Multi-layer pipe out of composite material
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: multi-layer pipe is made out of composite material corresponding to reinforced materials in form of alternate mono-layers with cross and lengthwise laying of reinforced material impregnated, for example with thermo-reactive binding. Binding consists of internal and external structure layers divided with a barrier layer. The barrier layer is made out of a layer of heat insulating foam applied on external surface of the internal structure layer and of an additional layer arranged between the layer of heat insulating foam and internal surface of the external structure layer. The latter corresponds to successively lain metal screens out of continuous bands divided with polymer material.
EFFECT: increased heat resistance of wall of multi-layer pipe.
5 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to the field of composite fibrous material and can be used for the manufacture of tubular products, in particular multilayer pipes for hot water supply systems of centralized and decentralized heat and water supply.
Currently, it is increasingly clear that the most effective way to reduce or limit consumption of energy is more efficient to use. In the field of housing and utilities of the vast reserves of energy conservation associated with the prevention of loss during transportation of the fluids in the system, heat and water. Use in district heating systems, steel or copper pipes is irrational, because their transport, handling, Assembly and insulation remains very expensive. In addition, problems with corrosion, which often manifest in these pipelines, significantly reduce the time of operation, requiring constant repair.
It is known that non-metallic pipes, for example, different polymer structures, successfully replace steel and metal pipes [see description to the patent of Russian Federation №2224160, MCL F16L 9/12, publ. 10.12.2002,]. However, the problem of diffusion of gases, water vapor through polymeric materials limits their functional the possibilities due to the significant heat losses.
It is known for the use of GRP pipes due to their high physical-chemical properties, as they possess great strength, as well as specific properties like fire resistance, corrosion resistance, water and funginertness. Fiberglass in combination with polyester, epoxy, phenol-formaldehyde and other resins allows you to get the materials, strength surpassing the best grade of steel, resistant against aggressive environments, well-opposing shock and vibration loads [Mallinson j. The use of products made of glass-reinforced plastics in chemical industries. Transl. from English. Ed. Vielbein and Semperon. - M.: Chemistry, 1971, 240 S.].
However, the successful use of pipes made of fiberglass (FRP) possible with additional measures insulation of pipes due to insufficient thermal resistance of the pipe material due to the relatively small wall thickness.
It is known that to provide the necessary mechanical strength and corrosion resistance pipe fiberglass should be layered. Typical structure of the tube includes an inner chemical-resistant layer, the second layer, which together with the first provides structural integrity and chemical resistance of the pipe [Mallinson j. The use of products made of glass-reinforced plastics in imicheskih industries. Transl. from English. Ed. Vielbein and Semperon. - M.: Chemistry, 1971, 240 S.]. To ensure the impermeability of the walls of the articles made of composite fibrous materials (CME), as well as improving the moisture resistance of the composite-fiber systems (CWS) is recommended to apply a layer of foil or a flexible film material [Tsyplakov OG Design products made of composite fibrous materials. - Leningrad: Mashinostroenie, Leningrad. separa-tion, 1984, s].
However, the proposed measures to improve the design of the pipe did not address issues of reducing heat loss, which also limited the functionality of the composite fibrous materials and composites-fiber systems.
A known system of pipes for supply of water, preferably hot for district heating, Central heating and/or water supply, consisting of a multilayer pipes made of polymeric material, heat insulation, environmental multilayer pipe, and the outer sheath, in which the multilayer pipe includes a pipe body preferably made of cross linked polyethylene and the barrier layer of liquid crystal polymer [see description to the patent of Russian Federation №2224160, MCL F16L 9/12, publ. 10.12.2002,]. Multilayer pipe may include one or more intermediate layers of connective material between the pipe body and the barrier layer. Systems which may include at least two multilayer pipes, prisoners inside outer shell.
The above-described technical solution ensures pipes for hot water supply systems, which have considerable advantages compared to metal pipes and satisfactory performance relative to diffusion of gases and water.
However, the strength characteristics of polymer component of the pipe at high temperatures is significantly reduced, which limits the period of use of the system described above. Moreover, such tubes, in the case of applications for heating, is not protected from losses of energy due to radiation of heat into the environment.
