Combined downhole tool for measurement of side specific resistance and specific resistance of propagation

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of underground survey and production and is intended for measurement of properties of specific resistance of earth formations as they are penetrated through well. Combined tool for measurement of specific resistance includes both antennas of induction/propagation and antennas of side specific resistance arranged in grooves on well pipe. At the same time antenna of side specific resistance includes insulating basic layer arranged in groove, toroidal antenna arranged over insulating basic layer and protective device arranged over groove.

EFFECT: increased accuracy and reliability of measurement of underground specific resistance due to provision of combined measurement of specific resistance, using side sensor and sensor of induction or propagation in one and the same area of bed in a single trip.

18 cl, 20 dwg

 

The level of technology

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The invention relates in General to the field of subterranean exploration and production. More specifically, the invention relates to a method and device for measuring properties of the resistivity of the earth formations penetrate them through the hole.

The level of technology

Tools logging resistivity for many years was used to measure the resistivity of the earth formations surrounding the borehole. Traditionally resistivity measurements were carried out by lowering a logging device with a wire line into the well after the well was drilled. However, measurements with a wired communication line necessarily lead to a delay between the time when the well is drilled, and the time when the measurements. The preferred approach is to implement such measurements during the drilling process to take corrective steps if necessary. For example, if the borehole is provided in real time, it can be used to make adjustments masses of mud, to prevent damage of the earth formations and to improve the stability of the well. Additionally can be used the data logging of the formations in real-time, to direct the drill bit in the desired direction (i.e. downhole control system of the drilling parameters). On the other hand, if measurements were made after a delay, the drilling fluid, that is, "rock", can penetrate into the reservoir and change the properties of the surrounding areas well. For these reasons, have developed ways of logging while drilling (LWD) and measurement while drilling (MWD). In this description LWD will be used to include both technologies LWD and MWD.

Figa illustrates a conventional system LWD located in the well. Drill string 1 is suspended in the borehole 3 is attached at its lower end the drill bit 5. Drill string 1 and the attached drill bit 5 rotate with the rotary platform 9 during lowering into the well. This causes the penetration of the drill bit 5 into the reservoir 11. As soon as the drill bit 5 penetrates into the reservoir 11, is pumped down the drilling fluid through the Central bore of the drill string 1 to effect the lubrication of the drill bit 5 and transfer drill cuttings through the bottom hole to the surface through the well 3 and line 13 due to the mud. Section collars 15 borax LWD located behind the drill bit 5 and may include a number of sensors 15A resistivity or any other types of sensors known from the prior art. It should be noted that the concept of "Yes, the hunky", used in this description, includes antenna, toroids and electrodes (which can act as transmitters and/or receivers). The sensors 15A resistivity provide measurements of the resistivity of layer 11, which penetrated drill bit 5, providing measurements before drilling fluid will penetrate into the reservoir 11.

In General, there are two types of LWD tools for measurement of the resistivity of layer - side tools and electrodynamic instruments or tools distribution (tools induction or propagation). Each of these tools is based on the principle of electromagnetic (EM) measurements. Tools distribution radiate into the formation of the high-frequency electric field to determine the response of the borehole and the formation, measuring the voltage induced by the receivers, or by measuring the different responses between a pair of receivers or between transmitter and receiver. For example, for tool distribution phase and amplitude of the input signal can be measured at each of several receivers in relation to the phases and amplitudes of the signals used for the excitation of the transmitter. Electrodynamic transmitters generate magnetic fields that induce currents flowing in the formations. These currents generate a secondary magnetic field, which measure the I as inducing a voltage in the antenna of the receiver, located at a distance from the transmitter antenna. Electrodynamic instruments and tools distribution function better in the wells drilled in relatively conductive layers using a relatively non-conductive drilling mud comprising an insulating drilling fluids (e.g. oil-containing drilling muds). Conventional electrodynamic instruments and tools distribution is not configured to permit changes of resistivity around the well.

Standard electrodynamic instruments and tools distribution use wound coil or coils as antennas of the transmitter and receiver. Antennas are placed on the tool, winding the coil around the tool body, sealing it in a conducting filler and then isolating the population rubber. Although electrodynamic instruments and tools distribution typically operate at different frequencies and in some cases are used to explore a variety of underground properties (for example, the definition of dissemination tools dielectric properties of the reservoir), in most cases, they are used in a similar manner to measure the resistivity of the formation. Thus, any reference to the induction here is switching universal notebook is aamoi distribution and Vice versa.

Side tool typically uses one or more antennas or electrodes for insertion into the layers of the low-frequency transverse magnetic fields to determine the response of the borehole and the formation, measuring the current flowing through the layers to the receivers. This technology works best in a relatively conductive layers, in which the drilling with conductive drilling fluids, such as water-based drilling muds. Side tools for resistivity measurements are usually sensitive to azimuthal changes in the specific resistance of the strata around the well.

To transmit a transverse magnetic field in the reservoir side tool typically uses a toroidal transmitter, which is created by winding a conductive wire around the annular magnetic permeable core (toroidal core). To detect currents that flow in the reservoir side, the tool uses the electrode (for example, a ring electrode or a compact disk electrode) receiver or toroidal receiver. In the standard LWD tools toroidal transmitter or receiver are usually provided in the sleeve, which is provided on the drill collar at the final stage.

