Building frame

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: building, for instance residential building or pavilion, comprises frame, which consists of several parallel frame elements arranged at the distance from each other. Frame elements consist of two vertical stands and at least one horizontal beam each. Frame elements are connected into frame of building by means of beams, which are fixed to their vertical stands from the outside. To connect stands and beams, angles of steel sheet are applied, which have holes on their shelves to pull through connection elements (screws) and/or dowels stamped on shelves of angles and bent as nail plates. In frame of frame elements with vertical stands and horizontal beams to connect frame elements and to longitudinally reinforce the frame, there are beams provided, which are installed between vertical stands and are fixed. Beams carry wall elements, which inside adjoin thrusts on vertical stands. Preferably wall elements and beams are previously assembled units, which are installed between vertical stands as pressed to thrusts, and then beams are fixed on vertical stands.

EFFECT: increased strength of frame.

70 cl, 21 dwg

 

The invention relates to a frame for a building of any kind, the frame which forms the basic frame of the building (the building), for example, a dwelling house or pavilion consists of vertical columns and horizontal beams, and provided at least two frame elements, each of which consists of at least two uprights and at least one associated with them, the horizontal beam and frame elements spaced from each other and connected to each other.

The frame for the building of the specified kind is known from US 3662502 A.

From US 4869036 And know the building, which has a frame made of vertical bars and horizontal beams. Horizontal beams are located top and bottom of the vertical posts. In the fields between the vertical uprights on the outside can be used wall elements, which are located between the horizontal beams and vertical columns.

Object of the invention is providing a framework initially named kind with which the building can be erected in the desired dimensions, and purpose (commercial building, residential house, etc).

Object of the invention is to provide a frame for a building that meets the above requirements.

In accordance with the invention, the task R is the culprit with the help of the frame for the building, with signs according to claim 1 of the claims.

To achieve long-lasting durability of buildings frames of these buildings should be, in particular, firmly stacked, which means that the connection of the vertical and horizontal beams of the elements (posts and beams) must be designed in such a way that they bear the load of the building, which is corresponding to the invention the frame. These loads affect the building both inside and outside, for example, wind.

Preferred and favorable embodiments of the invention are subject of the dependent claims.

Proposed in accordance with the invention by the simple design of the frame by means of reliably provide the desired freedom in the size, form and execution of a building having a frame according to the invention, and the stability of the frame and the building with its use, all the same, whether it is a residential house, the pavilion building or another building.

If according to one variant of execution of the armature corresponding to the invention, the connection (increased horizontal) frame elements to each other is horizontal beams arranged between the vertical uprights of the framework elements of the framework, the result is greater freedom in the design of the facade, which has sootvetstvujushij the invention the frame.

In the framework of the invention it is preferable if the beams connecting the upright frame elements to each other at their facing to the outside of the frame side wall elements are. So achieve not only the horizontal reinforcement of the frame corresponding to the invention, but also becomes possible facade cladding.

Wall elements, which in one of the executions is connected to the horizontal beams, can be done with Windows and/or doors.

Instead of or in addition to the horizontal beams, which connect with each other frame elements of the frame, between the vertical uprights of the framework elements and at an angle to the vertical uprights can be placed stretch marks. This is preferred if the stretch marks are located in the corner areas of the frame corresponding to the invention. Stretching is preferably performed in such a way that they are located between the vertical posts in the corner zones corresponding to the invention of the frame and directed upwards at an angle to the vertical uprights in the corner corresponding to the invention of the framework.

Execution frame with stretch marks, passing under the angle between the vertical posts adjacent frame elements can be changed, then, in that between the posts, for example, at half the height of the article the EC provide horizontal reinforcement (the cross), moreover, above and below the horizontal reinforcement is provided by at least one stretch, so it's something like "Fachwerk".

Provided according to the invention the wall elements are usually tall with floor and wall elements can be connected, in particular, in the field of floor slabs, or installed on a frame with overlapping.

Wall elements installed in accordance with the invention on the frame, no matter they are made with doors and/or Windows, are used in the example scenarios as additional stiffening elements, which connect adjacent frame elements to each other and held in the desired position, so that stabilizes the shape of the building frame.

In the framework of the invention have been useful if the vertical frame members corresponding to the invention, outside, in particular, is provided by the lugs protruding from both sides of the rack (pads), which facilitates, for example, fixing the line edits wall elements associated with horizontal beams of the outer surface of the frame.

