Hole fabrication method

FIELD: mechanics.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to hole fabrication methods and may find application in turbine component parts manufacture. Holes are arranged in a multilayer system containing at least a single metal substratum and an external ceramic layer by way of at least a single laser pulse ray. The hole is arranged in several stripping stages by way of long and short pulses. At one of the initial stripping stages one uses pulses whose duration differs from that at one of the last stripping stages. Long pulses duration exceeds 0.4 ms. With long pulses the laser output power is several hundreds W such as 500 W.

EFFECT: improved precision of holes fabrication in layered systems.

41 cl, 18 dwg

 

The invention relates to a method of making holes under item 1 of the formula in which it is performed in detail by ray pulse energy.

Many parts including castings, subsequently should be removal of material in the form of recesses or through holes. In particular, parts of turbines, with holes for film cooling, they are performed after fabrication details.

Such details turbines often have layers, for example a metal layer or the intermediate layer and/or ceramic outer layer. Film cooling holes must then run through the layers and substrate (casting).

In US-PS 6172331 and US-PS 6054673 disclosed a method of laser drilling to run in multi-layered systems of holes, using ultrashort laser pulses. From a specific range of durations of the laser pulses is selected only their duration and, thus, is all hole.

In DE 10063309 A1 disclosed a method of making holes for cooling air by means of a laser in which the laser parameters are adjusted so that the material is removed by sublimation.

In US-PS 5939010 revealed two alternative ways of performing a large number of holes. In the same way (Fig. 1, 2) first fully executed one hole before ipodnano the next hole. In the second method the holes are gradually when the first section of the first hole, then the first section of the second hole, and so on (Fig. 10). Both methods can be used pulses of different duration, but each of these methods is always the pulses of the same duration. Methods cannot be linked. The cross-sectional area rented area always corresponds to the cross section of the manufactured holes.

In US-PS 5073687 disclosed the use of a laser for producing holes in a part, made in the form of a substrate with double-sided copper layer. In this first through long pulses is a hole in the copper layer, and then by short pulses - hole in a substrate composed of resin, and then with a higher output power of the laser is a hole in the copper layer on the reverse side. The cross-sectional area of removed section corresponds to the cross section of the manufactured holes.

In US-PS 6479788 B1 disclosed a method of making holes in which the first stage uses pulses of greater duration than the second stage. The pulse duration here varies for making holes maximum of a rectangular shape. While the cross-sectional area of the beam increases with decreasing pulse duration.

Skin is of ultrashort laser pulses takes a lot of time and is therefore expensive because of their small average power.

Therefore, the object of the invention is a solution to this problem.

This problem is solved by a method according to p. 1 formula, which uses pulses of different duration and long pulses are more than 0.4 MS.

Particularly preferably, if short pulses are used only on one of the first stages of removal, in order to create the best properties on the outer upper surface of the separation, as they are decisive for the nature of the flow medium from the hole and for the nature of the flow medium in the holes. Inside the hole of the surface properties of separation, rather, non-critical, so there can be used a long pulses that may cause a non-uniform surface of the separation.

In the dependent claims, the other preferred variants of the method and device.

Given in dependent clauses are the alternatives preferred way be combined with each other.

The invention is explained in more detail using the drawings, which depict:

- Fig. 1: the hole in the substrate;

- Fig. 2: a hole in a multilayer system;

- Fig. 3: top view produced through hole;

- Fig. 4-11: the stages of removal;

- Fig. 12-15: the equipment for implementing the method;

- Fig. 16: gas turbine;

- Fig. 17: the blade of the turbine;

Fig. 18: the combustion chamber.

Detail description with a hole

In Fig. 1 shows a part 1 with hole 7.

Item 1 consists of a substrate 4 (for example, casting or item DS or SX).

The substrate 4 may be a metal and/or ceramic. In particular, in the case of turbine parts, such as blades 120 or guide blades 130 (Fig. 16, 17), elements 155 heat shield (Fig), as well as other body parts of a steam or gas turbine 100 (Fig. 16) or aircraft turbines, the substrate 4 consists of a heat-resistant alloy based on Nickel, cobalt or iron. In the case of blades of aircraft turbine substrate 4 is, for example, of titanium or of an alloy based on titanium.

The substrate 4 has an opening 7, is made mainly in the form of through holes. However, it may also be deaf. Hole 7 is comprised of a lower section 10, coming from the interior surface of the part 1 and is made mostly symmetrical (for example, in the form of a circle, oval or rectangle), and the upper section 13, is made in this case in the form of a socket 13 on the outer surface 14 of the substrate 4. The socket 13 is an increase in cross-section relative to the lower section 10 of the hole 7.

Hole 7 is, for example, the hole film cooling. In particular, the inner surface 12 of the socket 13, i.e. on the upper part is ke holes 7, should be smooth for optimum flow medium, in particular cooling medium from the hole 7, as irregularities create unwanted turbulence and deviations. The quality of the surface of the bottom portion 10 of the hole 7 are noticeably smaller requirements, as this has little effect on the nature of the leakage.

In Fig. 2 depicts part 1 made in the form of a multilayer system.

The substrate 4 has at least one layer 16. This may be accomplished, for example, of a metal alloy type MCrAlX, where M denotes at least one element of the group of iron, cobalt or Nickel, and X denotes yttrium and/or at least one rare earth element.

The layer 16 may also be ceramic.

Mainly item 1 is a multilayer system, which on the MCrAlX layer 16' has an extra layer 16, for example a ceramic layer as an insulating layer.

The insulating layer 16 is, for example, fully or partially stabilized by a layer of zirconium oxide, in particular a layer obtained by the method of EB-PVD (physical vapour deposition by electronic beam), or a layer obtained by spraying: APS (air plasma spray), LPPS (plasma spraying, low pressure), VPS (vacuum plasma spraying), HVOF (high flame NAPA is giving) or CGS (cold gas spraying).

In this multilayer system 1 also performed the opening 7 with the lower section 10 and the socket 13.

The following reasoning for making holes belong to the substrate 4 with the layer 16 or layers 16', 16" or without them.

In Fig. 3 depicts a top view of the hole 7. The lower portion 10 can be manufactured by cutting. On the contrary, the socket 13 it would be impossible or possible only with very high costs.