Figv illustrates a conventional lateral tool for resistivity measurements. As shown, and is of strument includes two transmitter T1 and T2, located on the collar 15 of the drill. Also included two control antenna M0 and M2. Antennas T1 and T2 transmitter (injector current) and control antennas M0 and M2 are shown as toroidal coils, which below will be described in detail. An instrument for measuring the resistivity may also include other electrodes of receivers, such as ring electrode R and a compact disk electrodes b, b'. The ring electrode R and a compact disk electrodes b, b' are conductive electrodes placed on the collar 15, but they are electrically isolated from the collar 15 of insulating materials. The ring electrode R is a conductive metal tape located around the circumference of the collar 15. The ring electrode R usually measures the azimuthal averaged current. On the other hand, a compact disk electrodes b, b' are usually located on one side of the tool. Compact disk electrodes,' allow azimuthal measurements and obtaining images with high resolution.

As mentioned above, the sensors induction/propagation work better in the layers with a relatively low resistivity (or conductivity), drilled with conductive drilling fluids, including oil-based drilling muds. However, such tools are typically not configured to allow and the change of resistivity with azimuthal sensitivity around the well. Side tools are more suitable for the change of resistivity of the strata in which carry out drilling with conductive drilling fluids, and lateral measurements using a compact disk electrodes, usually sensitive to azimuthal changes.

As a side device and electrodynamic device/device distribution works particularly well in certain conditions, they are compatible with each other. However, the driller may lack the necessary information for the correct choice about the type of tool(s) to use for a particular well. Therefore, different types of logging tools are often used together in a separate round-trip uphill logging tool. In operations with a wired communication line side tool often used in one trip-rise with an electrodynamic instrument to ensure that research at a shallow depth and to ensure better identification of areas which penetrates the conductive drilling mud. Run these tools into the well separately is neither operationally profitable or cost-effective. Additionally a separate logging chute-UPS can make inaccuracy when trying to determine the resistivity of a layer to penetration. If this is m also occurs inaccuracy, because the measurement of the signal path in respect to the spacing and geometry of the reservoir varies from one logging flight to another. Consequently, requires the provision of different types of data sources/sensors in the instrument or system for different methods of measurement of the specific resistance.

Example logging resistivity using two types of sensors in a separate instrument, disclosed in U.S. patent No. 5428293 issued Sinclain et al. The logging methods described in this patent, the use of high-frequency and low-frequency sensors to provide measurements at different depths in the research, in order to control the penetration of the drilling fluid. Although these methods require use of the tool, and having high frequency and low frequency sensors on the same drill collar, in that the description was not disclosed details regarding the construction of the instrument.

When designing any sensors for use in LWD tool essential protective devices that can withstand abrasive and harsh environment during drilling. Since the lateral resistivity sensors and sensors of the resistivity distribution function at various EATING principles of measurement, they have different requirements for protective devices. The LWD tools, having an inny resistivity distribution set in recesses in the walls of the collar and provided with protective devices known from the prior art. Configuration tool for disseminating additionally described in U.S. patent No. 5594343, issued to Clark et al.

Figa shows a cross section of a conventional collar 21 drill, equipped for the measurement of the resistivity distribution. The collar 21 includes a recess 29 formed circumferentially around the outer edge of the collar at a given depth. The sensor 25 of the resistivity distribution is located in the recess 29. The collar 21 has an internal sleeve or chassis 26 located therein to form a cavity for accommodating the electronic module 22. The module 22 is attached to the sensor 25 through electrical connection 27 crossing the jumper 28 on the inside wall of the collar 21 borax. The sensor 25 is sealed in the recess 29 (for example, using fiberglass filler 20) and is covered by a rubber molding 19. Protective device 23 is attached on the top of the moulding 19 above the recess 29 to protect the sensor 25 from damage during the drilling process. The collar 21 may also be provided with a removable tape 38 in addition to the protection of the sensor. As shown in figv, protective device 23 includes a plurality of longitudinal slits 24 is filled with an insulating material, the known and the level of technology.

The sensor side of resistivity (i.e. toroidal antenna) induces a magnetic field in the formation. Figa shows the standard sensor lateral resistance, which is described in Bonner et al. "A New Generation of Electrode Resistivity Measurements for Formation Evaluation While Drilling, SPWLA, 35thAnnual Logging Symposium, June 19-22, 1994, Paper 00, and U.S. patent No. 5339037 issued by Bonner et al. Shows the collar 31 LWD. The sensor side of resistivity is constructed as a sleeve 30, which is provided on the collar 31 borax and fixed in place.

Figv shows a magnified side sensor 30 described in the patent Bonner et. al. As shown, the toroidal antenna 35, which includes a conductive wire 33 is wound around the core, embedded in the insulating material 36 and is protected by a metal protective device 37. To allow a transverse magnetic field to be induced in the layer, the protective device to the side of the sensor should not close the circuit. Only one end, the upper end of the conducting protective device 37 is in contact with the collar 31 borax. U.S. patent No. 340856 issued by Redwin et al. describes a toroidal antenna with metal protective outer wall. The proposed toroidal antenna constructed in metal cylinders which are provided above the collar and screwed into the drill collar.

There is a need for a borehole in which the tools, which provide a combined measurement of specific resistance, using both types of sensors resistivity - side type and electrodynamic type/distribution type. It is also preferred that such instruments have sources/sensors built right into the tool.