Provided according to the invention, the wall elements can be made of metal (sheet metal, plastics, wood or mineral material or combinations of these materials. In one of the examples of how to perform a wall element can be the composite of several, typically, vertically spaced longitudinal elements (strips).

Provided on the frame members according to the invention stops (pads) can be smooth or profiled and contain strips of wood, metal (sheet metal), mineral material or plastic. Thus, it is sufficient if the stops have the strength, which is enough, so that they can fulfil their role lugs for wall elements.

Production of wall elements can be started with the connection of the beams in the appropriate number (usually two beams) of the connecting plates, corners or such elements with vertical posts, and then mount the wall elements.

However, taken into account and preferably according to the invention, if the structural details of wall element beams and prepare first, folding lying on the ground and/or the intermediate floor of the building, which is designed corresponding to the invention the frame (you can prepare and in that position), and then just throw up until they reach the stops (pads), which are vertical racks outside. This allows the Assembly of wall elements and beams from the inside, so that the mounting of the forest become unnecessary. The advantage is the possibility of easy replacement of wall elements, if the x, you need to upgrade or replace on that basis or other basis. Especially if the wall elements are fixed with steel screws.

In principle, the Assembly of wall elements possible and outside, then wall elements or structural elements of the wall element and beams "pass through" between the posts and attached thereto by lugs (overlays).

Wall elements, in particular, of large dimensions, i.e. wall elements for commercial buildings, can be rotated around the vertical or horizontal axes, which are defined, for example, hinges into position between the vertical uprights of the framework elements. This also applies to the lower wall elements, which taken into account that they slide on or (preferably) from the inside in their working position between the vertical posts, as described above.

On the wall elements, which can be on or (preferably) within the insulating layer, it is possible to apply plaster or something like that. When this plaster may be located between executed as lining stops, so that the plaster will be interrupted by stops (overlays).

Alternatively, it is possible that the plaster is applied between the vertical uprights of the framework elements, so that the plaster was interrupted by the racks.

Wall elements can be secured so about what atom on the frame according to the invention, that on the outer sides of the uprights, over the entire width of the uprights, the covering is provided, in particular, waterproof - this coating is preferably, in particular when using vertical posts, which consist of two wooden parts lying next to each other in the longitudinal direction. The field joint between adjacent external wall elements can in the area of vertical posts positioned at the floor racks. The fixing of the outer wall elements can be made directly to the vertical racks (outside), or between the vertical posts include a mounting plate or beams to which are fixed to the external wall elements.

In an embodiment of the invention can be provided to frame elements were oriented not only transversely to the longitudinal axis of the building, and that (at least one) of the framework element is oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis of the building.

If relevant to the invention the frames are made with the use of the framework elements for multi-storey buildings or if the vertical rack form multiple stacked on top of each other with wooden beams (from Zelikovich or a compound related to each other in the longitudinal direction, the wooden parts), it is preferable to dispose the horizontal beam is not between the abutting ends in rtically racks, and attach horizontal beams along the longitudinal side of the uprights, for example, in the area of the junction of the struts to each other. This can be done through the console or by using the connecting pads. In this execution, whereas that of the horizontal beams between the vertical posts to which they are articulated (through the console) are attached by their ends need to be fixed firmly, rigidly attaching them area to the other upright.

There is an alternative possibility rigidly to strengthen horizontal beams on the vertical posts connecting plates, so there is additional damage to the horizontal beams.

These connection pads or console can be located, adhering to opposite outer surfaces of the uprights and beams, and sealed with posts and beams, or the connecting pads or console mounted in the recess (in the form of slots or grooves) on the ends of the uprights and beams.

Due to the fact that the horizontal beams (joists) are not located between the standing one above the other segments of the uprights, get the best, maximum permissible load, as wooden racks, loaded on the ends, have a higher carrying capacity than the hours between which races orogeny wooden beams with a horizontally oriented wood fibers and which are impacted across the grain. Vertical posts forming frame elements corresponding to the invention the frame may be connected to each other is also installed between the vertical uprights rigid structures (fields stiffness). Such rigid structures are, for example, a wooden frame with rigid corners, which are located between the vertical posts and have, for example, stretching. In each field of rigidity can be provided by stretching or two banners and between the horizontal crossbar of the "framing".

In the framework of the invention taken also into account the execution, in which the pitch stiffness and/or guy, no matter where they are located in the field of rigidity or directly between the vertical uprights of the framework elements, placed with the help of detachable wedges, steel screws, etc. This makes it possible to quickly remove or replace field stiffeners or braces if necessary (for example, when repairing), in case of additional installations, etc.