Hole 7 can be carried out also at an acute angle to the surface 14 of the workpiece 1.

Way

In Fig. 4-6 depicts the stages of material removal proposed in the invention method.

According to the invention in the process used beams of energy with pulses of different duration.

The beam energy can be an electron beam, laser beam or water jet under high pressure. Below only as an example, elaborated on the application of the laser.

In particular, one of the first operations of the pickup uses short pulses (tpuls<<), mostly ≤500 NS, in particular ≤100 NS. Can also be used pulses with a duration in the range of Pico - or femtoseconds.

When using short pulses ≤500 NS, in particular ≤100 NS, almost not there rasplavlennyi in the area of the surface separation. Therefore, on the inner surface 12 of the socket 13 are not formed t is Emini, and can be created accurate flat geometric shapes. Short pulses of time shorter than long pulses.

One of the first stages of reading in part 1 is the first section of the hole 7. For example, he may at least partially or fully comply with the socket 13 (Fig. 6, 9). The socket 13 is located mostly in the ceramic layer. In particular, for the execution of the socket 13 are short pulses. The time of manufacture of the socket 13 corresponds, for example, the first stages of reading.

When performing socket 13, the laser 19, 19', 19" with their beams 22, 22', 22" is moved reciprocating predominantly in the horizontal plane 43, as shown, for example, in Fig. 5. The socket 13 is, for example, in the form of a meander along the line 9 movement for removal of the sheets in the same plane (phase Fig. 4 according to Fig. 6).

Predominantly, although not necessarily, upon reaching the metal intermediate layer 16' or the substrate 4 are long laser pulses (tpuls>) more than 0.4 MS, in particular more than 0.5 MS, and, in particular, up to 10 MS to complete the remaining bottom portion 10 of the holes, as shown in Fig. 1 or 2. The socket 13 is, at least for the most part in the ceramic layer 16, but may also be a metal intermediate layer 16' and/or metal mean the ku 4, so partly, short pulses can be removed with the metal material.

In particular, to complete the bottom portion 10 of the hole 7 is used mostly or completely long, in particular the constant on-time pulses. The time of manufacture of the lower section 10 corresponds to the last stages of release.

When using long laser pulses, at least one laser 19, 19', 19" with their beams 22, 22', 22" is not moved reciprocating in a plane 43. Because heat energy is distributed in the material layer 16 or the substrate 4 and for the account of each laser pulse is added to a new energy, a material as a result of evaporation is removed over a large area so that the area on which the removed material, corresponds to the area of the cross section of the manufactured holes 7, 10. This cross-sectional area can be adjusted by the power and duration of the pulses and the reference laser beam 22 (position and focus on the horizontal distance from the surface 14).

The pulse duration of a single laser 19 or more lasers 19', 19" can be changed, for example, continuously, for example from beginning to end. The method begins with the removal of material on the outer surface 14 and ends upon reaching the desired depth of the hole 7.

the material is continuously removed, for example, layers in the plane 11 (Fig. 6) and in the axial direction 15.

The pulse duration can be changed periodically. When the process is used mainly only two pulses of different durations. In the case of short pulses, for example ≤500 MS, moves at least one laser 19, 19', and in the case of long pulses, for example of 0.4 MS, for example, does not move, because due to the heat energy input and thus occurs over a larger area than that corresponds to the cross section of the laser beam.

While processing the remainder of the surface can be protected with a powder layer, in particular a mask on ER 1510593 A1. Powder (BN, ZrO2and granulometric composition of the EP 1510593 A1 are part of the present invention to apply the mask.

In particular, it is expedient when the treated metal substrate or a substrate with a metal layer, not yet containing ceramic layer.

The laser parameters

When using pulses of a certain duration, the output power of the laser 19, 19', 19", for example, constant.

In the case of long pulses are used, the output power of the laser 19, 19', 19" of several hundred watts, in particular 500 watts.

In the case of short pulses is used, the output power of the laser 19, 19' less than 300 watts. The laser 19, 19' with a wavelength of the s 532 nm is used, for example, for generating short pulses.

In the case of long pulses are used, in particular, their duration >0,4 MS, in particular to 1.2 MS, and the energy from 6 to 21 j, in particular more than 10 j, and the preferred power from 10 to 50 kW, in particular 20 kW.

Short pulses have energy in one - or two-digit MJ range, primarily in single-digit MJ range, and used the power lies, in particular, for the most part in single-digit kW-range.

The number of lasers

In the process, you can use one laser 19, or two or more lasers 19', 19"are used simultaneously or sequentially. The same or different lasers 19, 19', 19" are, for example, different ranges of pulse duration. For example, the first laser 19' may have a pulse duration of ≤500 NS, in particular less than 100 NS, and the second laser 19" - pulse duration of >100 NS, in particular more than 500 NS.

For making holes 7 first uses the first laser 19'. For further processing is then used a second laser 19" or Vice versa.

In the manufacture of through holes 7 can be used only one laser 19. In particular, uses a laser, which has, for example, a wavelength of 1064 nm and which can produce both long and short pulses.

Sequence of executable plots holes

In Fig. 7 depicts a cross-section of the hole 7.

Here are first rough machining laser pulses longer than 100 NS, in particular more than 500 NS, and precision machining laser pulses with a duration of ≤ 500 NS, in particular ≤100 NS.

The lower portion 10 of the hole 7 is processed completely and only the area of the funnel 13 is handled mostly through the laser 19 pulses longer than 100 NS, in particular ≥500 NS (the first stages of removal).

To complete the fabrication of the holes 7 or socket 13 you want to process just the thin outer edge region 28 in the area of the socket 13 by laser 19, 19', 19", which can generate pulses with a duration of ≤500 NS, in particular less than 100 NS (the last stages of removal).

When this laser beam 22, 22', 22" are mainly moved.

In Fig. 8 shows a top view of the hole 7 of the workpiece 1. Different lasers 19, 19', 19" or different duration of their pulses are used at different stages of removal.