The invention

The invention provides the layout of the elongated tube having a longitudinal axis and configured to underground location, comprising: a recess on the outer wall of the pipe, passing through the peripheral surface around the longitudinal axis of the pipe, the insulating base layer located in the recess;

toroidal antenna located above the insulating base layer, and

protective device located above the recess and is arranged to prevent the passage of electric current along the protective device in the direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the pipe near the toroidal antenna, with the specified layout of the elongated pipe is a drill collar or the logging tool of resistivity.

With this arrangement of the elongated tube further comprises an insulating filler, located in the remaining area of the recess, the mechanism of compensation of pressure located next to the toroidal antenna. This toroidal EN Enna contains conductive wire, located above the insulating base layer.

In addition, the toroidal antenna includes a toroidal core formed of one of materials: magnetic permeable material, is wound around the insulating base layer of ferrite material located in the recess.

The layout of the elongated tube protective device has an insulating mechanism to prevent the passage of electric current along the protective device in the direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the pipe, and an insulating mechanism includes a circular slit is filled with an insulating material.

In addition, the layout of the elongated tube further comprises an electrically insulated material, located between the connection formed between the protective device and the pipe.

The layout of the elongated tube according to the first aspect of the invention is a well logging tool of the resistivity or the drill collar.

In this case, when the layout of the elongated tube is a logging tool specific resistance, it contains:

an elongated first conductive tube having a Central hole and an isolated circular hole along its wall to prevent current flow through the orifice;

an elongated second conductive tube having Dutch is to the side of resistivity, mounted on it;

the second pipe is located inside the first pipe so that the sensor side of resistivity was placed near an isolated circular holes on the first pipe, and

moreover, the current path is formed between the first and second pipe on either side of the isolated circular holes, when the second pipe is located inside the first pipe.

Thus between the outer surface of the second pipe and the inner surface of the first pipe formed conductive connections on either side of the isolated circular holes, when the second pipe is located inside the first pipe, with a conducting connection is formed by direct contact between the pipe or by means of a conducting element located between the pipes.

According to the second aspect of the invention provides a method for placement of the sensor side of resistivity on the plot layout pipe having a longitudinal axis and configured to underground location, comprising stages, in which:

create a cavity in the outer wall of the pipe section;

forming a base layer of insulating material in the recess;

form a toroidal core by winding magnetically permeable material on the base layer;

wound navigating the th wire around a toroidal core for the formation of a toroidal antenna and

install a protective device over the recess, while the protective device is arranged to prevent the passage of electric current in the protective device in the direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the pipe near the toroidal antenna.

Furthermore, the method further comprises the step of filling the remaining area of the recesses with an insulating filler, the adjustment mechanism to compensate the pressure in the hollow.

In addition, according to the method place a bobbin on the base layer before the formation of the toroidal core, and the bobbin has a chute for guiding the winding magnetically-permeable material and place insulating material over the toroidal core in the slot reels.

In addition, according to the second aspect of the invention, the protective device includes an insulating mechanism to prevent the passage of electric current along the protective device in the direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the pipe near the toroidal antenna while isolating mechanism includes a circular slit is filled with an insulating material in the protective device.

In addition, according to the method of placing an electrically insulating material between the connection formed between the protective device and the pipe.

Other aspects and advantages of the invention will become Acevi is generated from the following description and appended claims.

Brief description of drawings

Figa shows the traditional system LWD downhole tool located in the borehole.

Figv shows traditional logging tool for measuring lateral resistivity.

Figa shows a cross section of a conventional well-logging tool for measuring the resistivity distribution.

Figv represents the schema of the external area of the tool figa.

Figa shows traditional logging tool for measuring resistivity, having placed on the sleeve sensor lateral resistivity.

Figw - detailed view of the sensor lateral resistivity tool according figa.

4 is a diagram of a toroidal antenna, located on the pipe according to the invention.

Figure 5 shows the cross-section of a toroidal antenna, mounted in the recess in the pipe according to the invention.

6 shows a cross section of a toroidal antenna having a bobbin as a guiding device in the recess of the pipe according to the invention.

Figa shows a protective device for the lateral sensor according to the invention.

Figv shows a protective device for the probe resistivity according to the invention.

Fig illustrates a cross-section of the protective device is Ista, located on the pipe according to the invention.

Figure 9 - illustrates a cross-section side of the sensor mechanism with pressure compensation according to the invention.

Figure 10 is a diagram of a pipe with an insulating gap or gap according to the invention.

11 shows the combined lateral sensor and sensor distribution along the pipe and protected built-in protective device according to the invention.

Figa shows the LWD tool and to display the measurements of resistivity, combined with lateral sensor located in the recess of the drill collar according to the invention.

Figw-D presents detailed types of sensors shown in figa.

Fig illustrates a block diagram of the mounting side of the sensor on the pipe according to the invention.

Fig illustrates a block diagram of a method for mounting the combination of a side of the sensor and sensor distribution on the pipe according to the invention.