Closest in purpose, technical essence and the achieved result when using the claimed solution is a pipe made of composite materials made of reinforcing materials in the form of alternating monolayers with transverse and longitudinal stacking reinforcing material is impregnated with, for example, thermosetting binder, consisting of inner and outer structural layers separated by a barrier layer [see RF patent №2221183, MCL F16L 9/12, publ. 10.01.2004,]. The inner and outer structural layers separated by a barrier layer with a high content of binder. Reinforcing material is laid in a zigzag, the top of each loop fixed clamping glass yarns, education is UYa cross longitudinal transverse structure, in which each subsequent monolayer offset from the previous one in the longitudinal direction and in the circumferential direction.
The above solution has high integrity, strength and other positive qualities of fiberglass pipes. However, their use in heat supply systems limited by the low thermal resistance of the pipe material due to the relatively small wall thickness.
Therefore, the aim of the proposed technical solution is to increase thermal resistance of the wall of multilayer pipes, in particular, of a composite material.
This objective is achieved in that in the known multi-layer pipe made of composite materials made of reinforcing materials in the form of alternating monolayers with transverse and longitudinal stacking reinforcing material is impregnated with, for example, thermosetting binder, consisting of inner and outer structural layers separated by a barrier layer, according to the invention the barrier layer is made of a layer of insulating foam applied to the outer surface of the inner structural layer and the additional layer located between the layer of insulating foam and the inner surface of the outer structural layer, made in the form sequentially from the its metal screens from continuous strips, divided polymeric material.
According to the invention the metal screens made of metallized on two sides of a polymer composite material.
According to the invention the metal screens made of stepped metallized on two sides of a polymer composite material.
According to the invention the metal screen is made by winding a metallized on two sides of the polymer material, while the next layer is separated from the previous layer polymer composite material.
According to the invention the metal screens are made continuous winding of metallized on two sides of the polymer material, with each next step is separated from the previous layer polymer composite material.
According to the invention as a gas metallizing layers of polymeric material used metals from a number of aluminum, chromium, Nickel, copper, tin or alloys based on them.
As can be seen from the statement of the essence of the proposed technical solution, it differs from the prototype and, therefore, is new.
Technical solution involves an inventive step. The basis of the invention is the task of improving multilayer pipes made of composite material, in which, following the implementation of the barrier layer from the layer of heat is hitlerowsa foam, deposited on the surface of the inner structural layer and the additional layer located between the layer of insulating foam and the inner surface of the outer structural layer, made in the form of sequentially stacked metal screens from a continuous speed strips separated by a polymeric material, is provided a new technical result. It lies in the fact that the heat flow from the inner structural layer not only inhibited insulating foam due to its low thermal conductivity, but also "locked" inside the product due to multiple reflections from metal screens, between which there are no gaps that would serve as a place unimpeded heat transfer from layer to layer and further to the outer structural layer. The stepped nature of the layers provides localization of heat in separate cells, reducing the likelihood of loss due to the presence of local temperature gradients along thermal network. Due to this, the temperature of the outer surface of the outer structural layer remains almost equal to the ambient temperature when the temperature to 115°C. Thus, heat loss is practically reduced to zero.
Know the use of thermal insulation in stekloplastikovyh insulated t is Ubah, designed to reduce heat loss [see Greulich VI, Stekloplastikovye insulated pipes. Magazine "Plumbing", No. 6, 2005]. High thermal insulating ability of the design ensures high efficiency of heat pipes, which allows for a 20-30°C to reduce the required temperature of the coolant at the outlet of the boiler.
The proposed solution is fundamentally different from the above fact that heated to the temperature of the coolant of the internal structural layer is itself a source of thermal radiation and in the above case (Greilich VI) infrared radiation heats the environment. The proposed technical solution, the radiant energy "locked" inside the product are numerous, for example, aluminum (because they have a small degree of blackness) screens.
The proposed solution is industrially applicable, because it can be used for the manufacture of multilayer pipes made of composite materials in modern technological equipment, and products made on the basis of this technical solution, can also be used in the most extreme conditions - in shipbuilding, aviation, rocket technology, equipment, petrochemical and gas industry, including the supply in the housing and comm the national economy.
The proposed multi-layer pipe made of composite materials illustrates the drawing.
Pipe made of composite materials 1 consists of an inner and outer structural layer 2, between which is located the barrier layer consisting of a layer of insulating foam 3 and layer sequentially stacked n=5-6 metal screens 4, made of a continuous speed metal bands, and located between a layer of insulating foam and the inner surface of the outer structural layer. Metal screens are alternately separated by layers of a polymer or polymer composite material 5. Metal screens can be made in the form of step metallized on two sides of the polymer film.