Additional details, characteristics and advantages of the invention, the following description explains the invention on the basis of exemplary drawings.

Figure 1 shows schematically the frame for the building,

figure 2 - example of connection vertical posts and horizontal beams with metal corners,

3 - another do as much as possible the imposition of connection vertical posts and horizontal beams with metal corners,

figure 4 - example of connection beams intermediate floors with a beam connecting the uprights of the framework elements,

figure 5 - three different executions of metal parts used in the framework of the invention (shown adjacent to each other),

6 is a plot corresponding to the invention of the frame on the front

Fig.7 is a cross - section along the line VII-VII of figure 6,

Fig-11 is a schematic depiction of the other joints between the vertical posts and horizontal beams,

Fig and 13 are two possible execution of horizontal beams of metal (steel),

Fig - stretching for strengthening between the vertical uprights of the framework elements,

Fig - amplification-type "Fachwerk" between the vertical uprights of the framework elements,

Fig connection horizontal beams with vertical stand of the framework elements,

Fig - another connection horizontal beams and vertical columns and

Fig - in horizontal cross-section the arrangement of the external wall elements with vertical stand,

Fig - vertical hour of metal,

Fig in the form similar to Fig.7, the execution of the folding wall element and the

Fig - execution Fig on the side view.

Shown in figure 1 the frame 1, two-story (residential) building consists of several vertical posts 3 and connected with them in this PR is as divided in two, lying one above another horizontal planes horizontal beams 5 and 7. Such frame elements 9 formed by each of the two uprights 3 and each at least one horizontal beam 5 that is installed, in particular, in the upper end of the bar 3 in this example, complete with two horizontal beams 5 and 7 is set parallel to each other and fastened to the ground with anchors or with suitably designed beams and steel corners. Every other mount frame elements 9 on the ground or on a Foundation also taken into consideration appropriate for the invention of the frame 1.

To associate with each other frame elements 9 mounted to each other at intervals in the spatial frame 1, frame elements 9 on both longitudinal sides (parallel to the image plane 1 side of frame 1) sbencivu from passing through the horizontal rods (bolts)in the sample beam (bolt) 11. Preferably these beams 11 are composed of at least two bars 15 adjacent to each other in the longitudinal direction and bonded to each other using Gvozdeva plates 13, which with the metal parts of the link 17 in the area of each floor on the upper and lower ends of the uprights 3, facing each other, with the framework elements 9. The connection between the beams (girders) 11 and a frame element 9, for example the, shown in figure 4.

The connection of the upper horizontal beams 5 with vertical posts 3 is, for example, shown in figure 3 installation metal corners 17 (area 17 of sheet metal, in particular sheet steel). In this connection the outer edges 24 of the vertical shelves 23 metal corners 17 lie with the ends of the beams 5 flush.

Mounting medium horizontal beams 7 (upper lower floor and, accordingly, the floor of the top floor) to the vertical uprights 3 is produced, for example, with metal corners 17, which are mounted, as shown in figure 2 (figure 4). In this connection the outer edges 24 of the vertical shelves 23 metal corners 17 are for the clearance racks 3 over the end surfaces of the beams 7.

On the perpendicular to the plane of the drawing figure 1 is a narrow sides is shown in figure 1 framework for (residential) buildings between outer uprights 3 end frame elements 9 are provided intermediate the rack 6. These intermediate uprights 6 are connected with horizontal beams 5, 7 end of frame elements 9 preferably with metal corners 17. Available on the narrow sides corresponding to the invention of the frame 1 intermediate zone between the uprights 6, the uprights 3 and the horizontal beams 5, 7 can be partially or completely closed beams (ri is firs) 11, for example, the beam 11 is shown in figure 4 is executed. There is also the possibility to connect the panels to the framework elements 9, which are located at the end of the frame 1 (to screw), if available blind side.

Alternative or in addition to described the reinforcements between the vertical posts 3 of the framework elements 9 of the invention the frame 1 may be provided, in particular, in the corner area also marks 70, as shown in Fig and 15. Fig shows the implementation with the passing obliquely from below upwards, stretching 70, and stretching 70 preferably is located so that it passes to the property, according to the invention in the corner of the frame 1 vertical post 3 at an angle upward and rigidly fixed area.

