Washed in collector of wastes adjacent to slope, method for its manufacturing and method of its reclamation

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to the field of hydraulic engineering and may be used in creation and reclamation of washed in collectors of grainy wastes, such as tailing dumps, sludge collectors and ash disposal areas, which adjoin slope of hillside or beam. Collector comprises earth reservoir formed by barrier dams and slope, system of washing-in arranged in the form of distribution pulp line with outlets and water intake structure equipped with water receiver, which takes water from settling pond, and drain water line, which supplies this water into system of wastes hydraulic transport return water supply. Collector is equipped with at least one water intake bucket made on slope in the form of canal, which connects water intake structure to settling pond, and its sides are formed by means of excavation and/or backfill and exceed water level in settling pond. Water receiver of water intake structure is arranged as floating and is equipped with pump and/or siphon, and drain water line is equipped with at least one hinged insert. Length of canal section that changes in process of wastes washing from inlet threshold formed by wastes to water receiver of water intake structure lc meets the following criterion: lc≥(hs-ht)/iunder, where hs - specified depth of water upstream water receiver of water intake structure; ht - depth of water at inlet threshold of canal; iunder - average inclination of surface in underwater washing-in of wastes.

EFFECT: group of inventions increases reliability and economic efficiency of collector due to simplified erection and increased reliability of water intake structure, improved quality of water clarification, simplified reclamation of collector and application of potential water energy in settling pond.

12 cl, 1 ex, 6 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering and can be used to create and reclamation of upstream drives granular wastes such as tailings, tailings ponds and ponds that are adjacent to the slope of a hillside or beams.

Depending on the terrain, on which the construct of upstream storage of wastes, they are classified into the following most common types: beam-gully, kosogorny, plains, flood-plain. In some cases satisfy the drives of mixed type, such as flood-kosogorny [1].

In the drive beam / gully type is used, the volume of the ravine, so the drive of this type is characterized by high efficiency. However, in this drive required to intercept surface runoff, which is usually carried out through upland ditches with spillways. These structures, especially in permafrost conditions, can be expensive and often must be operated even after the full preservation of the drive for an indefinite period, i.e. be operated forever, creating environmental problems for future generations.

In the drive lowland or floodplain of a type not normally required to intercept surface runoff or he is greatly simplified. However, in this drive when filling out his waste is almost always used kolawa the scheme of reclamation, providing of security conditions creating near levees beach zone. This makes it difficult, especially at high altitude drive, running usually located in the center of the settling pond of water intake facilities and their operation, and it is not always possible to ensure the desired width of the beach surface reclamation is the distance between the tailings dams and the edge of the settling pond. All this becomes even more complicated when reclaiming memory of this type, when the drive of the alluvial waste form the body of reclamation with the convex shape of the outer surface, necessary for water flow and increase the capacity of the drive, as provided in source [2].

In the drive Kosogorov or flood-kosogorny type, adjacent to the slope (the slope), the disadvantages of the above types of drives are missing or they are easily overcome. This is because as when filling the drive waste management and remediation, alluvium waste can be conducted from the tailings facility to the slope. This creates a wide beach at levees and settling pond at the slope and consistent, with the rise of water level in the settling pond, running water intake structures, mainly in the form of water wells, on a natural base of the slope.

In [1] known by the n upstream waste storage, adjacent to the slope, including earthen vessel, created tailings dams and slopes, reclamation, made in the form of the distribution pipeline with new releases, and water intake structure in the form of a water well, the water intake which takes water from a formed in the reclamation of waste settling pond and samyuelom waste discharge pipeline without head delivers this water to the circulating water system hydraulic waste.

The disadvantages encountered in obtaining the specified lower technical result when using the known upstream storage of waste, especially with his great height, are as follows:

- the complexity of construction of spillway of the well and ensure its reliability tamavaimauga waste discharge conduit (collector);

- low quality taken from settling pond water in the case of a small area of the settling pond and the small depth of the water before the water intake conduit of the well;

the complexity of technical reclamation drive after filling it up to the project level;

not the suitability of the diversion structure to use the potential energy of the water settling pond and costly damping of this energy when the water discharge in the pressure conduit.

In [1] there is a method of creating us the main drive waste adjacent to the slope, including creating a layer protecting dams and slope of the earthen vessel, system implementation and Deposit it in the form of distribution of the slurry line with new releases and water intake in the form of a spillway well, by the recipient which takes water from a formed in a layer the reclamation of waste settling pond and samyuelom waste discharge pipeline without head delivers this water to the circulating water system hydraulic waste.

The disadvantages encountered in obtaining the specified lower technical result when using the known method of creating an upstream storage of waste, especially with his great height, are as follows:

- it is difficult to build a spillway well and to ensure the reliability of its tamavaimauga waste discharge conduit;

- it is difficult to ensure that specified quality is taken away from a settling pond water in the case of a small area of the settling pond and the small depth of the water before the water intake conduit of the well;

- it is difficult to perform technical reclamation drive after filling it up to the project level;

- not using the potential energy of water at its cost relief in a gravity-flow pipeline.

A known method of reclamation (conservation) full of waste upstream of the drive of hydraulic mine dump), including the formation of over-filled drive from the waste body reclamation with a given convex shape of the outer surface, necessary for water flow and increase the capacity of the drive, and coating the outer surface of the body recultivation layer of soil. At least the lower part of the body of reclamation form tiers, each of which namyvayut under the protection of the enclosing element by dispersed release of the pulp slurry pipeline with the formation of the settling pond and the beach, the set of security conditions width near enclosing element, which limits the height of the layer giving the body reclamation predetermined shape of the outer surface. Excess water from the settling pond through the outlet well equipped zabyvaaem waste outlet conduit, without pressure fed into the water system hydraulic waste. After reclamation longline body parts conservation form its upper part [3].

Known method of remediation can be considered the closest to the claimed method. However, in the present method the characteristic "slope" is registered in the name of the object of the invention and the known method this feature is missing. Additionally, when a layer of the reclamation of the body reclamation applied circular scheme of reclamation, which in the present method is interrupted slope. All this is difficult to compile the formula of the present invention, which below is no distinction between restrictive and distinctive parts.

The disadvantages encountered in obtaining the specified lower technical result when using the known method of reclamation of upstream storage of waste are as follows:

- spillway wells after filling the drive waste management up to the project level do not usually provide the formation of the body wastes, the remediation of a given height, which necessitates the construction of new water wells;

square tiers, therefore, the width of the beach zone, the area of the settling pond and the depth of the water before the water intake spillway well as body shaping conservation are reduced, which reduces the reliability of the drive as a whole and as a clarification of water spillway well from the settling pond;

- after a layer of reclamation body reclaiming slyvania waste settling pond due to insufficient water depth in front of the water intake conduit of the well may be carried out only partially, that neosploit potential capacity of the body reclamation, therefore, and drive in General, complicates the implementation of the technical reclamation and often does not provide the aesthetic appeal of the appearance of the landscape;

-not using the potential energy of water at its cost relief in a gravity-flow pipeline.