The formation of the proposed multilayer pipes made of composite materials is carried out by the method of continuous winding, similar to those described in the book "the Manufacture of GRP pipes" [see Andreev GY, Serdjukov G., Shevchenko VA, Dardik YA - Kharkov: Publishing house of KSU, 1964, 62 S.].
As can be seen from the description of the essence of the proposed technical solution, tube, made on the basis of the proposed technical solutions, capable of providing a temperature difference from the temperature of the coolant to the ambient temperature, that is, to minimize heat loss to the environment,which in turn will allow, for example, to reduce the temperature of the coolant and reduce heating costs, for example, in utilities.
1. Multi-layer pipe made of composite materials made of reinforcing materials in the form of alternating monolayers with transverse and longitudinal stacking reinforcing material is impregnated with, for example, thermosetting binder, consisting of inner and outer structural layers separated by a barrier layer, wherein the barrier layer is made of a layer of insulating foam applied to the outer surface of the inner structural layer and the additional layer located between the layer of insulating foam and the inner surface of the outer structural layer, made in the form of sequentially stacked metal screens of continuous strips separated by a polymeric material.
2. Multi-layer tube made of composite material according to claim 1, characterized in that the metal screens made of metallized on two sides of a polymer composite material.
3. Multi-layer pipe made of composite material according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the metal screens made of stepped metallized on two sides of a polymer composite material.
4. Multi-layer pipe made of composite material is in according to claim 3, characterized in that the metal screen is made by winding a metallized on two sides of the polymer material, while the next layer is separated from the previous layer polymer composite material.
5. Multi-layer pipe made of composite material according to claim 2, characterized in that as the gas metallizing layers of polymeric material used metals from a number of aluminum, chromium, Nickel, copper, tin or alloys based on them.
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparation of a mixture containing 5-50 wt % filler and 95-50 wt % low density polyethylene and 0-3 wt % of one or more stabilisers.The obtained mixture and high density polyethylene containing at least one low-molecular component which is a copolymer of ethylene and C3-C10 α-olefin are mixed in a molten mass until the end product is obtained at drop point of 165-185°C. The obtained composition for making tubes contains 1-20 wt % filler in terms of mass of the composition.
EFFECT: composition has better balance of properties and can be extruded with sufficiently high efficiency at optimal low melt temperature.
19 cl, 3 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to pipe of flaky composite material and method of its manufacturing. Method for manufacturing of pipe includes winding of inner glass plastic layer onto mandrel, bonding of intermediate foam plastic layer and winding of ribs and outer layer of glass plastic. In intermediate foam plastic layer there are circular grooves arranged for location of ribs. Ribs and outer layer is wound in a single technological operation by bundle of cross threads. Bundles are equipped with longitudinal threads, using method of cross-fibred longitudinal-transverse winding. At the same time longitudinal threads are bent as bundle changes from winding of external layer to winding of ribs and back with filling of each groove by mentioned bundle till ribs are formed.
EFFECT: improved manufacturability and reliability of glass plastic pipes operation.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to pipe fabrication. The pressed shell containing layers of roll woven cloth with binding is made with circular layers of woven material in form of separate strips of length not less, than length of shell and width equal to perimetre of the latter with overlap.
EFFECT: increased reliability and expanded process functionality of pressed shell.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: meshed cover in the form of rotation body from composite materials includes spiral and circular ribs comprised of layers repeated throughout the cover wall thickness of the systems of crossing spiral and circular strips. Inclined strip passages between circular strips are equally offset relative to each other in circumferential and spiral directions and are made in the form of one family of congruent continuous circular zigzag-shaped spirals located along circular surfaces, which is common to circular surfaces of layers of the systems of crossing spiral and circular strips. Tops of zigzags are adjacent to circular strips of circular ribs crossing in the gap between them with spiral strips or spiral and circular strips of spiral and circular ribs correspondingly so that circular zigzag-shaped ribs are formed and mainly arranged on cover ends.
EFFECT: increasing rigidity, improving reliability and decreasing the weight of the design.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method for manufacturing of pipeline. Method provides for filling of space between ends of pipe composite layers by winding of fibrous material impregnated with binder, and attachment of composite layers is provided via winding of additional layers of fibrous material impregnated with binder on them and onto fibrous material with further polymerisation.