Detailed description

Embodiments of the present invention relate to methods and apparatus for measuring the electromagnetic properties of underground formations through the well. Embodiments of the invention include instruments that are designed to determine the resistivity in the same region of the reservoir, using both electron gnity sensor - side sensor or induction or propagation. Some embodiments of the invention relate to methods of manufacture or Assembly of such tools. According to variants of the invention, the sensors side type and the sensors distribution jointly implemented in the pipe for underground use. Joint implementation side of the sensor and sensor distribution on one pipe (the pipe layout) makes it possible, if required, use the built-in pipe Assembly of the protective device sensors. More importantly, the implementation of the joint side of the sensor and sensor distribution makes it possible for multimode measurements of resistivity from the same underground area for one descent-ascent, thus providing a more accurate and reliable determination of the subsurface resistivity.

According to variants of the invention, the toroidal sensor for tool lateral resistance is mounted in the downhole pipe. As mentioned above, the toroidal transmitters or receivers traditional instruments for measuring lateral resistivity are usually mounted on the sleeve, which is provided on the pipe. This choice of design is influenced by such factors as, for example, the pressure of physical force on the drill collar with half the features, the complexity of the design and simplification of maintenance or replacement. The study stresses carried out by the present inventors showed that the drill collar having recesses cut in its outer wall, of such size and shape required to hold the toroidal sensors will not significantly weaken the pipe.

Figure 4 illustrates the sensor side of resistivity (toroidal antenna)mounted in a recess in the pipe according to a variant embodiment of the invention. Figure 5 shows a plot of the longitudinal section of a toroidal sensor. As shown in figure 4 and 5, the tube 57 includes a recess 53. The base of the recess 53 is cut at some desired depth. Side sensor, consisting of a toroidal antenna 50, which consists of a magnetic core 51 and the conductive wire 52, is mounted in the recess 53.

According to one variant embodiment of the invention in place of the recesses 53 may be mounted toroidal antenna 50. Toroidal antenna 50 can be mounted in place by placing insulating material in the base of the recess 53 for forming the base layer 55. The insulating base layer 55 may include grooves 56 to provide channels for conducting wire 52 wound around a toroidal magnetic core 51 in the form of a Hoop in the development the AI 53.

Magnetic core 51 is mounted on the base layer 55 in the recess 53. One way is to mount the magnetic core 51 in place in the recess winding a tape made of a ferromagnetic material. Alternative magnetic core may be arranged in the recess of the pieces, made of a ferromagnetic material (e.g. ferrite). The core 51 may be assembled from pieces and soaked in epoxy resin to hold the structure (not shown). An example of a suitable ferromagnetic tape is SUPERMALLOY tape™, which, for example, may have dimensions of 1 inch (2.54 cm) wide and 0.002 inch (0.05 to cm) in thickness. SUPERMALLOY™ is a high purity and specially processed 80% of iron-Nickel alloy for use in the core, wrapped with ribbon, and can be purchased from commercial enterprises, such as Magnetic Metals Company (Anaheim, Ca). SUPERMALLOY™ is made to have a high initial magnetic permeability and low loss. Some applications may not be required magnetic core with high magnetic permeability. May be enough core with a relative magnetic permeability equal to 1. The magnetic tape is wound circumferentially around the insulating base layer 55 for the formation of magnetically permeable toroidal core 51. Winding about algaesia, until it reaches the desired thickness (for example, of 0.10 inches [0,254 cm] to 0.15 inches [0,381 cm]) of the magnetic core 51. To complete the manufacture of toroidal antenna 50, then around the core 51 is wound conductive wire 52. The winding process, for example, ends with the transmission conductive wire 52 through the groove (s) 56, formed in the insulating base layer 55. The sensor side of resistivity can also be implemented in other ways, such as when the slippage sensor in a narrowed region of the pipe or casing (not shown).

Figure 5 also shows that, once completed the installation of a toroidal antenna 50, the remaining area in the recess 53 may be filled with an insulating material 54, which captures the toroidal antenna 50 in the recess 53. Examples of suitable insulating materials include epoxy resin and fiberglass. Optionally, the layer of elastomer (e.g. rubber) may be formed over the insulating material to seal the recess 53 and its contents from the well fluid when placing the sensor in the borehole. Examples of elastomers may include natural and synthetic rubber and synthetic elastomers. An example of a suitable elastomer is a fluoroelastomer sold by DuPont Dow Elastomers under the trade mark VITON™ (Wilmington, Delaware). Rubber and the layer of elastomer 59 seals the Assembly of the sensor, rinsing the surface of the pipe 57. Finally, the recess 53 and its contents are covered by a protective device 58, which protects the sensor from the environment surrounding the borehole. Protective device 58 includes an isolating mechanism 75 (described in detail below) to prevent current flow along the protective device 58 in the longitudinal direction.