The main task, which is aimed claimed upstream waste storage, adjacent to the slope, how it is created and how it is reclamation, is to increase the reliability and economic efficiency of bulk storage.

A single technical result achieved in the implementation of the claimed group of inventions is the following:

- simplify the construction and improve the reliability of the diversion structure, functioning as when filling the upstream drive waste management up to the project level and at the technical stage of reclamation;

- improving the reliability of the overall drive quality and clarification of water intake structure;

- creation of favorable conditions for the fulfillment of technical reclamation drive, increase its capacity and improve the aesthetic value of the landscape;

- almost full use of the potential energy of the water settling pond, due to the elevation of the water level in the pond, i.e. the line of the initial pressure, in the direction of the water in the circulating water system hydraulic waste.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known upstream storage of waste adjacent to the slope, including earthen vessel, created tailings dams and slope, with the system of reclamation, made in the form of the distribution pipeline with new releases, and water intake structure equipped with the receiving water, diverting water from a formed in the reclamation of waste settling pond, and outlet conduit that supplies the water for the circulating water system hydraulic waste, according to the invention the drive is equipped with at least one water bucket, made on the slope in the form of connecting the water intake structure with a settling pond channel, the sides of which are formed by excavation and/or embankment, with the crest of the sides of the channel exceeds the water level in the settling pond, the water intake diversion structure made floating and is equipped with a pump and/or trap and tailrace provided with at least one hinge insert. Simultaneously with this change under the reclamation of waste length of the channel from the generated waste input threshold to the recipient of the diversion structure ltosatisfies the condition

lto≥(hC-hp)/iunder,

where hC- set the depth of the water before the water intake water intake facilities;

hp- water depth on the input threshold of the channel;

iunder- the average slope of the underwater reclamation of waste.

Additionally hinges insert can be made of tires.

It is the supply on which opiela water bucket, performed on the slope specified by the rules, and the implementation of the diversion structure floating and able to submit to the system of circulating water supply water under pressure, substantially provides the technical result achieved by the claimed group of inventions: simplify the construction and improve the reliability of the diversion structure and overall drive; improve the clarification of water intake structure; creation of favorable conditions to carry out the reclamation drive; full use of the potential energy of the water settling pond.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method of creating upstream of the waste storage, adjacent to the slope, including creating a layer protecting dams and slope of the earthen vessel, system implementation and Deposit it in the form of distribution of the slurry line with new releases and water intake by the recipient which take their water from a formed in a layer the reclamation of waste settling pond and downstream conduit delivers this water to the circulating water system hydraulic waste, according to the invention the waste storage supply at least one water bucket, which is performed on the slope in the form of connecting the water intake structure sustainin pond channel, side of which is formed by excavation and/or embankment above the water level in the settling pond, the water intake water intake facilities perform floating and supply pump and/or siphon, tailrace provide at least one hinge insert and the water taken from the canal and into the circulating water system hydraulic waste serves under pressure. When the reclamation of waste settling pond adjacent to the slope, the width of the beach near the tailings dam set of security conditions, and changing with the reclamation of waste the length of the segment of the channel from the generated waste input threshold to the recipient of the diversion structure ltoby extending the lead channel in accordance with condition

lto≥(hC-hp)/iunder,

where hC- set the depth of the water before the water intake water intake facilities;

hp- water depth on the input threshold of the channel;

iunder- the average slope of the underwater reclamation of waste.

Additionally, the extension channel is produced mainly in the direction of the slope sections, each of which usually provides the alluvium at least one level waste, while water intake structure in the reclamation of waste to be moved along the channel in the direction of the slope of the given value.

It is the water intake canal water under pressure into the system about the company water supply of the hydraulic transport of waste through the pump and/or siphon flexible discharge pipeline provides, first of all, the almost complete use of the potential energy of the water settling pond. In this case all of the features of the process of creating upstream drive contributes to the previously specified technical result achieved by the claimed group of inventions.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method of reclamation of upstream storage of waste adjacent to the slope, which consists in forming on filled drive from the waste body reclamation with a given convex shape of the outer surface, necessary for water flow, increasing the capacity of the drive and increase the aesthetic value of the landscape, and in coating the outer surface of the body recultivation layer of soil at least the lower part of the body of reclamation form tiers, each of which namyvayut under the protection of the enclosing element by dispersed release of the pulp from the distribution pipeline with the formation of the settling pond adjacent to the slope, and the beach set from safety conditions the width of the near enclosing element, which limits the height of the layer giving the body reclamation predetermined shape of the outer surface. On the slope of performing at least one water bucket in the form of connecting the water intake structure with settling the pond channel reclamation, side of which is formed by excavation and/or embankment above the water level in the settling pond, water intake structure is implemented with floating ice machine with pump and/or trap and outlet conduit provided with at least one hinge insert and the water for this discharge pipeline in the circulating water system hydraulic waste serves under pressure. Changing the reclamation of waste long stretch of the canal, reclamation from waste generated input threshold to the recipient of the diversion structure ltoby extending the channel remediation of lead in accordance with condition

lto≥(hC-hp)/iunder,

where hC- set the depth of the water before the water intake water intake facilities;

hp- water depth on the input threshold of the channel;

iunder- the average slope of the slope of the underwater reclamation of waste.

In addition:

- after the formation of the longline body parts reclamation form the upper part of the body reclamation by slyvania waste settling pond with the displacement of water in the channel reclamation produced by distributed by release of the pulp from the distribution of the slurry line from the side of the slope;

channel reclamation is performed by extending predominantly in the direction of the slope of the channel, which provided a connection vadose the priori structures with a settling pond at the creation of waste storage;

body reclamation define the shape of the outer surface, which enhances the aesthetic value of the landscape;

when shaping the upper body reclamation intensity of production of pulp from the distribution pipeline limit, use the pulp with a predominance of sand fractions;

- extending channel reclamation produce plots, with each plot channel reclamation provides alluvium, at least one tier of the body wastes reclamation and water intake structure in the reclamation of waste to be moved along the channel reclamation in the direction of the slope of the given value.

It alluvium waste in the body of reclamation with the adjacent settling pond to the slope, running on the slope of the water bucket from the well conduit specified by the rules and peculiarities of their operation during the layer formation of the body of reclamation and zalivanii settling pond, and the water intake canal water reclamation under pressure in the circulating water system, ensure the achievement of the previously mentioned technical result.

Conducted by the applicant's analysis of the level of technology has allowed to establish that the analogs are characterized by the sets of characteristics is identical for all features of the proposed upstream of the waste storage adjacent to the IC the ONU, how it was created and how its conservation, no. Therefore, each of the claimed invention meets the condition of patentability "novelty".

