side of adjacent metallic disc on surface of sector with angle 120° for forming helix of double layer of metallic discs at their preliminary axial compression.
EFFECT: enhanced strength of inductor at the same thickness values of metallic discs and insulation.
FIELD: machine engineering, namely joining of constructional members of articles, for example flexible members and tips.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of changing shape and size at least of one of joined members at using forces of interaction of electromagnetic fields of electric currents to be passed through electric current lead. Shape and size of joined members are changed due to moving movable members of shaping tool by action of forces caused at direct interaction of electromagnetic fields of electric currents. On portions of electric current lead turned to movable members of shaping tool electric current are passed in one direction while moving said portions together with movable members of tool. On portions of electric current lead remote from movable members electric currents are passed in opposite direction and motion of said portions is limited by means of restriction members.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of process, lowered energy consumption of used equipment.
FIELD: plastic working of metals.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of deforming sheet blank by drawing it through closed working gage of draw plate; using linear electric motor at making shapes. In order to draw blank through closed working gage of draw plate at smoothly deforming it, pulling effort uniformly distributed along the whole length of deformation zone is provided. Said pulling effort is created due to interaction of traveling magnetic field induced in winding of stator of linear electric motor with eddy currents induced in blank for moving blank according to traveling magnetic field. Apparatus for making shapes of sheet blank includes draw plate with closed working gage. Apparatus for making shapes of electrically conducting material includes linear electric motor supporting draw plate with closed working gage; the last is fixed to said motor. It is possible to use as linear electric motor single-side linear electric motor, double-side linear electric motor or cylindrical linear electric motor.
EFFECT: enlarged manufacturing possibilities, enhanced quality of shapes.
5 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at manufacturing of cylindrical shells by rotary drawing with thinning from martensite - ageing steels with wall thickness ratio. Blank is installed on mandrel with interference. Rotary drawing is implemented with specified degree of deformation and with value of relative interference.