6 shows another variant embodiment of the invention. Toroidal antenna is located inside the pipe, comprising a bobbin 67, placed above the insulating base layer 55 before was wound magnetic tape. Bobbin 67 is made of an insulating material and may contain two or more pieces that can be arranged in the recess. Bobbin may include a cut (trench) 68, which directs the magnetic tape during winding and holds the toroidal core 51. For bobbin 67 may be used any suitable material or composite, including commercially available materials such as RANDOLITE™, PEEK™, KEVLAR™, fiberglass, or based on the polyaryletherketones thermoplastic materials as described in U.S. patent No. 6084052 and 6300762. Neckline bobbin 68 67 should be slightly wider than the width of the tape. If you use a bobbin 67, the groove(s) (56 figure 5)used to facilitate the winding of conductive wire 52 may be included in a bobbin 67 instead isolated the existing base layer 55. Once configured the toroidal core 51, the top of the chute 68 bobbin 67 can be closed with a ribbon 69 made of an insulating material, such as fiberglass, for attaching the toroidal core 51 in the notch 68 of the spool 67. Protective device 58, an insulating mechanism 75 and so on (shown in figure 5) is also merged in the embodiment, figure 6, but they are not shown for clarity of illustration. Other embodiments of the invention can be configured without magnetic core 51 (not shown), particularly suitable for high frequency applications. Such embodiments of require the location of the conductive wire 52 on the insulating base layer 55, forming an "air core". In addition, other options for implementation may be configured with a conductive wire wound on a bobbin 67 without magnetic core 51 (not shown).

Returning to figure 5, the protective device 58 is preferably constructed from a durable material such as metal. The importance of a properly configured protective devices known from the prior art. For example, U.S. patent No. 6566881 issued Omeragie et al., discloses various protective devices for electromagnetic logging tools, including tools, having a transverse antenna.

However, the design sasanov the device for solenoidal antenna, which forms the magnetic dipoles differs from the construction of protective devices for toroidal antenna, which forms an electric dipole and operates at much lower frequencies. In the prior art it is well known that the effective functioning of the antenna and the design of protective devices depend on the operating frequency and the physical characteristics of the antenna. As mentioned above, the antenna induction and dissemination is made with the possibility of forming a high frequency electric field in the layer, whereas the toroidal antenna is designed for the formation of low-frequency magnetic field in the formation. Hence, conventional protective devices, design for antennas induction and propagation, usually are not suitable for use in a toroidal antennas.

Floor toroidal antennas traditional protective device antenna will cause a short circuit electric current induced toroidal antenna. Instead of the current flow through the well layer and the first current flows through the protective device. The signal of the reservoir will be reduced below the level corresponding to resistivity measurements. Suitable metal protective device for a toroidal antenna includes a circular slit or ring to provide electrical isolation is s between the protective device and the underlying conductive support. Figa shows a protective device 58 of the invention with an insulating gap 75. This gap 75 is composed of an insulating material (for example, glass, ceramics, RANDOLITE™). It can be located anywhere along the protective device, but it is usually easier to perform the insulating slit 75 at one end of the protective device. Specialists in the art can choose the technology of the many known in the prior art for the formation of cracks. The insulating material may submit a separate piece attached in place or mounted on the protective device (for example, othermany elastomer or composite insulating material) as an integrated part. In some embodiments, the implementation of the insulating material may be placed and maintained by a protective device (not shown).

Alternative included in the protective device slots are the use of one-piece, all-metal protective device and its mounting so that it is electrically connected conductive part of the pipe above the toroid with the conductive part of the pipe under the toroid. The way this is shown on Fig. As shown in Fig, the ring 80 of insulating material 80 is included in the pipe 57 so that one end of the protective device 58 was isolated ring from direct contact with the pipe./p>

Figa and 8 are examples of circular slots or rings with insulating material to prevent current flow along the protective device in the longitudinal direction over a toroidal antenna 50. Specialists in the art will appreciate that can be used in other types of circular slots or rings for carrying out the invention. Some embodiments of the invention may include a segmented metal protective devices to ensure the necessary insulation (not shown).

Specialist in the art will note that, when the pipe is located in a borehole filled with drilling mud, on the toroidal antenna (50 in figure 4) will operate the hydrostatic pressure of 20,000 pounds per square inch (1,406 kg/cm2). This pressure will act on the toroidal antenna 50 from the inside and may cause deformation of the antenna, reducing the magnetic permeability of its core 51 and reducing its inductance and efficiency.

To minimize the adverse effects of hydrostatic pressure toroidal antenna according to the invention can be implemented through the inclusion of a mechanism to compensate the pressure. For example, pressure compensation can be obtained by replacing some or all of the insulating materials (e.g., 54 figure 5), which hold that idalou the antenna in the recess (53 figure 5) on a soft elastomer or rubber. Fig.9 illustrates an implementation option toroidal sensor according to the invention, which includes a mechanism for pressure compensation, the construction of which is similar to that shown in Fig.6. One difference is that in the wall 57 of the pipe is installed the port 90. Another difference is that the fill material 54 is a suitable porous and permeable material, such as not impregnated fiberglass fabric. After rubber 59 is formed at the location, the recess 53 is released through the port 90 and over again is filled with oil at atmospheric pressure. Then the port 90 is sealed by the stopper 91. Rubber gasket 59 acts as a bellows to balance the pressure on the toroidal core 51 with the pressure outside the pipe.

Figure 10 shows another variant embodiment of the invention. In this embodiment, in the conductive outer pipe 57 is made of electrically insulating hole or gap 60, and a toroidal antenna 50 is mounted on the conductive inner tube or chassis 26, located on it. The gap 60 forms an open circuit, the current flowing along a pipe, preventing the flow of current through the gap 60. On either side of the gap 60 is formed by a conducting connection 61 between the pipes to provide a current path between the pipes. Figure 10 illustrates a variant embodiment of the invention, in which electrically the United States connection 61 between the pipes are implemented by pulling the outer side of the chassis 26, providing direct contact with the inner surface of the outer tube 57. Can be used with other suitable means for providing a current path between the tubes, as is known from the prior art. For example, between the pipes can be installed wave spring for providing a conductive element (not shown). Electronic module for the antenna 50 can be located in the pipe, as described herein or using other means known from the prior art.

