Method for artificial lighting of plants in greenhouses

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of lighting technology and may be used to grow crops under artificial lighting. In method intensities of light flow and spectral composition of light source are periodically changed. Illumination of plants in sheltered ground structures is realised on the basis of principle of doubling natural daily rhythm due to smooth changeover of illumination level from night to day and back. Changeover takes place twice a day, with account of change in moon and sun spectra of radiation. Besides peaks of maximum daily illumination correspond to moments of upper, daily, and lower, night, culminations of sun. Ratio of light and dark periods duration depends on extent of vegetative ripeness and type of grown crops.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase crop capacity by optimisation of light mode, to increase speed of plants growth, to reduce consumption of electric energy, as well as to expand range of application.

 

The invention relates to lighting and can be used for growing flowers, vegetables, fruits and other agricultural products in the artificial light.

There is a method of growing plants of cucumber in artificial light, in which during the first 18 to 22 days after transplanting cucumbers produce radiation with an intensity equal to 25-30% of your maximum, then the following 14-16 days characterized by a maximum intensity values, and finally, the last 28-32 days irradiation intensity is gradually decreased to 28-30% of the maximum (EN 2131179 C1, 1999.06.10).

The disadvantage of this method is the inability to control the spectrum of the radiation irradiating luminous flux.

There is a method local shadowless lighting seedlings in closed from the external environment space with an adjustable hood, equipped with an artificial light source, which periodically change the area of the illuminated surface, the intensity of the light flux of the light source and the spectral composition of the illumination seedlings, and as an artificial light source are light-emitting diodes (EN 2006119966 AND, 2007.12.27).

The disadvantages of this method include the difficulty of practical implementation and the limited range of use.

The closest analogy is the ohms of the present invention (the prototype) is a method of artificial flash lighting plants, in which the lighting of crops is carried out by light pulses of adjustable intensity, frequency, duty cycle, and the light sources are made on the LEDs with different emission spectrum (EN 2326525 C2, 2008.06.20).

The disadvantages include the use of expensive equipment for implementing this method, the use of special structures protected soil and a limited range of use.

An object of the invention is to provide a method of artificial lighting on vegetable crops in greenhouses, allowing you to increase productivity by optimizing light conditions, to increase the rate of plant growth, reduce energy consumption and to extend the range of application.

This task is achieved by the fact that in the proposed method, the artificial lighting of vegetable crops in greenhouses, providing a periodic variation in intensity of the light flux and the spectral composition of the light source, the illumination of plants in buildings protected ground is based on the principle of doubling the natural circadian rhythm, i.e. a smooth transition illumination level from night to day and Vice versa, taking place twice a day, taking into account changes of the lunar and solar spectra, radiation, and maximum daily peaks is light coincide with the moments of the upper, day, and lower, night, the culmination of the sun, and the ratio of the length of light and dark periods depends on the degree of vegetative maturity and species grown vegetable crops.

A very important factor influencing the growth rate and the value of the crop in the greenhouse is light. The energy of light used by plants for photosynthesis and regulation of its development, germination, flowering, fruiting. At low light intensity is dominated by the processes of respiration of plants, energy for life comes at the expense of the collapse of previously synthesized compounds. Increasing light intensity increases proportionally photosynthesis. With further increase in irradiation photosynthesis slows down, then comes the phase of saturation.

At low light intensity plants turn out elongated. In radish, for example, root formation occurs with low activity, plants form flower stalks. The tomato and cucumber flowers fall, the fruit size is small, the taste of low quality.

The intense light can coordinate the photosynthesis, growth and development of plants, to increase yield, to obtain large fruit, high quality, significantly reduce the timing of vegetation. At the same time to grow greens in a strong light can be harmful, because the increase in leaf surface process plants is aetsa, the quality of the leaves is reduced, they turn yellow and become hard. Therefore, to ensure maximum productivity of vegetable crops decisive factor is the optimal choice of the level of illumination.

It is believed that solar (day) light is the best light, because the phylogenetic development of the plants was on it, plants are better adapted to it. The closer the spectral composition of artificial light to natural spectrum, the higher the efficiency of the plant. Daylight along with nutrients and water is one of the most important factors for growing plants. But daylight can not miss. Industry plant more inclined to use artificial lighting, which prolonged the growing season of plants, improves the control of the growth processes. Quality lighting will determine the success of the whole production.

When metering light in the greenhouse should focus on grown culture, properly adjusting the lighting and creating optimal conditions for its growth. Practice shows that for cucumber daylight should be 16 hours for tomatoes - 18 hours, and for rose to 19 hours. In some greenhouses practiced round the clock coverage. However, for normal fisiologicas the development of plants requires several hours of complete darkness. One must also consider the need for variable illumination of various plants short and long day.

Therefore, for optimal organization of artificial lighting in buildings protected ground is necessary to ensure a sufficient intensity of the required range and duration of light treatments while respecting the variational algorithm natural lighting changes - the transition from night to day and Vice versa.

The proposed method can improve the efficiency setordering processing plants by doubling the natural circadian rhythm. That is, within 24 hours the light intensity from the maximum to the minimum value smoothly changes twice, simulating night, sunrise, day, sunset, night again, etc. While the peaks of maximum illumination coincide with the top moments, day, and lower, night, the culmination of the sun: the maximum illumination (day) accounted for 12 hours and 24 hours, and the minimum (night) at 6 h and 18 h. Binding of extreme values of illumination to the solar culmination avoids violations of the natural biorhythms of the plants, and the spectral composition of the light irradiation corresponds to the solar and lunar spectra in the respective phases. The ratio of the length of light and dark periods for which isit the degree of vegetative maturity and species grown vegetable crops.

Doubling circadian rhythm accelerates plant growth, increase vegetative mass, decrease energy costs.

The proposed method can effectively be used as sunlight and artificial lighting, providing the necessary radiation mode all year round, it does not cause light "fatigue" of plants.

The proposed method can improve the yield by 6-11%.

The use of this method does not violate the ecology of the environment and does not cause genetic modifications of crops.

The way artificial light vegetable crops in greenhouses, providing a periodic variation in intensity of the light flux and the spectral composition of the light source, wherein the illumination of plants in buildings protected ground is based on the principle of doubling the natural circadian rhythm, i.e. a smooth transition illumination level from night to day and Vice versa, taking place twice a day, taking into account changes of the lunar and solar spectra irradiation, and the peaks of maximum daily light coincide with the top moments, day, and lower, night, the culmination of the sun, and the ratio of the length of light and dark periods depends on the degree of vegetative maturity and view virusiv is protected vegetable crops.



 

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