Method for artificial lighting of plants in greenhouses
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of lighting technology and may be used to grow crops under artificial lighting. In method intensities of light flow and spectral composition of light source are periodically changed. Illumination of plants in sheltered ground structures is realised on the basis of principle of doubling natural daily rhythm due to smooth changeover of illumination level from night to day and back. Changeover takes place twice a day, with account of change in moon and sun spectra of radiation. Besides peaks of maximum daily illumination correspond to moments of upper, daily, and lower, night, culminations of sun. Ratio of light and dark periods duration depends on extent of vegetative ripeness and type of grown crops.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase crop capacity by optimisation of light mode, to increase speed of plants growth, to reduce consumption of electric energy, as well as to expand range of application.
The invention relates to lighting and can be used for growing flowers, vegetables, fruits and other agricultural products in the artificial light.
There is a method of growing plants of cucumber in artificial light, in which during the first 18 to 22 days after transplanting cucumbers produce radiation with an intensity equal to 25-30% of your maximum, then the following 14-16 days characterized by a maximum intensity values, and finally, the last 28-32 days irradiation intensity is gradually decreased to 28-30% of the maximum (EN 2131179 C1, 1999.06.10).
The disadvantage of this method is the inability to control the spectrum of the radiation irradiating luminous flux.
There is a method local shadowless lighting seedlings in closed from the external environment space with an adjustable hood, equipped with an artificial light source, which periodically change the area of the illuminated surface, the intensity of the light flux of the light source and the spectral composition of the illumination seedlings, and as an artificial light source are light-emitting diodes (EN 2006119966 AND, 2007.12.27).
The disadvantages of this method include the difficulty of practical implementation and the limited range of use.
The closest analogy is the ohms of the present invention (the prototype) is a method of artificial flash lighting plants, in which the lighting of crops is carried out by light pulses of adjustable intensity, frequency, duty cycle, and the light sources are made on the LEDs with different emission spectrum (EN 2326525 C2, 2008.06.20).
The disadvantages include the use of expensive equipment for implementing this method, the use of special structures protected soil and a limited range of use.
An object of the invention is to provide a method of artificial lighting on vegetable crops in greenhouses, allowing you to increase productivity by optimizing light conditions, to increase the rate of plant growth, reduce energy consumption and to extend the range of application.
This task is achieved by the fact that in the proposed method, the artificial lighting of vegetable crops in greenhouses, providing a periodic variation in intensity of the light flux and the spectral composition of the light source, the illumination of plants in buildings protected ground is based on the principle of doubling the natural circadian rhythm, i.e. a smooth transition illumination level from night to day and Vice versa, taking place twice a day, taking into account changes of the lunar and solar spectra, radiation, and maximum daily peaks is light coincide with the moments of the upper, day, and lower, night, the culmination of the sun, and the ratio of the length of light and dark periods depends on the degree of vegetative maturity and species grown vegetable crops.
A very important factor influencing the growth rate and the value of the crop in the greenhouse is light. The energy of light used by plants for photosynthesis and regulation of its development, germination, flowering, fruiting. At low light intensity is dominated by the processes of respiration of plants, energy for life comes at the expense of the collapse of previously synthesized compounds. Increasing light intensity increases proportionally photosynthesis. With further increase in irradiation photosynthesis slows down, then comes the phase of saturation.
At low light intensity plants turn out elongated. In radish, for example, root formation occurs with low activity, plants form flower stalks. The tomato and cucumber flowers fall, the fruit size is small, the taste of low quality.
The intense light can coordinate the photosynthesis, growth and development of plants, to increase yield, to obtain large fruit, high quality, significantly reduce the timing of vegetation. At the same time to grow greens in a strong light can be harmful, because the increase in leaf surface process plants is aetsa, the quality of the leaves is reduced, they turn yellow and become hard. Therefore, to ensure maximum productivity of vegetable crops decisive factor is the optimal choice of the level of illumination.