An alternate may be selected run as "Fachwerk" (Fig)where provided, at least two passes at an angle marks 70, which are located above and below the horizontal cross member 72 between the vertical posts 3 of the framework elements 9.

Shown in Fig and 15 perform stretch marks 70 may be used to sense as well as reinforcing elements, which is installed between the vertical posts 3 of the framework elements 9, which form an essentially rectangular frame with at least one passing angle, stretching 70.

As walking is their angle of stretch marks 70 according pig and 15, and the reinforcing elements, which are mounted between the vertical posts 3, can be secured by means of wedges 74 (Fig) or other detachable fastening means (mounting bolts), so that they, if necessary, could be removed.

Such an angled stretch marks 70, which is installed directly between the vertical posts 3 or provided for in the special fields of rigidity, is used, in particular, in the corner zones corresponding to the invention of the frame 1, and these fields stiffness can be implemented as a bitmap field, and, as a rule, do not have doors and/or Windows.

Shown in Fig connection horizontal beams 5 with vertical stand 3 of the framework elements 9 with the connecting pads 76 allows you to stitch vertical posts 3, in particular, at higher frames 1 ends, without routing crossbars, without compromising the carrying capacity (loaded from the ends of the wood has a high carrying capacity, other than wood, loaded crosswise to the direction of fibers). The connecting pads 76 may be arranged as shown in Fig, on both exterior surfaces as vertical posts 3, and horizontal beams 5.

There is an alternative way of mounting the horizontal beams 5 of the connecting plates 76, which dejstvuyuthego, as the console to fix the horizontal axis can be rotated.

Alternative connection pads 76, which fasten the horizontal beam 5 with vertical stand 3 in the area of junction between the two adjacent to each other the ends of the sections of the uprights 3, can be installed within a horizontal beams 5 and the upright support 3 (in grooves in the form of a groove or slit). This implementation is chosen, in particular, if the horizontal beam 5 and/or vertical hour 3 consist of at least two adjacent to each other of the longitudinal sides and fastened together with wooden details.

On the pads 76 on their passing vertically shelves can be preferovany for one of the protrusions 78. These projections 78 extend from the rack 3 with the opposite horizontal beams 5 parties and serve as a support for the horizontal beams (girders) 11. Such protrusions, protruding outward relative to the frame elements 9, favorable, in particular, if the horizontal beams (girders) 11 fixed external cladding walls, since the protrusions 78 transmit vertical force corresponding to the invention the frame 1.

The tabs 78 may also be made separate from the connecting elements 76 or 60 or metal parts 17 parts, which are separately fixed to the vertical posts 3 with testwuide the invention of the framework elements 9 there where they are required.

Shelf connection pads 76 may have holes 19 and/or bent pins 21, as explained in connection with metal corners 17 (figure 5).

Typically, the horizontal beams 11, which connect together the framework elements 9 of the frame 1 may be of wood, as shown in figure 4. However, it is not necessary. Horizontal beams 11 may be strips of metal profile, which, in particular, preferably for beams 11, mounted on the lower ends of the uprights 3 of the framework elements 9, as they may already be exposed wooden beams, so that will not disappear so much building height.

On Fig shown that the connection between the two vertical posts 3 and the horizontal beam 5 or 7 of the framework elements 9 and/or framework elements 9 with a connecting frame elements 9 between the beams (girders) 11 is the connecting plates 60 that are fixed in the horizontal beam 5, and the vertical rack 3, respectively, in their end region (provided there is a notch in the form of grooves or slits). These connection pads 60 are, for example, made of metal and fastened to the racks 3 and horizontal beams 5 at their ends, for example by screws or bolts with thread.

If the rack 3 and/or beams 5 are composed of trees which are, it is desirable that the rack 3 and/or beams 5 consisted of at least two related to each other, the wooden parts. The connecting pads 60 can be located at the seam between the two wooden parts, which, when interconnected, form beams 5 and, respectively, 3 hours, and can be fixed there. Sometimes the means (screws, bolts and the like), those that bind the wooden parts with each other in a rack 3 and/or beams 5 or 7, also serve to establish the connection pads 60 (or connection pads 76) in 3 hours and, accordingly, the beam 5.

If the horizontal beam 5 is made of I-beam rolled beam 61 of steel (Fig), the connecting pads 60 may be located on one straight line with the crossbar 62 and attached, for example welded or screwed or fastened by rivets. In this case, the connecting plate 60 forms a continuation of the crossbar 62 I rolled beams 61. If the upright 3 is composed of flange steel beams 61, pads 60 may be attached to the crossbar 62 one shelf on one straight line at a distance from its middle, as shown in Fig. It is also possible bilateral bonding pads 60 to the rack 3 rack 3 of flange steel beams 61.