EFFECT: expansion of assembly resources and improved reliability after welding of pipe polymer layers.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of pipes from plastic masses. In method of combined pipe manufacturing, including arrangement of sealing thermoplastic layer on technological mandrel, winding of fibrous material with binder and polymerisation, sealing layer is arranged by winding of extruded thermoplastic tape onto mandrel with overlap and simultaneous heating of joint of the latter in process of winding, then layer of woven cellular fibrous material is wound with partial penetration into uncooled sealing layer, and fibrous material with binder is laid over this layer with further polymerisation.
EFFECT: improved reliability.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of pipes production from composite materials. In method for production of pipe, including installation of polymer pipe on mandrel, arrangement of primer layer on it, winding of fibrous material with binder and polymerisation, after installation of polymer pipe onto mandrel its surface layer is heated till yield state, and primer layer is arranged on it by means of woven cellular material winding on it, and then fibrous material is wound with binder and polymerised.
EFFECT: improved reliability.
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed air duct can feed air in the temperature range of minus 55°C to plus 85°C and at load with pressure difference relative to aircraft cabin inside pressure not exceeding ±500 GPa. Air duct outer or inner side is furnished with multi-layer reinforcing coat. Every layer has a number of coils formed by at least one continuous fiber. Coils of layers arranged one above another are wound in opposite directions to form the coat cellular structure. Air duct is made from foamed or dense plastic material. Aforesaid continuous fibers are enclosed by matrix made from either thermosetting plastic or thermoplastic polymer. Distance between said coils or angle of inclination between them and air duct lengthwise axis varies along said axis to change coils density along air duct lengthwise axis depending upon local requirements to air duct mechanical strain.
EFFECT: air duct reduced weight and increased strength.
12 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves overlapped winding of annular woven fabric layers on elastic mandrel in the form of straps with length not less than length of cover and width equal to perimetre of the latter; each annular layer is fixed with spiral winding of textile fibre, and after all layers are wound and fixed, woven fabric is stitched with zigzag seam of thread made from fibrous material, woven fabric is soaked with bonding agent, drying, installation in split die, heating of assembly and polymerisation, and after it is completed, assembly is cooled, cover with mandrel is removed from die and taken from mandrel.
EFFECT: enlarging manufacturing capabilities and improving reliability.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for creation of pipeline in different fields of engineering, for instance in construction, communal services and in metal mining industry at transportation of polluted waste water, loose products, pulps, mountain mass and other liquids, containing solid phase. Pipe is implemented of multilayer composite - fibrous material. It is formed in the form of alternating mono-layers with transversal and longitudinal folding of reinforcing material, impregnated by binding. In structure of pipe material it is provided protective inner layer, which allows reduced content of binding and particularly is impregnated by longitudinal fibers as compared with other layers of pipe. Mono-layers of protective layer are oriented in longitudinal section of pipe by direction to its axis under acute angle to direction of flow of relocatable bodies.
EFFECT: there is increased durability of pipe ensured by increasing of hydroabrasive durability.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: pipeline engineering.
SUBSTANCE: pipe has wall provided with flat sections. The longitudinal projections and mating hollows are provided in the middle of opposite flat sections of the wall.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of joining.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: plastic pipes.
SUBSTANCE: in biplastic pipe with inner layer made of thermoplast, outer layer made of glass plastic and grooves made on outer surface of inner layer, depth of grooves h is determined by formula h>Δα·Δt·din, where Δα is difference in coefficients of linear thermal expansion of materials of inner and outer layers; Δt is difference in maximum and minimum temperatures of transferred medium; din is outer diameter of inner layer.
EFFECT: improved strength and operation reliability of biplastic pipe.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: plastic pipes.
SUBSTANCE: in proposed biplastic pipe with inner layer made of thermoplast, outer layer of glass plastic and stiffening ribs secured on outer surface of inner layer, height of stiffening ribs h is determined by formula h>Δα·Δt·din, where Δα is different of coefficients of linear thermal expansion of materials of inner and outer layers; Δt is difference in maximum and minimum temperatures of transferred medium; din is outer diameter of inner layer.
EFFECT: improved strength and operation reliability of biplastic pipe.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: rigid pipes.
SUBSTANCE: cylinder wall comprises at least one layer made of fibers oriented at least in one direction. The total thickness of the wall dtot ranges from 0.010 mm to 1 mm. The ratio dtot/D ≥ 0.0025.