It is believed that solar (day) light is the best light, because the phylogenetic development of the plants was on it, plants are better adapted to it. The closer the spectral composition of artificial light to natural spectrum, the higher the efficiency of the plant. Daylight along with nutrients and water is one of the most important factors for growing plants. But daylight can not miss. Industry plant more inclined to use artificial lighting, which prolonged the growing season of plants, improves the control of the growth processes. Quality lighting will determine the success of the whole production.
When metering light in the greenhouse should focus on grown culture, properly adjusting the lighting and creating optimal conditions for its growth. Practice shows that for cucumber daylight should be 16 hours for tomatoes - 18 hours, and for rose to 19 hours. In some greenhouses practiced round the clock coverage. However, for normal fisiologicas the development of plants requires several hours of complete darkness. One must also consider the need for variable illumination of various plants short and long day.
Therefore, for optimal organization of artificial lighting in buildings protected ground is necessary to ensure a sufficient intensity of the required range and duration of light treatments while respecting the variational algorithm natural lighting changes - the transition from night to day and Vice versa.
The proposed method can improve the efficiency setordering processing plants by doubling the natural circadian rhythm. That is, within 24 hours the light intensity from the maximum to the minimum value smoothly changes twice, simulating night, sunrise, day, sunset, night again, etc. While the peaks of maximum illumination coincide with the top moments, day, and lower, night, the culmination of the sun: the maximum illumination (day) accounted for 12 hours and 24 hours, and the minimum (night) at 6 h and 18 h. Binding of extreme values of illumination to the solar culmination avoids violations of the natural biorhythms of the plants, and the spectral composition of the light irradiation corresponds to the solar and lunar spectra in the respective phases. The ratio of the length of light and dark periods for which isit the degree of vegetative maturity and species grown vegetable crops.
Doubling circadian rhythm accelerates plant growth, increase vegetative mass, decrease energy costs.
The proposed method can effectively be used as sunlight and artificial lighting, providing the necessary radiation mode all year round, it does not cause light "fatigue" of plants.
The proposed method can improve the yield by 6-11%.
The use of this method does not violate the ecology of the environment and does not cause genetic modifications of crops.
The way artificial light vegetable crops in greenhouses, providing a periodic variation in intensity of the light flux and the spectral composition of the light source, wherein the illumination of plants in buildings protected ground is based on the principle of doubling the natural circadian rhythm, i.e. a smooth transition illumination level from night to day and Vice versa, taking place twice a day, taking into account changes of the lunar and solar spectra irradiation, and the peaks of maximum daily light coincide with the top moments, day, and lower, night, the culmination of the sun, and the ratio of the length of light and dark periods depends on the degree of vegetative maturity and view virusiv is protected vegetable crops.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has a framework manufactured from profile metal elements connected with one another with screw anchoring elements. The greenhouse has posts, horizontal longitudinal beams attached to the posts, oblique and horizontal flooring joists connected with one another as well as with the posts as transverse triangular bents secured on the posts. The upper part of the bents carries roofing panels with transparent films. The greenhouse is equipped with roofing film coating with adjustable area. The coating is made as rolls carrying transparent film. The rolls are mounted with an ability to roll and unroll the film on the ceiling of the greenhose by means of a mechanism equipped with flexible tractional straps. The staps are connected with the elements of the roll structure, reeved through the block mounted inside and outside of the greenhouse and carry counterbalances on the free ends of the handle. The rolls are made as a cylindrical body coupled with pivot bolts on the ends and mounted with a capacity to rotate relative to the pivot bolts with a controlled value of slowdown, to set up tension of the film while unrolling the roll. The film is made with flexible bands attached to it with a sticker to prevent sliding of the roll along the ceiling while reeling the film.
EFFECT: reduced materials consumption of the structure at the same time preserving its reliability, as well as natural ventilation of the greenhouse is ensured and as well as use of rainfall without any hand work of the gardener when watering plants.