If the horizontal beam 5 is presented of two steel channels 63 (cross-section), stacked with each other middle shelves, as shown in Fig, the connecting pads 60 may be located between the middle shelves 64 channels 63 and be secured there by means mentioned above, to perform, shown in Fig.

Corresponding to the invention the installation of the connecting plates 60, which are located at the ends of the horizontal beams 5, also allows you to create nodes, as shown in Fig. from 9 to 11 and Fig. Fig.9 shows an edge node figure 10 - t node and 11 - cross the site, which can be found inside the building.

On Fig shown in great detail, as may be made the connection between the rack 3 and the horizontal beam 5 or 7 and, respectively, as may be performed by the node according Fig-11, if as a stand 3 and the carrier 5 are composed of wood. The connecting plate 60, which connects the horizontal beam 5 with 3 vertical stand, located in the cutouts in the form of a groove or in the form of a slit, preferably in the middle of the vertical posts 3 and the horizontal beam 5. This implementation is preferred if at least one of the horizontal beams 5, 7 or uprights 3 consists of two longitudinally adjacent to each other and connected to each other wooden parts.

If one of the uprights 3 or horizontal b the Lok 5 or 7 wood, and the rest of the framework element 9 is made of metal (steel), should take into account that the area 17, the connecting pads 60 and the connecting pads 76 need only be positioned within one part (the posts or beams of wood.

According to the invention connected to each other by metal parts 17 or connecting plates 60, 76 (vincenne) stand 3, the beams 5 and 7 and the intermediate uprights 6 and beams (girders) 11 attach to the frame 1 of the building comprehensively high stability.

Describes the implementation of the relevant invention of the frame 1 is then the advantage that the remaining free between the posts 3 and beams 11 locations (fields) absolutely free can be placed Windows and/or doors.

In any case, provided on the beam 11, the valve allows you to apply for the cladding of the frame 1 pre-prepared elements of the outer wall or facade, and the type and design of such elements of the outer wall or facade and offer them the materials are chosen quite freely.

In frame 1 (residential) buildings with load bearing longitudinal wall in the middle there is the possibility to use it as a stabilizing factor for the relevant invention of the frame 1. This rack 3 at the top on both sides provide metal parts 17 or connecting plates 60 (Fig-11, to which screw intercepting beams (for example, horizontal beams 5 or 7). These beams provide support for the beams, which can sometimes be screwed metal corners 17 to the racks, with their outer ends, for example, with metal corners, attached to the outer walls.

This reinforced described by way of the longitudinal wall in the middle allows you to build exterior walls in lightweight technology, and in particular, attention may be drawn to good insulation, mainly insulation.

Used for the corresponding the invention, a frame 1 of the rack 3, the intermediate rack 6, the beams 11 and beams 5, 7 may be of wood or steel profiles, and possible combinations of racks 3, intermediate posts 6, the beams 5, 7 and beams 11 of different materials (wood and steel). Steel profiles or elements corresponding to the invention, a frame 1 made of different materials can also be connected to each other with metal corners 17 (with holes) or the connecting plates 60, 76.

Figure 5 shows stacked with each other, three different scenarios have metal corners 17 of the frame 1 according to the invention. These corners 17 are composed of sheet metal, preferably sheet steel, and in the corner area 18, inside and outside, are rounded, as shown is figure 5. These curves are favorable distribution of forces in the material. For the manufacture of metal parts 17, according to the invention, as shown in figure 5, their stamp of correspondingly wide metal strip, in particular, the ribbon of sheet steel, with economy of material.

For stamping metal parts 17, in particular, steel corners, depending on the implementation can be made holes 19 for passing fasteners, such as screws or pins 21 (like pivot plates), or a combination of holes and stamped and bent the pins (like pivot plates).

Thus, figure 5 shows the bottom metal area 17, which has an exceptionally stamped and bent from the plane of area 17, for example, 90° pins 21 in both the shelves 23, so that the execution of the metallic area 17 can be used as nail plate.

Figure 5 shows in the middle of performing metal bracket 17, which is provided exclusively holes 19 for passing fasteners. Holes 19 are provided in both the shelves 23 metal bracket 17.