First of all, is, for example, rough handling laser pulses great length of more than 100 NS, in particular more than 500 NS. Due to this, made a large part of the hole 7. This inner region is marked POS. 25. To achieve the final size of the hole 7 is of edue to remove only the outer edge region 28 of the hole 7 or socket 13. When this laser beam 22, 22' is moved in the plane of the surface 14.

Only after processing the outer edge region 28 by laser 19, 19' short pulses (≤500 NS, in particular less than 100 NS) hole 7 or the diffuser 13 is finally made.

Contour 29 of the socket 13 is made, therefore, short laser pulses, resulting in the outer edge region 28 is removed more accurately and therefore devoid of cracks and melting.

The material is removed, for example, in the plane 11 (perpendicular to the axial direction 15).

In the case of long pulses section And remove the section with the holes 7 can continuously decrease deep into the substrate 4 to the section A', so that the outer edge region 28 is reduced compared to Fig. 7 (Fig. 9). This is done by regulating energy and pulse duration.

One alternative when making holes 7 is to be performed first outer edge region 28 by a short laser pulses (≤500 NS) to a depth in the axial direction 15, partially or fully corresponding to the length of the socket 13 of the holes 7 in the direction 15 (Fig. 11, the inner region 25 of the shaded area).

When this laser beam 22, 22' in these first stages of the pickup is moved in the plane of the surface 14. Thus, in the area of the surface of the separation of RA the pipe 13 there is no melting and cracks, and can be obtained from the exact geometric shape.

Only after the inner region 25 is removed long laser pulses longer than 100 NS, in particular more than 500 NS (the last stages of removal).

The methods can be applied to new parts 1, cast for the first time. The methods can be applied in the restored parts 1.

Recovery means that parts 1, was in operation, separate the layers and details after repairs, such as filling cracks and removal of products of oxidation and corrosion, covered again.

In this case, for example, contamination or coating material, which was applied again (Fig. 11) and into the holes 7, is removed by the laser 19, 19', or special education (bell) in the area of the layer re-made after re-surface during recovery.

Recovery

In Fig. 11 depicts an additional hole 7, and the cover substrate 4 material layer 16 material penetrated into the existing hole 7.

For example, deeper area on a plot of 10 holes 7 can be processed by laser pulses longer than 100 NS, in particular more than 500 NS. These areas are marked POS. 25.

The critical edge region 28, for example in the area of the socket 13, which are pollution, processed through l is Zera 19' pulse duration ≤500 NS, in particular less than 100 NS.

Device

In Fig. 12-15 depict examples of devices 40 for the implementation of the proposed invention. Device 40 is composed of at least one optical device 35, 35', in particular, at least one lens 35, 35', which directs at least one laser beam 22, 22', 22" to the substrate 4 for making holes 7.

There are one, two or more lasers 19, 19', 19". The laser beams 22, 22', 22" may be sent to the optical device 35, 35' in the mirrors 31, 33.

Mirrors 31, 33 mounted for movement or rotation so that, for example, only one laser 19', 19" may send their rays 22' or 22" through the mirror 31 or 33 and the lens 35 in item 1.

Item 1, 120, 130, 155, or an optical device 35, 35' or mirrors 31, 33 mounted for movement in the direction 43, so that the laser beam 22, 22' can be moved, for example in Fig. 5, part 1.

Lasers 19, 19', 19" may have a wavelength of, for example, either 1064 nm or 532 nm. Lasers 19', 19" may have different wavelengths: 1064 and 532 nm. In relation to the pulse duration, for example, the laser 19' can be set to 0.1 to 5 MS, and the laser 19"- 50-500 NS.

By moving the mirrors 31, 33 (Fig. 12-14) corresponding to the laser beam 19', 19" may be introduced through the optical device 35 in part 1 with this pulse duration, which is neobhodimo, to make the outer edge region 28 or the inner region 25.

In Fig. 12 shows two laser 19', 19", two mirrors 31, 33 and an optical device in the form of a lens 35.

When first manufactured, for example, the outer edge region 28 of Fig. 6, is activated first laser 19' with short pulses.

If you then made the inner region 25, the movement of the mirror 31 of the first laser 19' is deactivated, and by moving mirror 33 is activated by the second laser 19" long pulse.

In Fig. 13 shows a device similar to those shown in Fig. 12, however, there are two optical devices, for example two lenses 35, 35'which are used to send various areas 25, 28 parts 1, 120, 130, 155 simultaneously rays 22', 22" lasers 19', 19".

If it is made, for example, the outer region 28, the laser beam 22' may be directed in the first place this Blockoban region 28 and diametrically opposite the first place second place, resulting in a processing time is greatly reduced.

An optical device 35 can be used for the first laser beams 22'and the second optical device 35' - for the second laser beams 22".

In accordance with the device 40 lasers 19', 19" may be used sequentially or simultaneously with pulses of the same or different deletelines is I.

In Fig. 14 no optical devices in the form of lenses, and there are only mirrors 31, 33 which direct the laser beams 22', 22" in item 1 and due to the motion used to move in the same plane on the details, at least the laser beams 22', 22".

Here lasers 19', 19" may also be used simultaneously.

In accordance with the device 40 lasers 19', 19" may be used sequentially or simultaneously with pulses of equal or different duration.

In Fig. 15 shows a device 40 with only one laser 19, the beam 22 which is directed to item 1, for example, by mirror 31.

Also in this case, an optical device, such as lenses, are not needed. The laser beam 22 moves along the surface of the component 1, for example, due to the motion of the mirror 31. This is necessary when using short pulses. In the case of long pulses of laser beam 22 does not have to move, so that the mirror 31 is not moving.

In the device of Fig. 15 can be used one lens or two lenses 35, 35'to direct the laser beam at the same time on different areas 25, 28 parts 1, 120, 130, 155.

Details

In Fig. 16 as an example, in partial longitudinal section shows the gas turbine 100.

Inside it, with the possibility of rotation around the axis 102 mounted rotor 103 with the shaft 101, nazyvaemykh impeller of the turbine. Along the rotor 103 to each other followed by the inlet 104, a compressor 105, for example, a toroidal chamber 110 of the combustion, in particular an annular combustion chamber, with a number of coaxially arranged burners 107, a turbine 108 and the exhaust chamber 109.