3 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, namely to the lamps aimed at growing the young plants, vegetables or flowers in domestic or industrial conditions and can be used in other national economy fields where individual lighting is required, for example in breeding different creatures. The feature of novelty consists in the fact that the LED plant spotlight is made as a square frame from "П"-shape beam channel; the light emitting diodes are set at the plates; the plates are set in one row in transparent tight dome lights with the latter being mounted inside the casing with a gap in respect to each other in several parallel rows so that central axles of the LED light flows are directed in the same direction to the front casing surface and perpendicular to its plane.
EFFECT: manufacturing of a plant spotlight having low temperature of the casing heating and low power supply voltage and being strong, insensitive to splashes, not preventing the radiation of the outer light sources to come to the lit item and able to provide for the spectral radiation optimal for PAR considering the plant development stage and species and allowing for the alteration of the radiation and exposure time if necessary.
14 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: agriculture and plant cultivation.
SUBSTANCE: claimed material contains luminophors with luminescence in spectral range of 400-500 nm, 500-600 nm, 600-750 nm, and 1200-2000 nm. Luminescence intensity ratio in ranges blue:jade:red is (2-3):(2-4):(4-5), and in IR:PAR (photosynthetic active radiation) is 1:(1.15-2). Material has thickness of 120 mum and is obtained by extrusion of granulated polyethylene and mixture of said luminophors. Material of present invention is useful for plant cultivation in frame area.
EFFECT: accelerated plant growth and maturation, improved yielding capability, decreased morbidity and late blight lesion, improved taste, odor, vendibility, and increased storage time after cropping.
3 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to biochemistry, physiology and biotechnology of plants. The method includes superficial impact by the sterilising agent on initial culture. Thus the impact means the initial culture dipping into the sterilising agent that is to be iodine-polivinilpirrolidon. The impact is carried out during 5-15 minutes. The sterilising agent can contain from 9 % to 12 % active iodine. Final concentration of free iodine in the sterilising agent is 0.02-0.03 %. The whole vegetative high water plant can also be taken as initial culture.
EFFECT: new method for the axenic culture of the high water plants production.
4 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the sphere of geobotany, preservation of the environment, rational wildlife management and can be used in bioindication of reconstruction processes of vegetation middle-aged fields after pasturable degradation. The method is characterised by certain kinds of plants that appear in phytocenosis: the initial vegetative community is presented by association - fescue (Festuca valesiaca Gaudin) + Aneurolepidium branched (Leymus ramosus (Trin.) the first stage of pasturable degradation is presented by association - Aneurolepidium branched (Leymus ramosus (Trin.) Tzvel.) Austrian absinthe (Artemisia austriaca Jacq.); second stage of pasturable degradation is presented by - Austrian absinthe (Artemisia austriaca Jacq.) Isen (Kochia prostrata (L.)).
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase precision and determine the pasturable degradation in a short time.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to geobotany and ecology. Method for separation heath plant degradation upon condition of anthropogenic effect. Is based on phytocoenose's composition and structure change: dominating of feather grass, yield 12-14 dt/ha - quasi natural community; herb bunchgrass steppe, 4-8 synanthropic species, yield 9-10 dt/ha - first stage degradation; heath communities convergence with codominating of synanthropic species, 8-14 synanthropic species, yield 8-10 dt/ha - second stage degradation; monodominant associations of synanthropic species, and common specie number 10-15, 7-8 synanthropic species, yield 2-3 dt/ha - third stage degradation.
EFFECT: method enables geobotanical vegetation heath land-utilisation optimisation monitoring.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and gardening invention relates to the field of agriculture and forestry. The method is based on plant's processing with sequence of magnetic strength impulses by means of an inductor. The garden strawberry's processing is held at stage of early growth and flowering. The plants are processed with sequence of 32 magnetic strength impulses, with frequency of 16 Hz and range of 0.5-3.0 mT while the vectors are directed upward.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase garden strawberry yield and vegetative productivity.