Search results known solutions in this and related areas of technology in order to identify characteristics that match the distinctive features of prototypes signs of each of the claimed invention, have shown that they do not follow explicitly from the prior art. Of certain of applicant's prior art there have been no known impact provided the essential features of each of the claimed inventions transformations on the achievement of the technical result. Therefore, each of the claimed invention meets the condition of patentability "inventive step".

In the present application for patent complied with the requirement of unity of invention, since the drive is, how it is created and how its conservation are intended for upstream storage of industrial waste. The claimed invention solve the same task of improving the reliability and economic efficiency of upstream storage by simplifying the construction and improve the reliability of the diversion structure and overall drive, improve clarification of water intake structure, enabling the occupational groups to perform reclamation drive and full use of the potential energy of the water settling pond. When this water intake structure with a floating water intake can almost continuously without substantial conversion to function as generated upstream of the drive and its technical reclamation, regardless of the height of the drive, and with constant and full use of the potential energy of the water settling pond.

The invention illustrated by the drawings, figure 1-6, on which is shown:

- figure 1 is full of waste drive after performing the 12th, and final, layer body reclamation plan;

- figure 2 - section a-a in figure 1, the degree of reduction of the horizontal dimensions of about 10 times higher than the degree of reduction of vertical dimensions;

- figure 3 - cross-section B-B in Fig 1;

- 4 - section C-C in figure 1;

- figure 5 - section d-D figure 4;

- figure 6 - the node I in Fig 5, the hinge of the tires.

Earthen storage capacity upstream of the drive of the flood Kosogorov type created from three sides enclosing dam 1, and on the fourth side slope 2 and through a system of works made in the form of a distribution pipeline 3 editions 4, sequentially four tiers 5 filled to the design elevation of 6 fine-grained and/or dusty wastes, such as ashes of thermal power stations. These wastes in the beach area 7 characterized by the Phi coefficient is Tracey k f<1 m/day and an average slope of slope of surface reclamation, i.e. beach 8, iPL<0,005 share units, while the beach area 7, especially in the ash zone, has a relatively weak bearing capacity. Podkova area 9 is composed of silty-clay fractions, the average slope of the underwater slope alluvium which iunder=0,05.

The drive is equipped with two water buckets, each of which is arranged on a slope of 2 in the form respectively of channel 10 or 11 connecting the water intake structure with a settling pond 12 formed in the reclamation of waste and adjacent to the slope 2. The intake structure is located in each channel 10 and 11 and in the form of a floating pumping station 13, provided with a water intake 14, a pump 15 and a flexible outlet conduit 16. Pump station 13 provides the abstraction of water from the channel 10 or 11, i.e. from the settling pond 12 and the outlet conduit 16 under pressure delivers this water to the system 17 recycled water supply hydraulic waste. Flexibility the outlet conduit 16 provides a hinged insert 18, the hinges 19 which may be a standard ball or performed, for example, of the tires 20 [4].

Side of each channel 10 and 11 are formed by the recess 21 and bulk 22 (polivaemoy-polnasiu), while the crest of the sides of the channel exceeds the water level in the settling pond 12, i.e. in the analog. The water level in the channels 10 and 11 are not significantly different from the level of the water in the settling pond 12, therefore, the requirement of water resistance to the sides of the channels are not present. Changing the reclamation of waste length of the channel 10 and 11 of generated waste input threshold 23 to the recipient 14 pumping station 13 ltosatisfies the condition

lto≥(hC-hp)/iunder,

where hC- set the depth of the water before the water intake pumping station;

hp- water depth on the input threshold of the channel;

iunder- the average slope of the underwater reclamation of waste.

The features of the claimed upstream of the drive is primarily due to the features of his water buckets made on the slope, and are as follows:

- simplified construction and improved reliability of the diversion structure, functioning as when filling the upstream drive waste management up to the project level and at the technical stage of reclamation;

- formation in the channel bottom of the waste is carried out with a gradient slope of the underwater reclamation of waste of iunder≈0,05 in the direction from the input threshold of the spillway to the well that even when the channel length, for example 50 m provides the depth of the water before the water intake water intake of more than 2.5 m;

the threshold provides post is the warming of water in the channel with the upper most clarified layer;

- you no longer need to maintain in settling pond water depth exceeding 1.0-1.5 m, which accelerates the deposition of waste on the bottom of the settling pond and increases the width of the beach, thereby increasing the reliability of the drive;

- created favorable conditions for the almost complete use of the potential energy of the water settling pond;

- created favorable conditions for the implementation of technical reclamation of the drive.

Additionally, the water depth htobefore receiving water 14 in the alluvium of the lower layer 5 of the drive is determined mainly by the depth of the water at the input threshold 23 of the channel, and when the reclamation of subsequent layers 5 - mainly the slope of the bottom 24 of the channel, i.e. the slope of the underwater slope alluvium of iundersilty-clay fractions of waste, and a channel length of 1to.

The way to create the previously described upstream of the waste storage, adjacent to the slope, is produced by a layer enclosing create dams 1 and slope 2 earthen vessel, perform the reclamation system in the form of distribution of the slurry line 3 editions 4 and fill this earthen vessel layer of the ash and slag reclamation thermal power station to the design elevation of the filling 6. Alluvium waste in tier 5 is carried out with the formation of the beach zone 7, limited from above by the beach 8 set of conditions without the provisions of the width of the near tailings dam 1, and prodovol zone 9 with decanting pond 12 above it has slope 2.

Excess water from the settling pond 12 under pressure is fed to the circulating water system 17. To this end, the drive supply two water buckets, each of which is carried out on a slope of 2 in the form respectively of channel 10 or 11 connecting the water intake structure with a settling pond 12 formed in the reclamation of waste and adjacent to the slope 2. Water intake structure is placed in each channel 10 and 11 and deliver it in the form of a floating pumping station 13 with the recipient 14, a pump 15 and a flexible outlet conduit 16. Through this pumping station 13 withdraws water from the channel 10 or 11, i.e. from the settling pond 12, and under the pressure of serving this water system 17 recycled water supply hydraulic waste, and without unproductive and wasteful discharge of water, reducing energy provisions of the water. Flexibility the outlet conduit 16 provide a hinge inserts 18, hinges 19 which may be a standard ball or performed, for example, of the tires 20 [4].

Side of each channel 10 and 11 form a recess 21 and bulk 22 (polivaemoy-polnasiu), while the crest of the sides of the channel constant above the water level in the settling pond 12, i.e. in the channel. Changing the reclamation of waste the length of the section of the channel 10 and 11 from FD is meremove waste input threshold 23 to the recipient 14 pumping station 13 l toby extending the channel mainly in the direction of the slope 2 is brought into line with the condition

lto≥(hC-hp)/iunder,

where hC- set the depth of the water before the water intake pumping station;

hp- water depth on the input threshold of the channel;

iunder- the average slope of the underwater reclamation of waste.

Channels 10 and 11 extend sites limited by the length of the side slope of 2 ends 25 and providing each time the navigation channel diversion structure on a given amount necessary to Deposit at least one layer 5 of the waste. This produces a Repack of the discharge conduit 16 with partial replacement and reinstallation of hinge inserts 18 and, if necessary, install additional inserts 18.