Annular chamber 110 combustion reported, for example, with the annular channel 111 for hot gases. There is, for example, four sequential steps 112 to form the turbine 108.

Each step 112 is formed, for example, two blade rings. In the direction of flow of the working medium 113 in the channel 111 for the next 115 vanes should be formed by the rotor blades 120 of a row 125.

This guide vanes 130 fixed to the inner housing 138 of a stator 143, and rotor blades 120 of a row 125 are placed on the rotor 103, for example, by a disk 133 of the turbine. With the rotor 103 is connected to a generator or a working machine (not shown).

During operation of the gas turbine 100, the compressor 105 through the inlet 104 suck 135 air and compresses it. Compressed at the end of the compressor 105 of the turbine air is supplied to the burners 107 and there is mixed with fuel. Then the mixture with the formation of a working medium 113 is burned in the chamber 110 of combustion. From there, the working medium 113 flows through the channel 111 by the guides 130 and 120 working blades. On the rotor blades 120, the working medium 113 expands, passing impulse, as a result, the ATA which they actuate the rotor 103, he was connected with him working machine.

Exposed to the hot working medium 113 parts are subjected during operation of the gas turbine 100 thermal loads. The guides 130 and 120 working blades first, when viewed in the direction of flow of the working medium 113, steps 112 turbines in addition to oblitsovyvayutsya annular chamber 110 of the combustion elements heat shield thermally loaded most strongly.

To withstand prevailing there temperature, the blade can be cooled in a cooling environment. Substrate components may also have a directional structure, i.e. they are single-crystal (SX structure) or have only longitudinally directed grains (DS structure). As the material parts, in particular of the blades 120, 130 and components of the combustion chamber 110, are used, for example, heat-resistant alloys based on iron, Nickel or cobalt.

Such heat-resistant alloys are known, for example, from EP 1204776 B1, EP 1306454, EP 319729 A1, WO 99/67435 or WO 00/44949; these publications in relation to the chemical composition of the alloys are part of this application.

Guide vane 130 contains brought to the inner housing 138 of the turbine 108 shank (not shown) and the opposite head. Head turned to the rotor 103 and is secured to the mounting ring 140 of the stator 143.

In Fig. 17 in the future depicted working 120 or guide 130 lop the TKA blade machine, passing along the longitudinal axis 121.

Blade machine can be a gas turbine aircraft or power plant, a steam turbine or a compressor.

The blade 120, 130 has a longitudinal axis 121 sequentially fixing section 400, an adjoining platform 403, pen 406 and the top 415.

As a guide blades 130 it may have on its top 415 additional platform (not shown).

In the mounting area 400 completed a shaft 183 which is used for fastening the blades 120, 130 on the shaft or disk (not shown).

The shaft 183 is made, for example, T-shaped. Other run as a stand for a Christmas tree or dovetail.

For a medium flowing past the pen 406, the blade 120, 130 has a front 409 412 and rear edges.

In traditional blades 120, 130 on all their parts 400, 403, 406 are used, for example, solid metal materials, in particular heat-resistant alloys.

Such heat-resistant alloys are known, for example, from EP 1204776 B1, EP 1306454, EP 319729 A1, WO 99/67435 or WO 00/44949; these publications in relation to the chemical composition of the alloys are part of this application.

The blade 120, 130 may be made by way of casting, directional solidification, forging, milling, or combinations of these methods.

Billets with a monocrystalline structure or structures are used as the detail is the first for machines, exposed during the operation of high mechanical, thermal and/or chemical loads.

The manufacture of such monocrystalline workpieces is carried out, for example, by crystallization from a melt. When it comes to casting methods in which the liquid metal alloy is solidified in single crystal structure, i.e. in single-crystal workpiece, or directed.

While along the heat flux oriented dendritic crystals that form either a columnar crystal structure of the grains (columnar, i.e. grains that pass through the entire length of the workpiece in accordance with the General usage is called directionally zakristallizuetsya)or a monocrystalline structure, i.e. the entire workpiece consists of a single crystal. In these methods should be avoided transition to globular (polycrystalline) solidification, as in the undirected growth are formed transverse and longitudinal grain boundaries, which negates the good properties of directionally zakristallizuetsya or monocrystalline details.

If it's about directionally zakristallizuetsya structures, this means as single crystals, which have no grain boundaries or with at most small-angle grain boundaries,and columnar crystal structure, which have grain boundaries in the longitudinal direction, but have no transverse grain boundaries. In the case of these two crystal structures indicate directionally zakristallizuetsya structures (directionally solidified structures).

Such methods are known from US 6024792 and EP 0892090 A1; these publications in relation to the method of crystallization are part of this application.

The blades 120, 130 may also have coatings against corrosion or oxidation, for example MCrAlX, where M denotes at least one element of the iron group (Fe), cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), and X is an active element and replaces yttrium (Y), and/or silicon and/or at least one rare earth element such as hafnium (Hf). Such alloys are known from EP 0486489 B1, EP 0786017 B1, EP 0412397 B1 or EP 1306454 A1; these publications in relation to the chemical composition of the alloys are part of this application. The density is mostly 95% of theoretical density.

On the MCrAlX layer is formed as an intermediate or outer layer of protective aluminium oxide layer (TGO = thermal grown oxide layer).

On the MCrAlX layer may be a heat insulating layer which is the outermost layer and consists, for example of ZrO2, Y2O3-ZrO2i.e. it is not stabilized, partially or fully stabilized by yttrium oxide and/or calcium oxide and/or magnesium oxide.

A heat insulating layer on rivet all the MCrAlX layer. By means of suitable coating methods such as EB-PVD (physical vapour deposition by electronic beam), shelter heat insulating layer are formed of columnar grains.

Other coating methods, such as APS, LPPS, VPS or CVD (chemical vapor deposition). The insulating layer may be porous, the affected micro - or Microterminal grain to improve thermal shock resistance. Consequently, the heat insulating layer mainly more porous than the MCrAlX layer.

The blade 120, 130 may be made hollow or solid. If it needs to cool, it is made hollow and has, if necessary, openings 418 for film cooling (indicated by dashed lines), which are proposed in the invention method.