The third execution of the metallic area 17, the upper shown in figure 5, has on both shelves 23 as freely stamped and protruding from the plane of the corner pins 21, and holes 19 for propuskanie the fasteners, moreover, the execution is selected so that the projecting pins 21 (like pivot plates) provided at the ends of the shelves 23 metal bracket 17 and the holes 19 for passing screws or such fastening means closer to the corner 18 of the metal area 17.

In the framework of the invention taken also into account that the connection parts of the framework 1 and framework elements 9 apply two adjacent metal bracket 17. In this case, can use metal angle brackets 17 that are adjacent to each other shelf 23 to the shelf 23 and are connected to each other. In particular, the corners of 17 form with each other an angle of 90°. These are related to each other (welded) metal corners 17 together form a flat "T" (similar to the connecting pads 76 of Fig) or "T", which is bent in the field of middle shelf "T".

Performing metal corners 17, have as holes 19 for passing fasteners and freely stamped and bent the pins 21, are particularly preferred, since these metal corners 17 facilitate installation, as they are fixed to each other with a hammer joined part, after which the final connection can occur without further auxiliary means, which hold the details of the production of such fasteners, as VI is you, bolts or nails.

Corresponding to the invention the frame 1 to the building (house) is applicable, for example, for the erection of the pavilion buildings. Saving time and money design corresponding to the invention of the frame 1 is especially visible in the building of the pavilion type, as the facades build often without Windows, especially in the pavilion type buildings luminous flux often passes through the light apertures (light dome or the like) in the field of the roof.

The previously described design metal corners 17, in particular, steel area for a rectangular connection parts corresponding to the invention of the frame 1 are, independently, actually, the framing and construction, self-importance as the invention. In particular, are considered in this metal corners 17, which is provided by a combination of holes 19 and stamped pins 21 (like pivot plates).

Matters for stability corresponding to the invention of the frame 1 in one of the executions that metal corners 17 of the frame 1 are oriented in different directions. So, metal corners 17, which connect the upright support 3 with horizontal beams 5, 7, lie in one plane, while the metal parts 17 that secure the beams 11 to the vertical uprights 3, naproti is, lie in the plane perpendicular to the aforementioned plane. This leads to a comprehensive stiffness corresponding to the invention of the frame 1, forming the Foundation of the building.

Although shown in the figure 1 example run of the upper horizontal beams 5 each framework element 9 is designed as straight beams 5, in the framework of the invention whereas the execution, in which the horizontal beams 5 each framework element 9 or, at least, individual frame elements 9 corresponding to the invention of the frame 1, consistent with the shape of the roof of the building, constructed by applying the relevant invention of the frame 1. Thus, in buildings with a lean-to roof top beams 5 all or individual framework elements 9 corresponding to the invention of the frame 1 can be inclined to the horizontal at an angle sloping roof. In this case, use metal corners 17, which connect the beams 5 with vertical posts 3, not located at a right angle to each other shelves and shelves metal corners 17 are to each other at an angle corresponding to the inclined position of the beams 5 of the framework elements 9. The same meaning applies to other forms of roofs such as gable roof, hipped roof (hipped) roof, mansard roof, etc.

Figure 6 and 7 corresponding to the invention the frame is 1 illustrates only two uprights 3 of the framework elements 9 and two horizontal beams 7. Figure 6 shows that, in particular, at high frame elements 9, the rack 3 may consist of two uprights 3, which are located without intermediate compounds, for example, attached to horizontal beams 7 and, indirectly, vertically one to another (junction 47). Thus get a higher carrying capacity and maximum permissible load. In frame 1 according to the invention can be provided, however, horizontal beams 5, 7, which are located between the ends standing vertically one above the other uprights 3.

Shown in Fig.6 example shows that in the region of the height of a horizontal beam 7 is provided by the intermediate floor structure 30 consisting of a corresponding number of horizontal beams 31 and floor slabs 33, which is, in the shown example, the execution of several panels (wooden boards).

Between adjacent racks 3 adjacent frame elements 9 in the shown example, run two fixed beams 37 which are directed horizontally. Beam 37 is attached in this example, complete with metal corners 43, 44 and screws to the vertical posts 3.

Beams 37 are wall element 39, which is shown in the exemplary embodiment is made up of several vertical longitudinal elements. These longitudinal elements can be plastic is Okami, metal bars or wooden planks. 7 shows also that the inner side wall element 39 can be provided by insulation 41.