Water intake structure may be made in the form of floating ice machine, equipped with a flexible siphon tube, i.e. siphon [4] - this option in the drawings are not depicted. While ascending part of the siphon pipe when crossing the embankment 22 (command point) may 6-7 m above the level of water in the channels 10 and 11, and the descending part of the siphon tube may have a length up to 1000 m and are laid along the slope to the pump station recycled water. With this intake structure is most fully use the potential energy in the s settling pond 12.

Example. Consumption is taken away from a settling pond water Q=0.5 m3/time-weighted average height of water in the replacement siphon spillway well H=10 m, the efficiency of the pump, compensating the pressure loss in the discharge of water into the well, η=0,8. In this case, the power loss in the well will be expressed by a value of N=9,81Q·H/η=9,81·0,5·10/0,8=61,3 kW and an annual energy saving due to the siphon will be e=61,3 kW·8784 h≈538 thousand kWh

Method of reclamation created and the previously described drive waste adjacent to the slope, is produced by forming on filled drive from the waste body reclamation 26 with a given convex shape of the outer surface 27 and then coating the outer surface of the body reclamation soil layer 28. The bulge body conservation 26 necessary to ensure water runoff, increasing the capacity of the drive and increase the aesthetic value of the landscape. The lower and middle part of the body reclamation 26 form tiers 29 - a total of 12 layers. Each of the tiers 29 namyvayut under the protection of the enclosing element 30 and slope 2 by dispersed release of the pulp from the distribution of the pulp line 3 through 4 editions. Alluvium layers 29 are produced with the formation of the settling pond 12, adjacent to the slope 2, and the beach 8 set of security conditions width near Ogre is giving element 30.

The height of the layer 29 hIusually no more than two meters and enclosing element 30 made of a career of soil material and/or waste on the perimeter of the layer 29 with adjacent its end sections to the slope 2. Herewith enclosing element 29, after cutting its temporary head 31 provides within its height giving the body reclamation 26 given shape of the outer surface 27, for example, with a slope of reclamation ip=0,05, i.e. with a slope of 1:20. This surface 27 of each of the enclosing element 29 is covered with a soil layer 28, using clay material temporary cap 31.

For the production of reclamation layers 29 on the slope 2 perform two water bucket reclamation, each in the form of channel remediation respectively 32 and 33. Each channel connects the intake structure with a settling pond 12 and executed by extending in the direction of the slope 2 channel 10 or 11, respectively, to connect the water intake structure with a settling pond 12 in the creation of waste storage. Side channels reclamation 32 and 33 is formed as channels 10 and 11 when creating a storage, the notch 21 and bulk 22 and support them above the water level in the settling pond 12. Water intake structure is implemented with floating recipient 14, is supplied by a pump 15 and/or trap (siphon on the drawings not shown) and outlet what adovada 16, equipped with swivel inserts 18, and the water for this discharge to the conduit 16 into the system 17 recycled water supply hydraulic waste serves under pressure. Changing the reclamation of waste long stretch of the canal, reclamation 32 or 33 of waste generated input threshold 23 to the recipient 14 water intake lkby extending the channel reclamation 32 or 33 mainly in the direction of the slope 2 is brought into line with the condition

lto≥(hC-hp)/iunder,

where hC- set the depth of the water before the water intake water intake facilities;

hp- water depth on the input threshold of the channel reclamation;

iunder- the average slope of the slope of the underwater reclamation of waste.

Channels reclamation 32 and 33 extend sites limited by the length of the side slope of 2 ends 25 and providing each time the navigation channel reclamation floating intake structure by the specified amount required to Deposit at least one layer 29 waste.

After completion of a layer forming the lower and middle part of the body reclamation 26 initiate the formation of the upper part 34 of the body reclamation 26 by slyvania waste settling pond 12 by displacement of water in the channel reclamation 32 or 33, produced by distributed by release of the pulp is of lipoprofile 3 side slope of 2. The body surface reclamation 26 give the slope from slope 2 in the direction of the enclosing element 30, equal to the average slope of the slope surface reclamation ioni.e. the beach 8. The upper part 34 of the body reclamation 26 and the elements of its formation, namely the pipeline 35, the end of the beach 36 with a slope of ion>0.005 and a residual part 37 settling pond 12 figures 1 and 2 show a dotted line.

When forming the upper part of the body remediation 26, the intensity of production of pulp from the distribution pipeline 3 side slope limit, use the pulp with a predominance of sand fractions. All this allows to increase the slope of the slope surface reclamation ionto a predetermined value, for example ion=0,01, and thus, along with the slope reclamation of ip=0,05 to give the drive an external attractiveness, and thus increase the aesthetic value of the landscape.

After forming the upper part 34 of the body reclamation 26 perform reclamation work using drainage ditches 38, located at the tailings dam 1 over a drainage trench 39, and taking into account the topography indicated by contour lines 40.

The planned position as channels 10 and 11 and channel remediation 32 and 33 is determined by the steepness of the slope of 2 and a length of duct length lto. The required width of these channels on the bottom 24 on wboy the period of the alignment and its remediation is determined by project conditions invalid value siltation, and if necessary, provides for periodic removal of silt from canals.

In addition to the technical result and benefits of the proposed facilities should also be noted additional advantages:

- high degree of maintainability of the diversion structure and ease of decommissioning;

- the lack of base drive conduits (collectors), the desired reliability is difficult to achieve, especially in the case of waste that can harden and form cracks deformation.

Information show that in the exercise of the claimed group of inventions the following conditions are true:

- means embodying the invention in their implementation, are intended for use in industry, namely: when creating a tailings pond, tailings and dumps when storing them in the waste and their conservation;

for a claimed invention in the form as they are described in the independent claims, confirmed the possibility of their implementation using the described or other known prior to the filing date tools and methods;

- means embodying the invention in their implementation, is able to obtain the technical result.

Therefore, the claimed invention with testout condition of patentability "industrial applicability".

In the present invention can be made of various modifications and changes without departing from the scope of the invention. For example, the extension of the channel, i.e. the restoration of its length, can be carried out partially from the slope in the direction of drive through the construction of embankments on the surface of the slope or waste of beach - figure 4 this mound is depicted by the dotted line. This may be justified, for example, when creating a tailings pond, when there are final soils from excavations mining object. When this floating water intake structure may for a long time to move only in height, without changing its planned position.

Sources used

1. Niedrige VP and other Hydraulic structures. The guide designer. M, stroiizdat, 1983, s-516.

2. USSR author's certificate No. 1052614. The method of wet tailings disposal payment. / Saratov IE, Remizov B. I., Bondarenko A.I. and others, IPC EV 7/06, 1981.

3. RF application No. 2007141429. Method of conservation section of hydraulic mine dump granular industrial waste. / Weikum VA, Rudnev V.M., Agin VP, IPC EV 7/00. Filed by the limited liability Company Russian engineering company" 07.11.2007. Publ. 20.05.2009.