In Fig. 18 shows the camera 110 of the combustion gas turbine 100. The camera 110 combustion is performed, for example, in the form of a so-called annular combustion chamber, which has a lot located in the periphery around the axis 102 of the rotation of burners 107 fall into a common space 154 of the combustion chamber and create a flame 156. To do this, the camera 110 combustion collectively made in the form of ring-shaped structure located about the axis 102 of the rotation.

To achieve a comparatively high efficiency, the camera 110 combustion designed for a relatively high is the temperature of the working medium M from 1000 to 1600°C. So even under such unfavorable for the materials operational parameters to ensure a relatively long life, wall 153 of the combustion chamber on its facing the working medium M side has an internal lining formed by elements 155 of the heat shield.

Because of the high temperatures inside the combustion chamber 110 for items 155 heat shield or holders may be provided by the cooling system. In this case, the elements 155 are made, for example, hollow and are, if necessary, into the space 154 of the combustion chamber cooling holes (not shown)manufactured proposed in the invention method.

Each element 155 of the heat shield of the alloy from the working environment equipped with a particularly heat-resistant protective layer (MCrAlX layer and/or ceramic coating) or made of heat resistant material (solid ceramic stones).

These protective layers may be similar to the turbine blades, i.e. for example MCrAlX means: M is at least one member of the group iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), and X is an active element and replaces yttrium (Y), and/or silicon and/or at least one rare earth element such as hafnium (Hf). Such alloys are known from EP 0486489 B1, EP 0786017 B1, EP 0412397 B1 or EP 1306454 A1; these publications in relation to Henichesk the th composition of the alloys are part of this application.

On the MCrAlX layer may be, for example, a ceramic heat insulating layer, consisting for example of ZrO2, Y2O3-ZrO2i.e. it is not stabilized, partially or fully stabilized by yttrium oxide and/or calcium oxide and/or magnesium oxide.

By means of suitable coating methods such as EB-PVD, shelter heat insulating layer are formed of columnar grains.

Other coating methods, such as APS, LPPS, VPS or CVD. The insulating layer may be porous, the affected micro - or Microterminal grain to improve thermal shock resistance.

Refurbishment means that the turbine blades 120, 130 and elements 155 of the heat shield after use, should be, if necessary, freed from the protective layer, for example by means of sandblasting. Then remove layers or products of corrosion and/or oxidation. If necessary, also sealed cracks in the blade 120, 130 or 155. This was followed by repeated coating of the blades 120, 130 and elements 155 and reuse.

1. A method of making holes (7) in a multilayer system(1, 120, 130, 155), containing at least one metal substrate (4) and the outer ceramic layer (16)by a pulsed energy beam(22, 22', 22"), in particular via at least one pulsed laser beam (22, 22', 22") of at least one laser(19, 19', 19"), having a pulse duration, and the method is carried out in several stages of removal, use short and long pulses, one of the first stages of removal uses pulses of different duration than on one of the last stages of removal, and long pulses have a duration of more than 0.4 MS, while for long pulses are used, the output power of the laser (19, 19', 19") of several hundred watts, in particular 500 watts.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein during removal of short pulses, at least one energy beam (22, 22', 22") are moving on the surface of the part (1, 120, 130, 155) for material removal in the area of a plane manufactured holes (7).

3. The method according to claim 1, wherein in the first stages of removal use longer pulses than on one of the last stages of release.

4. The method according to any of claim 1 or 2, wherein in the first stages of removal use shorter pulses than on one of the last stages of release.

5. The method according to any one of claims 1, 2 or 3, wherein for removal of the metallic intermediate layer (16") or a metal substrate (4) use long pulses.

6. The method according to any one of claims 1, 2, or 3, in which the duration of pulses during manufacture the Oia holes (7) change continuously.

7. The method according to any one of claims 1, 2, or 3, in which the duration of pulses during the manufacture of the holes (7) change periodically.

8. The method according to any of claim 1 or 3, in which use permanent long pulses.

9. The method according to any of claim 1 or 2, in which use permanent short pulses.

10. The method according to claim 1, in which use two different pulse duration.

11. The method according to any of claim 1 or 3, wherein in the case of long pulses, at least one energy beam (22, 22', 22") does not move on the part surface(1, 120, 130, 155).

12. The method according to claim 1, in which use only one laser (19), in particular with a wavelength of 1064 nm.

13. The method according to claim 1, in which for making holes (7) using two or more lasers(19', 19").

14. The method according to item 13, wherein the laser (19', 19") use the same wavelength, in particular 1064 or 532 nm.

15. The method according to item 13, wherein the laser (19', 19") use different wavelengths, in particular 1064 and 532 nm.

16. The method according to item 13, wherein the lasers (19', 19") made with the possibility of generating the same range of pulse durations.

17. The method according to item 13, wherein the lasers (19', 19") made with the possibility of the formation of different ranges of pulse durations.

18. The method according to any of PP-17, in which lasers (19', 19") use synchronous is.

19. The method according to any of PP-17, in which lasers (19', 19") use time-series.

20. The method according to any of claim 1 or 3, in which the final stages of removal using short pulses with a duration of ≤500 NS, in particular ≤100 NS.

21. The method according to claim 2, wherein in the first stages of removal using short pulses with a duration of ≤500 NS, in particular ≤100 NS.

22. The method according to any one of claims 1, 2 or 21, in which the first short pulses to the external upper section (13), and then a long pulses - the lower portion (10) of the hole (7).

23. The method according to any one of claims 1, 2 or 21, in which the first short pulses to the external boundary region (28), and then a long pulse - inner area (25) holes (7).

24. The method according to any one of claims 1, 2 or 21, in which the first long pulses perform the inner region (25), and then short pulses of the external boundary region (28) of the hole (7).

25. The method according to claim 6, wherein the hole (7) is made, starting from the surface (14) of the workpiece (1), and pulse duration of the change from the outer surface (14) into the hole (7).

26. The method according to any of claim 1 or 3, in which long pulses have a duration of more than 0.4 to 1.2 MS.

27. The method according to any of claim 1 or 3, in which long pulses have energies from 6 to 21 j, in particular 8 j.

28. Ways is according to any one of claim 1 or 3, when long pulses are rated from 10 to 50 kW, in particular 20 kW.

29. The method according to any one of claims 1, 2 or 21, wherein the energy short pulses lies in two-digit or lower double-digit, in particular in unique, MJ range.