In a preferred embodiment, the beams 37, before they have between vertical posts 3 and there secured, associated with wall element 39 in a single unit. This is a simplified technology, as it is, for example, to associate a wall element 39 with two beams 37 in the block, which lies on the overlap of 30 or on the floor and then just leans up until it stops. To facilitate the alignment of the wall element 39 with beams 37 relative to the uprights 3, with the outer sides of the uprights is provided by the stops 50 (pads). Stops 50 occupy at least part of the height of the vertical posts 3 and are shown in the exemplary embodiment with two sides for vertical clearance rack 3. Available on the sides of the uprights 3 lugs lugs 50 provide accurate alignment of the wall elements 39 without the need for special attention. Just enough to move forward wall element 39, in the case of fixed beams 37, until it is tight up to the stop 50. Then the beam 37 will be in any way, in particular, the parts 43, 44 and/or mounting bolts attached to the vertical uprights 3 of the framework elements 9 corresponding to the invention of the frame 1. On the inside, NYY side wall elements 39 may be caused to the insulation 41. This insulation 41 is applied (7) between the beams 37 and/or facing the inside of the building side beams 37. Insulation 41 may be applied when mounting the unit from the wall element 41 and beams 37 or after installation of the unit between the posts 3 of the frame 1.

If desired, the wall elements 39 can be applied outside layer of plaster 45, and plaster 45 lies only between the stops 50 or, alternatively, between the posts 3, that is interrupted by stops 50 or racks 3.

When vertically one above the other spaced uprights 3 are preferably so that their junction 47 were in the field of horizontal beams 7.

In this connection horizontal beams 5, 7 can be preferably performed in such a manner as shown in Fig.

In the modified compared to 6 or 7 running wall element 39, as follows from the description Fig and 21, may be placed between the vertical posts 3.

By itself, stable in shape and ready, wall element 39 between the vertical posts 3 lead to the stops through the hinges 90, mounted on horizontal construction details (for example, on the inter-overlapping), or through the hinges 90 on the vertical post 3, so that it can be accurately rotated to its operating position or around the horizontal (installed on the bottom edge of the wall element 39) axis (as Figi 21) or around a vertical axis, which is established in one of the two struts 3, between which a wall element 39 should be put in place. This technology has the advantage that it can be simply accurate positioning of the wall element 39, and a wall element 39 may optionally be re-opened.

This form of execution also allows you to do more than narrow lugs 50 (pads), which are mounted on vertical posts 3 so that they only acted a little for the dimensions of the racks 3.

Final fixing of wall element 39 can be produced by any method, for example, special fastening means or also by means of wedges that drive or are pressed into the butt joints between the vertical posts 3 and wall element 39.

If the lugs 50 with the outer sides of the uprights 3 is made narrower, the sealing of the joints 91, for example, can be carried out from the inside in the region of the junction between the wall element 39 and stops 50.

Joints (articulations) 90 can be secured, for example, on the floor covering 30 or beam overlap. In any case, when installing the hinges 90 it is recommended that one side of the hinges (foster) to establish, for example, on a horizontal architectural details, for example, on the floor covering 30, and then push the wall element 39 installed on it other (inserted) h is due to the hinges, for example, the hinge bolts into the receiving portion of the hinge, mounted on a horizontal architectural details.

If the lugs 50 only protrude slightly beyond the dimensions of the vertical posts 3, strip seal can be secured between the lugs 50 and the vertical edges of the wall elements 39 from the inside to the lugs 50.

To install wall elements 39, employees cladding corresponding to the invention of the frame 1, for example, wall elements 39, the design of which for example is shown in Fig.6, 7, 20, 21, between the vertical posts 3 of the framework elements 9 corresponding to the invention of the frame 1 there are various ways. In relation to the cladding of the frame 1 wall elements are distinguished, in particular:

wall (in particular, small, light walls, for example, for residential buildings)that are installed on the outside adjacent to the longitudinal beam;

wall (in particular, small, light walls, for example, for residential buildings), mounted inside the way into the lugs 50 (pads) on the vertical posts 3;

wall (in particular, large/heavier cladding for commercial buildings), mounted inside the Assembly, similar to the hinge;

A. the hinge on the beam, floor,

b. the hinge on the vertical rack or

C. without ball joint, only when the Assembly is installed, the AK on the hinge,

- the sealing of joints can perform arbitrarily.

For small and light wall elements 39 which are used in the construction of residential buildings, usually simple enough threading and hanging from his hands. It is only important that the wall elements can be installed inside as well - for example, so that the element, fit, put, and then hang the transverse beam and the fixed wall element on a wall beam.