4. Bogatikov E, Maul VK Floating water intake and siphon conduit in harsh climates. // Water supply and sanitary technique. 1986. No. 2.

Convoy is achene

1 - tailings dam

2 - slope

3 - distribution pipeline

4 - release

5 - tier (storage)

6 - design mark the drive is full

7 - beach area

8 - beach

9 - Podkova area

10 and 11 - channel

12 - settling pond

13 - pump station (floating)

14 - recipient

15 - pump

16 - tailrace

17 - water recycling system

18 - hinged box

19 - hinge

20 - tires

21 - excavation (channel)

22 - barrow (channel)

23 - input threshold (channel)

24 - the bottom (channel)

25 - end of the channel

26 - the body of reclamation

27 - the outer surface of the body of reclamation)

28 - soil

29 - tier (body reclamation)

30 - fencing

31 - temporary cap (enclosing element)

32 and 33 channels reclamation

34 - upper body reclamation

35 - slurry line with slope

36 - the beach (from the slope)

37 is a residual part (settling pond)

38 - drainage ditch

39 - drainage trench

40 - horizontal slope

1. Upstream waste storage, adjacent to the slope, including earthen vessel, created tailings dams and slopes, reclamation, made in the form of the distribution pipeline with new releases, and water intake structure equipped with a water intake, taking in the DN of the formed in the reclamation of waste settling pond, and outlet conduit that supplies the water for the circulating water system hydraulic waste, characterized in that it has at least one water bucket, made on the slope in the form of connecting the water intake structure with a settling pond channel, the sides of which are formed by excavation and/or embankment, with the crest of the sides of the channel exceeds the water level in the settling pond, the water intake diversion structure made floating and is equipped with a pump and/or trap and tailrace provided with at least one hinge inserting, and changing the reclamation of waste length of the channel from the generated waste the input threshold to the recipient of the diversion structure ltosatisfies the condition:
lto≥(hC-hp)/iunder,
where hC- set the depth of the water before the water intake water intake facilities;
hp- water depth on the input threshold of the channel;
iunder- the average slope of the underwater reclamation of waste.

2. Waste storage according to claim 1, characterized in that the hinge inserts are made of tires.

3. The way to create upstream of the waste storage, adjacent to the slope, including creating a layer protecting dams and slope of the earthen vessel, system implementation and Deposit it in the form of distribution pulpovoda releases and diversion structure, by the recipient which take their water from a formed in a layer the reclamation of waste settling pond and downstream conduit delivers this water to the circulating water system hydraulic waste, wherein the waste storage supply at least one water bucket, which is performed on the slope in the form of connecting the water intake structure with a settling pond channel, the sides of which is formed by excavation and/or embankment above the water level in the settling pond, the water intake water intake facilities perform floating and supply pump and/or siphon, tailrace provide at least one hinge insert and the water take from the channel and into the circulating water system hydraulic waste serves under pressure, and settling pond adjacent to the slope, the width of the beach near the tailings dam set of security conditions, and changing with the reclamation of waste the length of the segment of the channel from the generated waste input threshold to the recipient of the diversion structure ltoby extending the lead channel in accordance with the condition:
lto≥(hC-hp)/iunder,
where hC- set the depth of the water before the water intake water intake facilities;
hp- water depth on the input threshold of the channel;
iunder- the average slope over the spine of underwater reclamation of waste.

4. The creation method according to claim 3, characterized in that the extension channel is produced mainly in the direction of the slope of land and water intake structure in the reclamation of waste to be moved along the channel in the direction of the slope of the given value.

5. The creation method according to claim 4, characterized in that each segment of the channel alluvium provides at least one level waste.

6. Method of reclamation of upstream storage of waste adjacent to the slope, which consists in forming on filled drive from the waste body reclamation with a given convex shape of the outer surface, necessary for water flow, increasing the capacity of the drive and increase the aesthetic value of the landscape, and in coating the outer surface of the body recultivation layer of soil, while at least the lower part of the body of reclamation form tiers, each of which namyvayut under the protection of the enclosing element by dispersed release of the pulp from the distribution pipeline with the formation of the settling pond adjacent to the slope, and the beach, the set of security conditions width near enclosing element providing within the height of the layer giving the body reclamation predetermined shape of the outer surface, and the slope of performing at least one water bucket in the form of connecting vadose the priori structure with a settling pond channel reclamation, side of which is formed by excavation and/or embankment above the water level in the settling pond, water intake structure is implemented with floating ice machine with pump and/or trap and outlet conduit provided with at least one hinge insert and the water for this discharge pipeline in the circulating water system hydraulic waste serves under pressure, thus changing the reclamation of waste long stretch of the canal, reclamation from waste generated input threshold to the recipient of the diversion structure ltoby extending the channel remediation of lead in accordance with the condition:
lto≥(hC-hp)/iunder,
where hC- set the depth of the water before the water intake water intake facilities;
hp- water depth on the input threshold of the channel reclamation;
iunder- the average slope of the slope of the underwater reclamation of waste.

7. The method of remediation according to claim 6, characterized in that after the formation of the longline body parts reclamation form the upper part of the body reclamation by slyvania waste settling pond with the displacement of water in the channel reclamation produced by distributed by release of the pulp from the distribution of the slurry line from the side of the slope.

8. The method of remediation according to claim 6, characterized in that the channel reclamation perform is by extending predominantly in the direction of the slope of the channel, which connect the water intake structures with a settling pond at the creation of waste storage.

9. Remediation solutions for p and 7, characterized in that the body of reclamation define the shape of the outer surface, which enhances the aesthetic value of the landscape.

10. The method of remediation according to claim 7, characterized in that when forming the upper part of the body reclamation intensity of production of pulp from the distribution pipeline limit, use the pulp with a predominance of sand fractions.

11. The method of remediation according to claim 8, characterized in that the extension channel reclamation produce of land and water intake structure in the reclamation of waste to be moved along the channel reclamation in the direction of the slope of the given value.

12. The method of remediation according to claim 11, characterized in that each segment of the channel reclamation provides alluvium, at least one tier of the body wastes reclamation.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and may be used in reclamation of sludge ponds. Method includes formation of reclamation body over compartment from wastes in tiers, and its outer surface is faced as convex with specified height, and this surface is coated with soil layer. Each tier is arranged by inwash of tier body to form settling pond and beach zone, realised under protection of barrier element erected along perimetre of tier with earth-moving equipment and providing for giving the reclamation body specified shape of external surface within the height of tier body. Barrier element in cross section is erected serially in parts. At first upstream fill is erected from soil material, then beach zone wastes are used to erect downstream fill, afterwards head wall is arranged from soil material suitable for further coating of external surface of reclamation body. Head wall is arranged over upstream fill and partially over downstream fill. It consists of temporary (cut) part and permanent, which forms a layer of soil with variable thickness over upstream fill and partially over downstream fill. Downstream fill is erected by means of excavator, which is equipped with dragline, moves in upstream fill, processes wastes of beach zone and puts them down into downstream fill. External surface is shaped as specified, afterwards it is coated with a layer of soil material taken from temporary part of head wall in barrier element of previous tier. Area of cross section in temporary part of head wall Wg in erected barrier element satisfies the following condition: wB<bxeS> where b - width of outer surface of downstream fill in barrier element subject to coating intended to erect the tier following in height by inwash; eS - thickness of soil layer. If a drain trench is arranged along compartment perimetre on upstream side from its barrier dam, its depth provides for lowering surface of soil water in body and foundation of barrier element in lower tiers of recultivation body below foot of layer of their seasonal freezing.