EFFECT: improved method of manufacturing.
20 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: pipeline engineering.
SUBSTANCE: polymeric reinforced pipe comprises grid frame made of longitudinal metallic rods and transverse rods made of high-module fibers or cords wound along the longitudinal rods. The grid frame in the polymeric unit has additional lateral layer made of metallic rods wound directly on the longitudinal metallic rods. The transverse reinforcing rods made of high-module fibers are wound to provide several mutually perpendicular layers and are housed in the polymeric unit from the outer side of the layer of the metallic transverse rods. The method comprises feeding the longitudinal metallic reinforcing rods to the mandrel, making the layer of transverse reinforce made of high-module fibers, and filling the frame with a polymer. The transverse reinforcing layer made of metallic rod is directly wound on the metallic longitudinal rods, the frame is filled with a polymer, and then several mutually perpendicular layers of the transverse rods are wound on the surface obtained. The polymer is poured again. The longitudinal metallic rods are fed to the mandrel until the cross-section of the pipe is defined.
EFFECT: enhanced strength.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: pipeline engineering.
SUBSTANCE: reinforced polymeric pipe comprises inner and outer polymeric layer and reinforcing layer interposed between them and made of high-module fibers or cords, at least two layers of longitudinal rods and transverse rods wound on the longitudinal rods. The longitudinal rod is provided with thickenings throughout its length. The longitudinal rods of the first layer are submerged under the outer surface of the inner polymeric layer at a depth close to the half thickening. The method comprises making inner polymeric layer, laying the first layer of the longitudinal rods on its outer side, wounding transverse rods with interference, and forming the outer polymeric layer. Before laying, the longitudinal rods are provided with thickenings, and the outer side of the inner polymeric layer is heated up to plasticizing down to a depth of close to the half thickness. When winding the first transverse layer, the tension is chosen sufficient for the embedding the thickenings of the first layer of the longitudinal reinforce into the plasticized layer throughout its depth.
EFFECT: improved adhesion of reinforce with polymer.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: polymer materials.
SUBSTANCE: composition contains 0.05 to 0.24 hydrolyzable silane groups per 100 methylene units and shows standard density at least 954 kg/m3. Flowability factor of composition melt is below 1.5 g/10 min under loading 5 kg and above 2 g/10 min under loading 21.6 kg as measured in accordance with ASTM standard D 1238. Tube manufacture process envisages extrusion of composition in the form of tube in the first stage and subsequent hydrolysis of the tube in order to link cross-linkable polyethylene. Tubes manufactured according to present invention show high long-term resistance to pressure above 12.5 MPa as measured according to ISO/TR standard 9080 and can be used for transportation of fluid substances under high pressure.
EFFECT: improved consumer's quality of tubes.
13 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: manufacture of plastic pipes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes placing the thermoplastic envelope on mandrel followed by winding fibrous material containing binder on this envelope and applying the outer polymer layer; then, polymerization is accomplished; twisted roving is used for wrapping the fibrous material at cross position of cords with through passages in between them; these passages are filled with thermoplastic melt for forming outer layer from this melt or by winding thermoplastic tape.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
FIELD: construction engineering; manufacture of plastic pipes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed pipe has metal branch pipe with locking components, thermoplastic envelope embracing them and reinforcing glass-reinforced plastic layer. Pipe is provided with crimping coupling of thermoplastic envelope in zone of locking components; metal branch pipe is fitted with additional locking component and glass-reinforced layer embraces crimping coupling and additional locking component.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; pipe transport.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in laying plastic pipelines. Proposed biplastic pipe contains carrying layer made of glass plastic, lining layer and locking rings arranged along pipe axis. Lining layer is formed by winding thermoplastic material on pole to form T-shaped locking rings with winding of glass fabric impregnated with phenol-formaldehyde resin with subsequent solidifying of resin and melting of thermoplastic material. Caoutchouc-based raw calendered rubber is used as thermoplastic material, or polyethylene, polypropylene or polyvinylchloride film. Pipe is provided with bell for connecting the pipes with subsequent melting of lining layer in place of contact in bell part. To reinforce connection of pipes, sleeve-band is used which is arranged on outer surface of bell part. Pipe-to-pipe joint is reinforced by welding stainless material inserts.
EFFECT: improved reliability of pipeline.
6 cl, 5 dwg