When working toroidal antenna 50 forms a current loop in which the current flows through the chassis 26 and the outer pipe 57, returning to the outer tube through the seam. Thus, embodiments of the invention, comprising an insulating gap 60, typically include more than one gap, one for forming a voltage differential across the pipe and the other to measure the axial current, using the other toroid, functioning as a receiver. Downhole pipe made with insulating breaks or cracks, known in the oil industry, more precisely, in the field of telemetry. U.S. patent No. 6098727 issued by Ringgenberg et al., describes borehole tube with insulating slits. On the outer region of the outer tube can also be placed protective device over the insulating gap 60 to protect the slot from the environment and further isolate the gap from PA is uzitnych currents in the borehole (not shown). This protective device can be formed from any suitable insulating material and is located on the tube, as is known from the prior art.

This design offers several advantages: the antenna is mechanically protected by the pipe; the toroid is not exposed to the direct pressure of the borehole, so that the core material retains a higher magnetic permeability and can be avoided supply and wiring through the outer pipe. There is also the advantage over the direct management of the slit, because you do not want the chassis 26 was isolated from the pipe 57, which may be difficult in some areas, such as around the sealing zones between the chassis and the pipe.

Side antenna located in the pipe, has similar characteristics with the characteristics of the antenna induction. With these different types of sensors are combined in one tube, the tool can be used for resistivity measurements of the same subsurface region, using two different detection technologies. Additionally it is possible to install a built-in protective device sensor to protect the sensor. Note that along with the fact that in some cases it is necessary to have a built-in protective device for individual sensors can be used separate protective condition the device.

11 shows another variant embodiment of the invention. The view is a cross-section of the pipe with the sensor 104 lateral resistivity, formed in the first recess 53 cut in the pipe wall, and the sensor 105 resistivity distribution formed in the second recess 103 cut in the pipe wall. Electrical connectors 27 crossing the jumper 28 in the wall 57 of the pipe, electrically connect the sensor 104, the lateral resistivity sensor 105 distribution with the electronic module 102 is placed in the chamber formed in the chassis 26. O-rings or other sealing means known from the field of technology are used to ensure that the module 102 is not exposed underground fluids.

11 also shows a built-in antenna distribution and protective device 108 toroidal antenna attached circumferentially around the outer wall of the pipe. Built-in protective device 108 may be mainly made of metal and may be bolted, screwed, welded or attached to the outer surface of the pipe, using any suitable means known from the prior art. In some embodiments, the implementation of the built-in protective device 108 may be constructed from other durable Nemeth is lychesky materials, known in the art. However, metal is the preferred material in LWD applications, thanks to its strength and durability. Built-in protective device 108 includes one or more longitudinal slots 24 on the second recess and the sensor 105 distribution. In this embodiment, the insulating slit 75 for a protective device 108 formed in the wall of the pipe near side sensor 104 using any suitable insulating material known in the prior art. Other options for implementation may be implemented with the sensor 104, the lateral resistivity sensor 105 resistivity distribution, located in the same recess (not shown). Such an implementation option can be implemented by pulling the recessed placement of both sensors and using the built-in protective device 108.

As indicated above and shown in Fig, protective device toroidal antenna may be a metal module that provides the Assembly of the protective device/pipe, adapted to prevent current flow along the protective device through the toroid. Figure 11 the design of the insulating slit or ring 75 and the protective device ensures that near to the sensor 104 lateral resistivity prevents current flow along the protective the disorder. Alternative circular slit may be made in the protective device, as shown in figa.

As discussed above, a conventional antenna distribution induce electric fields, which cause the flow of electric currents around the circumference of the support pipe in the well and the reservoir. Therefore, antenna distribution typically use a protective device having a longitudinal slit to prevent the induction of transverse (azimuthal) currents in the protective device instead of the reservoir. Figv shows one example of a protective device 58' with slots 76, filled with an insulating material that can be used to protect the antenna distribution according to the invention.

Such protective devices are additionally described in U.S. patent No. 4968940. It should be noted that, although shown more slots 76, embodiments of the invention are not limited to any particular number or shape of the slits. Other variants of implementation can also be implemented with the segment protective devices (not shown).

Embodiments of the invention, illustrated above, can have any number of sets of sensors spread or side sets of sensors disposed along the pipe axis. Additionally you can select any set location depending on the specific depth of the surveys or the desired vertical resolution.

The methods according to the invention allows to form a toroidal antenna in a recess in the pipe, adapted to underground use. Applications of these methods are not limited to tools for resistivity measurements described here. For example, tools or device that you currently use toroidal antenna located on the sleeve and attached thereto, can benefit from the presence of the antenna, built in recess or cavity. Fig shows another variant embodiment of the invention. Figa shows a variant implementation of the tool for GeoVision resistivity measurements, produced under the trademark GVR™ Corporation Schlumberger Technology (Houston, Texas).