EFFECT: reduced costs and environmental expenses, increased reliability and wider field of application.

5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to open mining developments during terrace recultivation. Method of a terrace formation in the for of an artesian reservoir involving dumping inside the terrace first a layer of water-resistant rock, then - a layer of water-permeable rock with another layer of water-resistant rock on the top; the above layers are shaped in the form of lenses with outlets to the day surface wherethrough water is charged into the water-permeable layer.

EFFECT: creation of a terrace represented by an artesian reservoir.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: surface of dumps is formed by technological or loose combs with level depressions between them, closed on both sides with technological passages, without earthing of dump surface by fertile layer of soil.

EFFECT: accelerated process of pit-run fines formation and development of optimal agrotechnical conditions by heat and moisture parametres for biological recultivation.

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and processing industries and may be used to recover disturbed lands in agriculture, construction and power engineering industry. Method consists in the fact that after open pit has been exhausted, its space is filled in layers first with construction waste, and then filled with overburden to the elevation of pit bottom for foundation of future structure, at the same time layer of overburden is leveled with a layer of sand having medium size with further compaction. Then future structure foundation axes are laid, as well as future solid reinforced concrete elements according to accepted design structural scheme relative to axes of foundations. Along each of laid longitudinal axes of future solid reinforced concrete elements, at the pit bottom panel forms are erected, evenly filled with concrete mix of grade not less than B 15 by quarter of panel form height, laid concrete mix is compacted by rodding, then reinforced frames are installed onto freshly laid concrete mix, and panel forms are fully filled with concrete mix. After concrete mix poured into panel forms gains strength, panel forms are removed, and space between produced longitudinal solid reinforced concrete elements is filled with crushed slag. Afterwards soil foundation is filled, which includes two layers: intermediate layer of dry mix of soil and crushed slag, and above a layer of crushed stone from solid rocks of medium size to the elevation of foundation level of constructed structure, besides soil foundation thickness equals height of cross section of longitudinal solid reinforced concrete elements, and thickness of intermediate later from mix of soil and slag stone makes one third of foundation level thickness, besides, the last level is flattened and compacted, and then foundation is erected.

EFFECT: reduction of labour expenses and cost of recovery works.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to hydrotechnical construction and may be used in tier stocking of grain wastes into ash dumps, tail pits and sludge collectors. Method includes creation of reservoir of the first tier of sludge pond by erection of primary dam, inwash of wastes into reservoir of the first tier with arrangement of beach zone upstream primary dam, and a settling pond is developed at the distance, creation of reservoirs of upper tiers in sludge pond by erection of previous tier of raised dam each time on the beach from wastes developed in beach zone pit, and inwash of wastes into tier reservoir every time with arrangement of beach zone and preservation of settling pond. Development of wastes in pit is carried out by dragline excavator, which moves at a safe distance from pit on road made of filtering material under upstream prism of raised dam intended for erection, and lays wastes into body of this raised dam. On the rod dragline excavator lays wastes according to "after itself" pattern and with provision for outlet of water from wastes of raised dam body along filtering material of road into pit. After dehydration and compaction of laid wastes, raised dam is shaped accordingly.

EFFECT: reduction of costs and simplification of works.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to hydrotechnical construction, more precisely to stocking of granular waste into section of sludge pond and into body of conservation. Method includes tiered inwash of waste to a design level with development of pond and beach zone into section, capacity of each tier of which is created with levees. In upper part of section, on tier of beach, drainage is arranged, which is installed at the distance from levee of tier and along it and is equipped with facility for water removal from it. Drainage in plan is arranged under foot of open pit selected for development in process of tier guarding element arrangement, intended for creation over section of conservation body filled with wastes. Then inwash of the first tier of conservation body is carried out, and external side surface of tier guarding element is matched with external surface of this tier within its limits, which is coated with a layer of recultivation.

EFFECT: reduced costs and improved reliability.

6 cl, 2 ex, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining and processing industry and may be used to restore disturbed lands in construction and power industries. Method consists in the fact that after pit exhaustion, space of barrow pit is partially filled in layers: first with debris, and then filled with overburdens till elevation of foundation pit bottom for foundation of future structure. Squeezing plant is mounted onto even and compacted layer of overburdens, which is used to reinforce boards along perimetre of pit intended for construction, at the depth of at least 1.8 metre by means of horizontal squeezing of reinforcement elements with formation of end sections beyond the borders of pit walls. Then along perimetre of pit bottom, under each of protruding end sections of reinforcement elements, drilled piles are arranged with reinforcing frame and high foundation grill intended for installation of column that connects drilled pile with end sections of reinforcement elements, besides reinforcement elements are laid on calculated distance from each other, afterwards mass of soil is extracted in pit walls between reinforcing elements and initially installed drilled piles, after extraction of calculated amount of soil and reinforcement of walls in produced space, further drilled piles are installed with columns and fixed, and further amount of soil is extracted, cycle is repeated until calculated volume of premise is available in pit walls, after final equipping of underground premise, foundation is erected on manmade base, and ground structure is constructed.

EFFECT: reduction of labour expenses and cost of restoration works.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining, mostly to open mining works, and may find application in reclamation of shallow borrow cuts after performance of open mining works. Method includes separate excavation, movement and stacking of soil layer and overburdens into separate band dumps, excavation of mine pit, filling of excavated space with construction wastes, composition of which is close to natural materials, layerwise, with compaction of each layer of construction wastes by compactor machines and mechanisms. At the same time soil layer and overburdens are transported into temporary band dumps located near mine pit borders on its inoperable sides. After mine pit excavation, construction wastes are laid at its bottom, starting from its centre. Then overburdens are dumped onto the last compacted layer of construction wastes, with preservation of hill surface of dump. After complete filling of excavated space of mine pit field, upper part of overburden dump combs are cut, and soil layer is placed into depressions between them, besides surfaces of cut combs are treated with binding material, and tree saplings are manually planted.

EFFECT: reduced distance of soil layer and overburdens transportation, synchronisation of processes on performance of getting and reclamation works, reduced area of lands alienation for development.