30. The method according to any one of claims 1, 2 or 21, in which short pulses have a power of one kilowatt range.

31. The method according to any one of claims 1,3, or 21, wherein the long pulse creates the area (A) cross-section shooting area on the workpiece (1) in accordance with the cross-sectional area of the manufactured holes (7, 10).

32. The method according to any one of claims 1, 2 or 3, wherein when using long and short pulses (16) the output power of the laser (19, 19', 19") constant, while the length of the long or short pulses is not changed.

33. The method according to any one of claims 1, 2 or 3, in which short pulses output power of the laser (19, 19', 19") is less than 300 watts.

34. The method according to claim 1, in which the handle part (1), which is a multilayered system.

35. The method according to clause 34, in which process a multilayer system consisting of a metal substrate (4) and at least one ceramic layer (16").

36. The method according to any of clause 34 or 35, wherein the multilayer system (1) consists of a substrate (4) and metal layer (16')having a structure of type MCrAlX, where M denotes, less is th least one member of the group of iron, cobalt or Nickel, and X is yttrium and/or at least one rare earth element.

37. The method according to any of clause 34 or 35, wherein the multilayer system (1) consists of a substrate (4) and a layer (16)having a metal intermediate layer (16') and the outer ceramic layer (16").

38. The method according to p, wherein the substrate (4) is a superalloy based on Nickel, cobalt or iron.

39. The method according to clause 34, which processes the item (1), a blade (120, 130) of the turbine, the element (155) heat shield or other item or Cabinet item (138) gas turbine (100) or a steam turbine.

40. The method according to any of claim 1 or 39, in which it is used in the manufacture of new parts(1, 120, 130, 155).

41. The method according to any of claim 1 or 39, in which it is used for recoverable items(1, 120, 130, 155).



 

Same patents:

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in aircraft engineering. Adapter for working head of the device intended for making holes by laser beam comprises beam focusing appliance, mirror and device to feed auxiliary medium for laser beam. Said adapter has first laser beam inlet hole and second pulse laser beam outlet hole. Beam focusing appliance is arranged ahead of second pulse laser beam outlet hole. Mirror is arranged on laser beam optical path behind said focusing appliance so that outlet beam forms with inlet beam the angle smaller than 180°. Device to feed auxiliary medium for laser beam allows said medium to pass through said second hole along laser beam direction.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of holes produced by laser beam.

9 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device for cutting of volume parts by fibre laser and may be used in dimensional processing of parts having complex spatial shape. Rotary laser cutting head of device comprises body with vertical axis of rotation (26), body installed on it with horizontal axis of rotation (30) and optical focusing head. Mentioned head is installed on hollow support arranged in the form of vertically moving slider installed on mechanical system of positioning and displacement. Body with vertical axis of rotation and body with horizontal axis of rotation have electric drives, are arranged as hollow and have rotary prisms for transportation of laser beam to optical focusing head. Slider is arranged with a mount seat for installation of collimator (6) with connector arranged on it with fibre cable (2), which transports laser radiation. Hollow shaft (24) of slider (1) is installed coaxially with collimator (6) and bears body with vertical axis of rotation and rotor of vertical electric drive on its lower end. Body with horizontal axis of rotation (30) is installed on hollow shaft (28) installed in bearing supports of intermediate body (21), installed on vertical end of body with vertical axis of rotation, and bearing rotor (27) of horizontal electric drive.

EFFECT: invention provides for high quality of cutting at high speeds and dimensions of processed parts.

1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: method includes feeding of laser beam on treated surface, feeding co-axially to laser beam of process gas, collimation of laser beam, its embedding into treated product and movement by specified program. Cutting is implemented in liquid field. Product is located in bath with water on cone-shaped pins with exceeding of water level over surface of product equal to 10-15 mm. Cutting is implemented by ytterbium laser with laser beam embedding into treated product for 0.2-0.4 of its thickness. Movement of laser beam is implemented at a rate 1.2-1.8 m/min.

EFFECT: enhancement of manufacturing capabilities and improvement of ecology at treatment of composite materials and it is provided high quality of cutting.

1 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method and device for automatic control of laser cutting or hole drilling process. Method includes measurement of radiation reflected from zone of processing. Minimum value of reflected radiation amplitude is defined, compared to specified amplitude, and control of laser radiation capacity and/or cutting speed are controlled. Device comprises laser with power supply unit, rotary mirror, focusing lens, 2-coordinate table for fixation of processed part, unit of 2-coordinate table control, photodetector of secondary radiation and transformer of secondary radiation signal from photodetector, connected to unit of laser power supply and unit of 2-coordinate table control.

EFFECT: improved quality and capacity of through laser processing of materials.

2 cl, 1 dwg

Gas-laser cutter // 2368479

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises focusing lens (1), casing (2), branch pipe (3) for laser beam to pass there through at preset aperture angle and nozzle (5) arranged around aforesaid branch pipe and inclined to the lens optical axis to form gas supersonic jets. Branch pipe (3) has annular grooves (4) to make chamber for gas to be distributed between the nozzles. Axes of nozzles (5) intersect the lens axis at the point which makes that of intersection between processed surface and focusing lens axis to exploit entire kinetic power of supersonic jets onto processed surface.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of processing due to increased efficiency of gas mix effects.

1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device includes bearing structures interconnected with gear-driven means for processing element relocation and program control system. Bearing structures are made as a support and means for processing element relocation is made as a rotary lever system including at least two levers being interconnected by one end with each other by means of hinge joint. The second end of the first lever is connected by means of hinge joint with support and the second end of the second lever has processing element mounted thereon. Another version includes bearing structures interconnected with gear-driven means for processing element relocation and program control system. To achieve the same technical result bearing structures are made as a support capable to move along guide ways, means for processing element relocation is made as a rotary lever system including at least two levers being interconnected by one end with each other by means of hinge joint. The second end of the first lever is fixed rigidly to the support and the second end of the second lever has processing element mounted thereon.

EFFECT: extension of manufacturing capability and increase of positioning accuracy.