1 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and forestry. In method fluctuations of crop yield are accounted depending on structure of phytocenosis in the form of grass cover, required accuracy of crop yield measurements is specified based on tests of grass on sample sites. Grass samples testing data is statistically processed from sample sites at near-bed, central and near-terrace flood plains and also in meadows with uneven and mosaic arrangement of grass types in each phytocenosis as components of grass cover. Prior to planting of sample sites, without measurement of distances between them, area is reconnoitered with grass cover selected for measurements, schematic map or topographic map is made to locate components of grass cover by results of geodesic measurements and photographs taking. Afterwards at each component of grass cover at least one temporary sample site is arranged, in cut sample of grass, raw and air-dry mass of sample is determined by weighing, and crop yield by group of components and grass cover as a whole is calculated as values of average weighted value from crop yields of grass samples.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve accuracy and to reduce labour intensiveness of measurements by results of testing grass samples cut from sample sites on the territory of complex multi-component grass cover.
8 cl, 9 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of electric biotechnologies and may be used in biology, medicine, agriculture. Device comprises a source of power supply, clock oscillator, pulse transformer, conductivity analyser, electronic switchboards, electrodes. Besides it comprises controlled capacitance accumulator, which is connected by the first inlet to the first terminal of power supply source and the first terminal of primary winding in pulse transformer. The second terminal of winding is connected to inlet of the first electronic switchboard. Clock oscillator by its outlet is connected to inlet of the first electronic switchboard and control inlet of capacitance accumulator, inverse outlet of which is connected to control inlet of the second electronic switchboard. Analyser of conductivity by its inlet is connected to the first outlet of the secondary winding of pulse transformer, by its outlet it is connected to inlet of the second electronic switchboard, by its control outlet it is connected to control inlet of the third electronic switchboard, inlet of which is connected to outlet of capacitance accumulator, and outlet is connected to outlet of the second electronic switchboard and the first electrode. Besides the second outlet of power supply source, outlet of the first electronic switchboard, the second terminal of pulse transformer secondary winding, the second inlet of capacitance accumulator and the second electrode are connected to common wire.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify design, reduce dimensions and weight, to produce high efficiency factor and wide range of application.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and forestry. In method vegetable tissues are frozen at the temperatures that smoothly rise from -70°C, and at the same time an index is measured, which characterises their condition. At each temperature in material tissues resonant cantilever-bending oscillations are excited, and mechanical losses are measured, a curve of dependence between tangent of mechanical losses angle and temperature is built. Threshold of frost resistance is the temperature that corresponds to maximum of mechanical losses in this sample.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to more reliably detect frost resistance temperature of vegetable tissue in a relatively short period of time.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, to plant growing under conditions of protected soil structures, in particular to photoculture. The method is realised as follows: sources of radiation are used to generate a flow of optical radiation that plants are exposed to with distribution of this flow energy being normative for this crop plants or current phase of their development along photosynthetic active radiation spectral ranges, actual shares of each radiation source are specified or measured in each spectral range, values of plant radiation process energy intensity are detected in process of these source of radiation application, to radiate plants, sources of radiation are used with minimum value of energy intensity.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to reduce energy intensity of plants radiation process.
2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to protection of plants. In method timing of sowing is changed in conditions of Predbaikalia. Sowing of spring wheat for reduction of pathogens harmfulness is carried out on the 26th of April without application of pesticides.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce vulnerability of spring wheat to root rot and Septoria spot and to increase yield.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agriculture, particularly to horticulture. The method consists in treatment of growing trees with a preparation corresponding to a mixture of suspensions of micro-organism strains Pseudomonas species 17-2 and Bacillus subtilis B-14 taken at ratio 1:1 with concentration (2-5)×107 of cells/ml. Also trees are treated in terms of 5-10 ml of suspension per one fruit tree. Vegetative fruit trees are treated starting from a phenological stage "end of blossoming" to a phenological phase "beginning of fruit growth" including.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of fruit trees protection from fungus diseases and reduced consumption rate of preparation.
2 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: agricultural production, in particular, plant growing.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has device for measuring area of stem section and working tools. On the basis of measurements, voltage supplied to working tools is adjusted. Optimal conditions are created for plant treatment regardless of diameter of stems. Also, power consumption is reduced owing to employment of end switches adapted for automatic switching-off of power units of working tools in case of "idle stroke".
EFFECT: increased efficiency and reduced power consumption.