FIELD: soil cultivation.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in creating excessive damping of surface of milled field. Also complete near-bottom peat layer is preliminary removed; further there are successively performed topographic surveying, mapping of elevations, geographic mapping followed with geological mapping and hydro-geological boring; after that part of layer of mineral sediments is cut off; its thickness is calculated by mathematic formula.

EFFECT: renewal of peat bog generation process on worked out fields of peat production for a shorter period of time.

1 tbl, 10 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining industry, to open developments of coal deposits, particularly to re-cultivation of anthropogenic territories, mainly in arid step zones of Middle Siberia. The procedure consists in total or selective piling of overburden, in assembling screening layers, in rough and finish reclamation leveling of dump surface, in flattening or terracing of side slopes, in covering anthropogenic surface with fertile soil, in pre-sowing treatment, and in performing anti-erosive arrangements on the territory. Also forming dump to total height is performed by simultaneous piling at the southern part of the coal pit starting from the west and finishing at the east part making 20-100 metres terraces with gulley from the side of the pit as its continuation, but 3-6 times narrower and with incline to the body of dump from the opposite side of dump. Further, a zero terrace is arranged on the day surface of the border of the pit, whereon humus layer of soil cut from the planned territory is stacked; piled soil is simultaneously watered with solutions of clayish and pyrogenic conglomerates and other overburden rock in drainage and waste water of concentration plants; also a root-inhabited layer of dumps and terraces is formed with water solution of cut soil, with biologically active overburden, bio-dynamic preparations and other components.

EFFECT: cost reduced by 5-7 times and time for re-cultivation of anthropogenic territories reduced at 10-15 years.

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and may be used in reclamation of sludge ponds. Method includes formation of reclamation body over compartment from wastes in tiers, and its outer surface is faced as convex with specified height, and this surface is coated with soil layer. Each tier is arranged by inwash of tier body to form settling pond and beach zone, realised under protection of barrier element erected along perimetre of tier with earth-moving equipment and providing for giving the reclamation body specified shape of external surface within the height of tier body. Barrier element in cross section is erected serially in parts. At first upstream fill is erected from soil material, then beach zone wastes are used to erect downstream fill, afterwards head wall is arranged from soil material suitable for further coating of external surface of reclamation body. Head wall is arranged over upstream fill and partially over downstream fill. It consists of temporary (cut) part and permanent, which forms a layer of soil with variable thickness over upstream fill and partially over downstream fill. Downstream fill is erected by means of excavator, which is equipped with dragline, moves in upstream fill, processes wastes of beach zone and puts them down into downstream fill. External surface is shaped as specified, afterwards it is coated with a layer of soil material taken from temporary part of head wall in barrier element of previous tier. Area of cross section in temporary part of head wall Wg in erected barrier element satisfies the following condition: wB<bxeS> where b - width of outer surface of downstream fill in barrier element subject to coating intended to erect the tier following in height by inwash; eS - thickness of soil layer. If a drain trench is arranged along compartment perimetre on upstream side from its barrier dam, its depth provides for lowering surface of soil water in body and foundation of barrier element in lower tiers of recultivation body below foot of layer of their seasonal freezing.

EFFECT: reduced costs and environmental expenses, increased reliability and wider field of application.

5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method includes compaction of previous tier beach zone wastes under build-up dam intended for erection on the beach of previous tier, and arrangement of road from filtering material under upstream shell of this build-up dam. Development of wastes in beach zone pit of previous tier is carried out with a single-bucket excavator that moves along the road at a safe distance from pit. Worked wastes are laid in layers with compaction into body of build-up dam. Excavator lays wastes on the road according to downstream pattern. Compaction of beach silting wastes under build-up dam and wastes of its body is carried out by means of dynamic action. Compaction of wastes is carried out mostly by ramming shocks along surface of wastes, and development of wastes in pit is carried out with single-bucket excavator equipped mostly with dragline.

EFFECT: reduction of costs.

3 cl, 3 dwg, ex

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: compartment comprises a fencing structure made of soil material, antifiltration base device made of rolled material and coated with a protective layer of soil material, and antifiltration device of fencing structure made of rolled material in the form of screen or diaphragm. Protective layer of antifiltration base device is made of draining soil and adjoins internal drain provided at antifiltration base device and adjoining antifiltration device of fencing structure. At nonpressure side there is a lateral drainage adjoining antifiltration device of fencing structure, which is arranged in the base of fencing structure and equipped with a drain device, and underlying antifiltration device made of rolled material and coupled with antifiltration base device. Antifiltration device of fencing structure in the area of simultaneous adjacency of internal and lateral drain to it at various sides as an antifilter is arranged as destroyable by load at a specified stage of compartment filling with wastes, which provides for engagement of hydraulic communication of internal drain to drain device of lateral drainage.

EFFECT: improved intensity and complete dehydration of wastes prior to compartment conservation.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: compartment of sludge pond comprises a fencing structure made of soil material, antifiltration device made of polymer rolled material arranged on compartment base and upper slope of fencing structure and coated with filtering protective layer, wasteway well with a drain header, system of wastes hydraulic transport, and drainage system, tubular drains of which in plan are arranged within the borders of beach area in filtering protective layer of antifiltration device, and drain sections are arranged along compartment perimetre. Distribution pulp line of hydraulic transport system is arranged on fencing structure and is equipped with groups of outlets, and drain sections are equipped with drain headers, every of which beyond compartment borders is equipped with a locking device and is communicated by waterline to system of hydraulic transport. In process of compartment formation each group of outlets in distribution pulp line is arranged in plan above single drain section, and compartment is equipped with the facility that provides for detection of ground water surface elevation in wastes of beach zone. After inwash of the first tier wastes into compartment, facility is used to monitor level of ground water surface in wastes of beach zone, and water is taken from drain sections and sent to system of hydraulic transport of wastes with intensity that provides for establishment of safe elevation of ground water surface along compartment perimetre in wastes of inwashed tier beach zone. In process of sludge pond compartment preservation, inwash is carried out above preservation body section, afterwards surface of preservation body is recultivated. Prior to inwash of preservation body, due to safety conditions, they define maximum elevation of ground water surface in wastes upstream fencing structure ▼max and volume of water q, sent from drainage system to system of hydraulic transport of wastes. In process of preservation body inwash they monitor elevation of ground water surface upstream fencing structure ▼inwash, and volume water arrival from pulp into compartment a is limited by the condition ▼inwash≤▼max, i.e. annual balance of water B in compartment is provided as negative or equal to zero.

EFFECT: improved reliability of compartment and reduction of costs.

10 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to hydrotechnical construction and may be used in tier stocking of grain wastes into ash dumps, tail pits and sludge collectors. Method includes creation of reservoir of the first tier of sludge pond by erection of primary dam, inwash of wastes into reservoir of the first tier with arrangement of beach zone upstream primary dam, and a settling pond is developed at the distance, creation of reservoirs of upper tiers in sludge pond by erection of previous tier of raised dam each time on the beach from wastes developed in beach zone pit, and inwash of wastes into tier reservoir every time with arrangement of beach zone and preservation of settling pond. Development of wastes in pit is carried out by dragline excavator, which moves at a safe distance from pit on road made of filtering material under upstream prism of raised dam intended for erection, and lays wastes into body of this raised dam. On the rod dragline excavator lays wastes according to "after itself" pattern and with provision for outlet of water from wastes of raised dam body along filtering material of road into pit. After dehydration and compaction of laid wastes, raised dam is shaped accordingly.