10 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: cutting of sheet materials is realised with the help of cut sheet surface exposure to oxygen jet that flows from supersonic nozzle and laser radiation. Laser radiation is focused so that axis of beam coincides with the nozzle axis, beam focus is located inside the nozzle, and beam diameter on surface of cut plate exceeds output diameter of nozzle. Beam heats the metal to the temperature that is higher than burning temperature but is lower than melt temperature. Thickness of cut sheets is set by condition H/Da≤(0.8-1.2)P/P+5, where H is thickness of cut sheet, mm, Da is output diameter of nozzle, mm. Certain selection of cutting parameters, namely value of pressure in nozzle chamber and gap size between output section of nozzle and cut sheet, makes it possible to increase quality of cutting surface. Selection is done based on the following conditions: P/P=6.15/(D0/Da-A)-7.7 and δ/Da=1-2, where P is excess gas pressure in chamber, MPa; P is pressure of environment, MPa; A=0.2-0.3; D0 is critical diameter of gas nozzle, mm; Da is output diameter of gas nozzle, mm; δ is gap size between output section of nozzle and sheet surface, mm.

EFFECT: higher quality of cutting surface.

1 ex, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics; lasers.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to laser technology, particularly to the method of cutting pyrographite using laser, and can be used in instrument making, and mainly in electronics. Laser radiation with central mode TEM00 is focused on the material. The focus of the beam is directed on the surface of the material, while keeping the density of the incident power within the 106-107 W/cm2 range. The work piece is moved at speed ranging from 1 to 3 mm/s. The cutting process parameters are determined by the expression , where K is the coupling factor of parameters, chosen from the condition 7·10-5≤K≤12·10-5; f is the repetition frequency of the laser radiation, τ is the pulse duration of the laser radiation, d is the diameter of the spot of focused laser radiation, and h is the thickness of the work piece. A laser with yttrium aluminium garnet active element, with controlled distribution of power in the section of the beam is used.

EFFECT: high quality of cutting material with a smaller heat affected zone during optimum process modes.

2 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: processes and equipment for gas-laser cutting of titanium and its alloys, possibly in different branches of power engineering and machine engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method is realized due to using technological gas being mixture of argon and oxygen and containing 15 -25% of oxygen. In order to cut metal of predetermined thickness, oxygen content in technological gas is determined depending upon cutting speed and quality of metal surface according to technological demands for cutting quality at maximally admissible cutting speed.

EFFECT: improved quality of cutting as oxygen content of technological gas in preset range completely prevents occurring of type-metal or makes it rare and small.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: laser working, namely laser cutting, possibly in machine engineering for effective and high-accuracy manufacture of complex-contour parts from sheet blank.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of measuring mean statistic value of limit bending of blank 7; then fastening and tensioning blank at providing tension stresses determined by relation: σtχ ≤ σe GV, where σt - tension stresses created in blank, MPa; χ - thermal conductivity of blank material, mm2/s; σe - elastic limit of blank material, MPa; G - mean statistic value of limit bending of blank, mm; V - cutting speed, mm/s. Focused laser irradiation 1 with preset focal length and gas flow 6 are fed onto sheet blank 7 through nozzle of cutter 5 for moving blank along predetermined contour. Apparatus includes source of laser irradiation 1, mirror 3, cutter 5, platform 8 with clamp 9 for blank 7. Platform 8 is mounted on coordinate table 11 and it includes threaded guides 10 for tensioning blank; said guides are in the form of screw gages with left- and right-hand threads. Coordinate table is number program controlled by system 12 connected with laser irradiation source 1 and with information-computing system 13 through program module 14 correcting contour of cutting in proportion to deformations created in material.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of laser cutting due to stable position (on the whole surface of sheet blank) of plane of focusing lens of cutter at cutting process, practically constant gap value between nozzle of cutter and blank surface.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: testing engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises optical quantum generator, system for focusing the laser beam with the unmovable lens, and movable base for securing the object to be cut. The movable base is made of rotating platform mounted on the driving shaft of the mechanism for discrete control of the speed of rotation. The mechanism is made of an assembly of driven and driving pulleys connected by means of the driving belt. The rotating platform is provided with the model of the object to be cut. The driving belt that connects the driven and driving pulleys is made of a vibration insulation material. The driven shaft of the rotating platform is set in bearings, is provided with a mechanism for control of tension of the driving belt, and is mounted on the traverse gear.

EFFECT: decreased time and reduced power consumption of testing.

1 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: method and apparatus for forming weakening lines in member of automobile lining covering devices with safety cushions in order to create one or more hinged flaps of window for spreading out pneumatic safety cushion when the last is pumped.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of making notch in surface of lining member by means of cutting beam directed from source 12 onto said surface at moving lining member relative to source 12 according to predetermined pattern of notch; tracking cutting result by means of measuring beams irradiated by first pickup 26 and second outer pickup respectively placed in opposite sides relative to lining member 16; combining measuring beam of pickup 26 with cutting beam in such a way that to provide collinear combined segments on surface of lining member and to direct them constantly to the same points of notch pattern; controlling quantity of material removed by means of cutting beam in each point along pattern due to controlling notch cutting process with use of feedback signals generated by first 26 and second 20 pickups. Apparatus for performing the method includes source of cutting beam for making notch on surface of one side of lining member at directing cutting beam to said surface; drive unit imparting mutual relative motion of cutting beam source and lining member according to predetermined pattern; sensor unit for tracking thickness of remained material of lining member; device for combining beams; control unit for tracking process of cutting notch in each point along predetermined pattern and regulating cutting intensity of cutting beam for providing predetermined thickness of material of lining member. Sensor unit includes first inner pickup 26 and second outer pickup 20 arranged at mutually opposite sides of lining member 16 and directed towards each point of lining member to be notched. Inner pickup and cutting beam source are arranged at the same side relative to lining member.

EFFECT: possibility for making weakening lines during one pass at accurate reproducibility regardless of variation of cutting depth, cutting angle, patterns of notch, non-uniformity and color of material, texture of material surface and so on.