As shown in figa, toroidal antenna 112 is formed in the recess (as described here) on the section of the collar 111 borax. Figv shows a toroidal antenna 112 in more detail. The instrument also includes four large disk electrode 114 to provide azimuthal measurements of resistivity (shown in more detail in figs). The tool additionally includes a sequence of compact disk electrodes 116 located on a removable stabilizer, to provide measurements with high resolution (shown in more detail in fig.12D). Variations the t GVR tool shown in Fig, can be implemented in the "smooth" design, without a stabilizer. In a smooth configuration of the device is considerably smaller in diameter compared to the real GVR tool, because the toroidal antenna are formed in recesses in the wall of the collar in contrast to slip on the drill collar. The smooth tool is easier to maneuver in rejected or drastically deviated wells, and he has the best hydraulics.

Embodiments of the invention relate to a method for placing the sensor side of the resistivity at the site of the elongated tube adapted for underground placement. Fig characterizes a block diagram of a method. Initially, a deepening of the correct depth or cut on the outer wall of the pipe section (step 121). The depth should be sufficient to accommodate the antenna Assembly, but not too deep against excessive weakening of the pipe. First, it may be executed study of stresses, to determine, to achieve whether the required depth without excessive weakening of the pipe.

Next, on the base of the recess is placed (or coated with) an insulating material for forming the insulating base layer between the toroidal antenna and the conductive pipe (step 122). Can be used in a variety of insulating materials known from the level of the techniques I, including fiber, PEEK™, etc. the thickness of the base layer of insulating material should be selected to ensure adequate insulation without excess growth. For example, a layer of 0.04 inch (1.0 mm) glass fiber can be used as a base layer. The mechanism of compensation of the pressure may be built on the base layer to support the toroidal antenna.

The toroidal core is formed in the recess of the base layer, using magnetically-permeable material such as SUPERMALLOY tape™ (step 123). The ribbon of the appropriate size is used depending on the required dimensions of the toroidal antenna. For example, can be used Permalloy having a size of one inch (2.54 cm) in width and 0.02 inch (1.0 cm) in thickness, for winding the core, having a thickness in the range from 0.1 inch (0,254 mm) to 0.15 inches (0,381 mm). In some embodiments, the implementation can use a bobbin made of an insulating material, for guiding the winding process of the tape. Suitable bobbin, for example, can be made of fiberglass and have a notch or cut-out (for example, 1.05 inches (2.7 cm) in width and 0.18 inch (0.5 cm) in depth), which can be aligned with the width of the tape. When using the reel upper side of the bobbin may be covered with insulating material (for example, an insulating tape or what steklotkani), to capture the toroidal core in the groove of the bobbin and to isolate the wound.

Once formed toroidal core covered with a conductive wire is wound or wrapped around the core to complete the antenna (step 124). Suitable conductive wire, for example, is HMN wire with a magnetic coating. In order to facilitate the winding of the wire on the base layer or the reel can be cut grooves to provide channels for the wires.

The remaining space in the recess can then be filled with an insulating material. Suitable insulating material, for example, may be selected from epoxy resin, fiberglass, etc. Insulating filler will keep toroidal antenna in place and also isolates the antenna from the conductive drill collar. The layer of rubber or elastic material may also be formed above the upper part of the insulating material and the pipe to germetizirovany the whole layout of the antenna from the borehole fluids. On the stage 121 may be provided with a recess with bunk or stepped profile depth (see, for example, 5, 6, 8)to facilitate the forming of a layer of rubber on the same level with the surface of the pipe. Suitable elastic materials include fluoroelastomer sold by DuPont Dow Elastomers under the trade mark VITON™ (Wilmington, Delaware). Otnositel the thin layer of rubber or elastic (for example, of 0.05 inch [1.3 mm] in thickness) ensures a reliable seal.

Finally, on deepening can be placed protective device to protect the layout of a toroidal antenna (step 125). As noted above, the protective device is preferably metal. The arrangement of the protective device is adapted to prevent the passage of electric current in the area of the toroidal antenna between the pipe sections above and below the antenna (i.e. in the direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the pipe). Electrical isolation may be provided with a circular slit is filled with an insulating material located in or on the protective device, or the connection between the protective device and the pipe, as described above.

Fig is a flowchart illustrating the method of Assembly of the tool for resistivity measurements using an elongated pipe adapted to underground placement according to the invention. The method begins with placing the sensor side of resistivity in the recess in the pipe, as described herein (step 131). Antenna resistivity induction and distribution also located on the pipe, as described herein (step 132). Antenna side of resistivity can be configured according to those disclosed in the descriptions of the technologies. Antenna induction/RA the proliferation and the electrodes can be configured using known from the prior art methods. In preferred embodiments, the implementation of lateral resistivity are located in close proximity to the sensors distribution, so that they could measure basically the same vertical area of the reservoir at the same time. Other options for implementation may include multiple sets of sensors lateral resistivity and antenna resistivity induction/propagation. The number and placement of these sets is configured to provide a measurement at the desired depth research.

In conclusion, the composition of the protective device is mounted on the pipe for closing and protecting the sensor side of resistivity (step 133). For sensor lateral resistivity can be used personal protective device, or can be used built-in protective device to protect multiple antennas. The arrangement of the protective device must be adapted to prevent flow of electric current in the sensor zone between the pipe sections above and below the sensor (i.e. in the direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the pipe). Electrical insulation is provided, as described here, depending on the antenna type.