EFFECT: reduction of costs and simplification of works.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to hydrotechnical construction, more precisely to stocking of granular waste into section of sludge pond and into body of conservation. Method includes tiered inwash of waste to a design level with development of pond and beach zone into section, capacity of each tier of which is created with levees. In upper part of section, on tier of beach, drainage is arranged, which is installed at the distance from levee of tier and along it and is equipped with facility for water removal from it. Drainage in plan is arranged under foot of open pit selected for development in process of tier guarding element arrangement, intended for creation over section of conservation body filled with wastes. Then inwash of the first tier of conservation body is carried out, and external side surface of tier guarding element is matched with external surface of this tier within its limits, which is coated with a layer of recultivation.

EFFECT: reduced costs and improved reliability.

6 cl, 2 ex, 3 dwg

FIELD: building.

SUBSTANCE: wing dike contains a stepped wall that separates a stepped retaining prism from stepped inwashed waste that keeps the wall plumb. The wall is made of interconnected gabions with their baskets being box-shaped, made of wire net and filled with gravel and sludge. Between the wall and waste, there is an anti-piping or anti-filtration layer of geosynthetic material that covers an upstream face of the wall in steps and goes beyond the waste level in front of the wall, herewith forming an upstream prism of the causeway after lying. The causeway contains a filmed anti-filtration coating of the disposal area base in front of the wall, the wall base and drainage located in the base of a retaining prism and connected with a waste hydrotransport system. The anti-filtration layer is made of a polymer film covered with geotextile, while the anti-piping layer is made of a geotextile cloths with the design diametre of water-supplying holes in the geotextile cloth fulfils the condition: where dmax is a the maximum diametre of waste particles which are possible and admissible to be moved towards the anti-piping element by the filtration stream in waste inwash. The gabion baskets can be filled with sand or gravel-sand ground in an individual synthetic package, and the anti-piping layer can consist of two or more geotextile cloths through-thickness.

EFFECT: downsizing of the causeway and increasing disposal area capacity.

6 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: hydraulic engineering construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hydraulic engineering and can be implemented at arranging water conduit in body of filter soil structure. The conduit consists of a pipe and a diaphragm made within limits of a filter part of the soil structure around the pipe and is attached to it, while external edge of the diaphragm is situated at specified distance from the pipe. The diaphragm is made out of a flexible sheet with open porous surface which possesses a damping property. At least near the external edge the sheet can be made water proof, wherein calculated diametre of water conducting holes is determined out of the following condition: first, a transitive layer is formed directly before the water proof sheet; within the boundaries of the transitive layer porous space in filter soil is mudded with loose soil by principle of a back filter; further, a counter filter layer is formed before the transitive layer; within boundaries of the counter filter layer porous space in filter soil is mudded with cohesive soil. Permeability of this counter filter layer grows as this layer approaches the external edge of the water proof sheet. The estimated diametre of water conducting holes in the water proof sheet meets the requirement: ≤ dmax, where dmax is maximal diametre of soil particles, transfer of which with a filter flow along contact of soil with the pipe in the direction of the diaphragm is possible and allowed.

EFFECT: preventing dynamic effect onto soil from side of diaphragm, forming pores of enlarged dimensions at contact of soil with diaphragm, forming local softened zones in soil near diaphragm, creating "focus of washout" in soil near external edge of diaphragm, and decreasing material costs at construction of diaphragm.

5 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hydraulic engineering construction of soil non-homogeneous fill dams. In cross section the dam consists of a transitive zone crossing the body of the dam by height and of the zone separating part of the dam body out of fine grain sand from the part of the dam body out of large-sized soil. The transitive zone is made of two layers out of soil of specified grain composition in form of a two-layer gabion wall out of tied gabions. The basket of each gabion is of a box shape, is made out of wire mesh and is divided into cells with one or more diaphragms. Certain cells are filled with soil of the first transitive layer and form the first layer of the gabion wall, while other sells are filled with soil of the second transitive layer and form the second layer of the gabion wall. Soil of at least the first transitive layer in the cell of the basket is enclosed in a flexible shell; while a dividing layer out of geo-synthetic material is made between a gabion wall and fine grain of the dam body. The flexible shell is made out of geo-textile canvas and has a box shape; the dimensions of the shell are at least equal to dimensions of the basket cell and facilitate tight fit of enclosed in the basket soil to the wire mesh of the cell. The dividing layer is made in form of a counter-suffosion element out of water-proof fibre material, mainly of geo-textile canvas and/or mineral-fibre plates, calculated diametre of water conducting holes of which is limited with mathematic dependence. The dividing layer can be made in form of a counter-filter element containing a water-proof membrane.

EFFECT: invention decreases volume of soil of transitive layer and enhances dam reliability.

4 cl, 9 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: construction, hydraulic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and construction of ground heterogeneous rock-fill dams. The dam includes transient layer in its cross section. This layer is made from ground consisting of preset grain size. It crosses dam body by height and separates part of dam body consisting of fine grained ground from the part of dam made from macro fragmental ground. The said transient layer is represented with a gabion-tired wall with box-shaped baskets. The said gabions are made from wirework. Each cell of the basket is filled with ground taken from the transient layer. Geo synthetic and/or mineral fiber separating layer is located between gabion wall and fine grained ground of dam. Each ground potion is enclosed into a flexible casing made from geo textile sheet. The box-shaped casing sizes are at least equal to basket cell sizes ensuring tight ground portion fitting to wirework of basket cell. Separating layer is implemented as counter-suffosion element made from water-proof fiber materials, mainly geo textile sheet and/or mineral fiber slabs. Design diametre of water delivery openings in water-proof fiber material satisfies the following condition: where dmax - maximum diametre of ground particles. Temporarily, it is acceptable and possible that the above particles could be moved by filtration flow in the direction of counter-suffosion element during dam operation. Separating layer may be made as counter-filtration element containing water-proof membrane.

EFFECT: invention allows for reducing ground amount in transient dam layer and improving dam reliability during operation.

4 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dam building in Northern regions. Proposed dam has upstream and downstream fills, diaphragm, transition layers and drain located in downstream fill. It has also heat curtain arranged in cross section of dam in zone of transition layers and made in form of row of successive holes, each furnished with at least one heating device. Number and pitch of holes and number and parameters of heating devices are chosen to keep transition layers and drain in zone of action of plus temperatures created by heat curtain. Resistance electric heater can be used as heating device.

EFFECT: improved reliability of dam and operation of drain.

2 cl, 3 dwg

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