41 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: different branches of machine engineering and metallurgy, possibly working products for modifying or preparing topography of article surface or raw materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of relatively moving article and powerful beam in crossing direction in order to act upon several positions on article by means of said beam; at each position moving beam relative to article according to predetermined way; melting material of article and moving it by action of powerful beam for forming recesses or openings; joining article having prepared surface with target part. Product formed by such process has predetermined surface roughness.

EFFECT: possibility for producing article with predetermined surface roughness.

46 cl, 11 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: laser working, namely laser cutting, possibly in machine engineering for effective and high-accuracy manufacture of complex-contour parts from sheet blank.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of measuring mean statistic value of limit bending of blank 7; then fastening and tensioning blank at providing tension stresses determined by relation: σtχ ≤ σe GV, where σt - tension stresses created in blank, MPa; χ - thermal conductivity of blank material, mm2/s; σe - elastic limit of blank material, MPa; G - mean statistic value of limit bending of blank, mm; V - cutting speed, mm/s. Focused laser irradiation 1 with preset focal length and gas flow 6 are fed onto sheet blank 7 through nozzle of cutter 5 for moving blank along predetermined contour. Apparatus includes source of laser irradiation 1, mirror 3, cutter 5, platform 8 with clamp 9 for blank 7. Platform 8 is mounted on coordinate table 11 and it includes threaded guides 10 for tensioning blank; said guides are in the form of screw gages with left- and right-hand threads. Coordinate table is number program controlled by system 12 connected with laser irradiation source 1 and with information-computing system 13 through program module 14 correcting contour of cutting in proportion to deformations created in material.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of laser cutting due to stable position (on the whole surface of sheet blank) of plane of focusing lens of cutter at cutting process, practically constant gap value between nozzle of cutter and blank surface.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: processes and equipment for gas-laser cutting of titanium and its alloys, possibly in different branches of power engineering and machine engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method is realized due to using technological gas being mixture of argon and oxygen and containing 15 -25% of oxygen. In order to cut metal of predetermined thickness, oxygen content in technological gas is determined depending upon cutting speed and quality of metal surface according to technological demands for cutting quality at maximally admissible cutting speed.

EFFECT: improved quality of cutting as oxygen content of technological gas in preset range completely prevents occurring of type-metal or makes it rare and small.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: physics; lasers.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to laser technology, particularly to the method of cutting pyrographite using laser, and can be used in instrument making, and mainly in electronics. Laser radiation with central mode TEM00 is focused on the material. The focus of the beam is directed on the surface of the material, while keeping the density of the incident power within the 106-107 W/cm2 range. The work piece is moved at speed ranging from 1 to 3 mm/s. The cutting process parameters are determined by the expression , where K is the coupling factor of parameters, chosen from the condition 7·10-5≤K≤12·10-5; f is the repetition frequency of the laser radiation, τ is the pulse duration of the laser radiation, d is the diameter of the spot of focused laser radiation, and h is the thickness of the work piece. A laser with yttrium aluminium garnet active element, with controlled distribution of power in the section of the beam is used.

EFFECT: high quality of cutting material with a smaller heat affected zone during optimum process modes.

2 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: cutting of sheet materials is realised with the help of cut sheet surface exposure to oxygen jet that flows from supersonic nozzle and laser radiation. Laser radiation is focused so that axis of beam coincides with the nozzle axis, beam focus is located inside the nozzle, and beam diameter on surface of cut plate exceeds output diameter of nozzle. Beam heats the metal to the temperature that is higher than burning temperature but is lower than melt temperature. Thickness of cut sheets is set by condition H/Da≤(0.8-1.2)P/P+5, where H is thickness of cut sheet, mm, Da is output diameter of nozzle, mm. Certain selection of cutting parameters, namely value of pressure in nozzle chamber and gap size between output section of nozzle and cut sheet, makes it possible to increase quality of cutting surface. Selection is done based on the following conditions: P/P=6.15/(D0/Da-A)-7.7 and δ/Da=1-2, where P is excess gas pressure in chamber, MPa; P is pressure of environment, MPa; A=0.2-0.3; D0 is critical diameter of gas nozzle, mm; Da is output diameter of gas nozzle, mm; δ is gap size between output section of nozzle and sheet surface, mm.

EFFECT: higher quality of cutting surface.

1 ex, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device includes bearing structures interconnected with gear-driven means for processing element relocation and program control system. Bearing structures are made as a support and means for processing element relocation is made as a rotary lever system including at least two levers being interconnected by one end with each other by means of hinge joint. The second end of the first lever is connected by means of hinge joint with support and the second end of the second lever has processing element mounted thereon. Another version includes bearing structures interconnected with gear-driven means for processing element relocation and program control system. To achieve the same technical result bearing structures are made as a support capable to move along guide ways, means for processing element relocation is made as a rotary lever system including at least two levers being interconnected by one end with each other by means of hinge joint. The second end of the first lever is fixed rigidly to the support and the second end of the second lever has processing element mounted thereon.

EFFECT: extension of manufacturing capability and increase of positioning accuracy.

10 cl, 4 dwg

Gas-laser cutter // 2368479

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises focusing lens (1), casing (2), branch pipe (3) for laser beam to pass there through at preset aperture angle and nozzle (5) arranged around aforesaid branch pipe and inclined to the lens optical axis to form gas supersonic jets. Branch pipe (3) has annular grooves (4) to make chamber for gas to be distributed between the nozzles. Axes of nozzles (5) intersect the lens axis at the point which makes that of intersection between processed surface and focusing lens axis to exploit entire kinetic power of supersonic jets onto processed surface.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of processing due to increased efficiency of gas mix effects.

1 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method and device for automatic control of laser cutting or hole drilling process. Method includes measurement of radiation reflected from zone of processing. Minimum value of reflected radiation amplitude is defined, compared to specified amplitude, and control of laser radiation capacity and/or cutting speed are controlled. Device comprises laser with power supply unit, rotary mirror, focusing lens, 2-coordinate table for fixation of processed part, unit of 2-coordinate table control, photodetector of secondary radiation and transformer of secondary radiation signal from photodetector, connected to unit of laser power supply and unit of 2-coordinate table control.

EFFECT: improved quality and capacity of through laser processing of materials.

2 cl, 1 dwg

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