Benefits of the choices made is tvline of the present invention, include efficiency, versatility and accuracy. This invention enables the production of a double set of both types of sensors resistivity on one downhole tool located close to each other. Because different types of sensors can be located close to each other, minimizing the introduction of measurement error due to the offset of the depth, different times of logging and the different geometry of the signal path.

Specialist in the art will appreciate that the present invention offers additional advantages, including dual resistivity measurements, which are suitable for different but partially overlapping logging needs. Reliability of measurements of lateral resistivity is also greatly improved, because the sensors are provided on the pipe and adequately protected to ensure higher durability, in particular, when logging operations. Forming a side of the sensor in the recess in the pipe also reduces the diameter of the instrument for measuring the specific resistance and extends the range of sizes of the holes and bend the wells, which can be used downhole tool.

Improved efficiency is achieved due to the longer time of the descent-ascent, at that time what I like sensors work well together less often. In addition, reduction of wear and damage frequencies of the sensors leads to lower cost of maintenance. Because both types of sensors formed in a similar manner and on the same downhole tool, the manufacturing costs are also reduced.

Although the invention has been described for a limited number of realizations, specialists in the art will appreciate that can derive other embodiments of which do not depart from the scope of the invention. For example, the toroid according to the invention can be located on the downhole pipe for use as a damper to prevent current flow in the pipe, to reduce interference signal. The present invention can be used in all areas of the oil industry, including LWD, wired communication line, drilling on the flexible tube, the fastening of the well casing during drilling and control tanks. Also will be appreciated that embodiments of the invention can be implemented with any conventional antennas propagation and induction, including having a tilted axis or multiple coils.

1. The layout of the elongated tube having a longitudinal axis and configured to underground location, comprising:
the recess on the outer wall of the pipe, passing what about the circumferential surface around the longitudinal axis of the pipe,
the insulating base layer located in the recess;
toroidal antenna located above the insulating base layer; and
protective device located above the recess and is arranged to prevent the passage of electric current along the protective device in the direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the pipe near the toroidal antenna
this elongated tube is a logging tool resistivity, containing:
an elongated first conductive tube having a Central hole and an isolated circular hole along its walls, to prevent current flow through the orifice;
an elongated second conductive tube having a sensor lateral resistivity installed on it;
the second pipe is located inside the first pipe so that the sensor side of resistivity was placed near an isolated circular holes on the first pipe; and
moreover, the current path is formed between the first and second pipe on either side of the isolated circular holes, when the second pipe is located inside the first pipe.

2. The layout of the elongated tube according to claim 1, additionally containing an insulating filler, located in the remaining area of the recess.

3. The layout of the elongated tube according to claim 1, the more the tion containing the mechanism of compensation of the pressure, located next to the toroidal antenna.

4. The layout of the elongated tube according to claim 1, in which the toroidal antenna includes a conductive wire located above the insulating base layer.

5. The layout of the elongated tube according to claim 1, in which the toroidal antenna includes a toroidal core formed of one of materials: magnetic permeable material, is wound around the insulating base layer of ferrite material located in the recess.

6. The layout of the elongated tube according to claim 1, in which the protective device includes an insulating mechanism to prevent the passage of electric current along the protective device in the direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the pipe.

7. The layout of the elongated tube according to claim 6, in which the isolating mechanism includes a circular slit is filled with an insulating material.

8. The layout of the elongated tube according to claim 1, additionally containing an electrically insulated material, located between the connection formed between the protective device and the pipe.

9. The layout of the elongated tube according to claim 1, with the specified layout of the elongated pipe is a drill collar.

10. The layout of the elongated tube according to claim 1, in which between the outer surface of the second pipe and the inner surface of the first pipe formed Prov is coming connection on either side of the isolated circular holes, when the second pipe is located inside the first pipe.

11. The layout of the elongated tube of claim 10, in which a conductive connection is formed by direct contact between the pipe or by means of a conducting element located between the pipes.

12. The way of placing the sensor side of resistivity on the plot layout pipe having a longitudinal axis and configured to underground location, comprising stages, in which:
create a cavity in the outer wall of the pipe section;
forming a base layer of insulating material in the recess;
form a toroidal core by winding magnetically permeable material on the base layer;
wound conductive wire around a toroidal core for the formation of a toroidal antenna; and
install a protective device over the recess, while the protective device is arranged to prevent the passage of electric current in the protective device in the direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the pipe near the toroidal antenna, in addition place a bobbin on the base layer before the formation of the toroidal core, and the bobbin has a chute for guiding the winding magnetically permeable material.

13. The method according to item 12, optionally containing this is filling the remaining area of the recesses with an insulating filler.

14. The method according to item 12, which additionally contains an adjustment mechanism to compensate the pressure in the hollow.

15. The method according to item 12, optionally containing placing an insulating material over the toroidal core in the slot reels.

16. The method according to item 13, in which the protective device includes an insulating mechanism to prevent the passage of electric current along the protective device in the direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the pipe near the toroidal antenna.

17. The method according to clause 16, in which the isolating mechanism includes a circular slit is filled with an insulating material in the protective device.

18. The method according to item 12, optionally containing placing an electrically insulating material between the connection formed between the protective device and the pipe.



 

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FIELD: mining.

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12 cl, 12 dwg

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18 cl, 17 dwg

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EFFECT: higher reliability.

6 cl, 14 dwg

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