On Fig shows a variant of the installation of wall elements 39 on the outer side corresponding to the invention of the frames 1, formed by frame elements 9. In particular, the rack 3, which is composed of two longitudinally adjacent to each other horizontal wooden parts 4, which are connected with each other not shown in detail by way caused outside waterproof gasket 80. Adhering to the gasket 80, wall elements 39, which in the zone of the vertical posts 3 join with each other, are installed so that their junction 81 are located in the zone of the uprights 3. Wall elements 39 can be fixed fasteners 82, which is inserted in the rack 3. Alternative or in addition, it is possible to mount wall elements 39 to the bars 83 or beams 11 mounted between the posts 3, which wall elements 39 are mounted, for example, timber 83 or beam 11 of the notch.

<> Regardless of how wall elements 39 is fixed, they can be located, overlapping each other, or be near, and (see Fig) in the area of the junction can be applied strap 84 profile overlap.

Corresponding to the invention, the implementation allows to produce 3 hours of metal (steel) or wood and beams 5 are also made of metal (steel) or wood. Thus, various combinations between materials, metal and wood, and 3 hours of metal can be combined with beams 5 wood, 3 hours from wood beams 5 of the metal, as well as 3 hours of metal beams 5 of metal and 3 hours from wood beams 5 from the wood.

To the horizontal beams 5 may be, for all versions of the invention, attached additional lining for walls or additional horizontal beams 5, so that the frame 1 of the building, which was formed from the related invention of the framework elements 9, in any area can be located more separation elements (walls etc), as well as load-bearing elements (additional hours and/or beams).

More generally, the example may be represented as shown below.

The building, such as a residential structure or pavilion, has a frame 1, which consists of multiple, spaced parallel is entrusted to each other at a distance from each other, framework elements 9. Frame elements 9 are each of the two uprights 3 and at least one horizontal beams 5 and 7. Frame elements 9 connected with each other in frame 1 of the building beams 11, which is externally attached to the vertical uprights 3. For the connections of the columns 3, the beams 5 and 7 and the beams 11 are the corners 17 of sheet steel, which in their shelves 23 have holes 19 for transmission connection means (screws) and/or corners of 17 with a stamped and bent outward by the pins 21 on the shelves 23 type Gvozdeva plates.

In frame 1 of the framework elements 9 with vertical posts 3 and horizontal beams 7 for connection of the framework elements 9 with a longitudinal stiffening rib of the frame 1 is provided by the beam 37, which are located between the vertical posts 3 and secured. Beams 37 are wall elements 39 that are adjacent the inside of the lugs 50 on the vertical posts 3. Preferably, if the wall elements 39 and beams 37 are pre-fabricated units, which are placed between the vertical posts 3, leading to the stops 50, and then the beam 37 is fixed to the vertical posts 3.

1. The frame for the building, consisting of vertical columns (3) and horizontal beams (5, 7), and provided that at least two of the framework element (9), each of which consists of at least two faiths is Calneh racks (3) and at least one associated with them, the horizontal beams (5, 7), and frame elements (9) are located at a distance from each other and connected to each other, and frame elements (9) are connected to each other horizontally directed beams (11)placed on the vertical posts (3), characterized in that between adjacent vertical posts (3) are the horizontal beams (37), which are connected with the uprights (3), and horizontal beams (37) facing the frame (1) bear wall element (39), and vertical posts (3) of the framework elements (9) provided outside lugs (50) for wall elements (39), and these lugs (50) protrude on both sides beyond the envelope of the vertical posts (3) of the framework elements (9).

2. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that the directional horizontal beam (11) represent the wooden beams or metal bars.

3. The frame according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the beam (11), in particular wooden beams, consist each of two rods (15), connected to each other, in particular of the whole timber.

4. The frame according to claim 2, characterized in that the lower beam (11)is directed horizontally and connecting the frame elements (9) with each other, is a strip of metal profile.

5. The frame according to claim 4, characterized in that the metal strap is on profile already, than the rod in the form of a wooden beam.

6. The frame according to claim 5, characterized in that the rods (11), connecting with each other frame elements (9) are, at least in the lower ends of the uprights (3) and in the upper ends of the uprights (3).

7. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that each framework element (9) of the frame (1) for high-rise building has at least two horizontal beams (5, 7), located at a distance from each other.

8. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that the beam (11)connecting the frame elements (9) with each other, are provided in the region of the height of the horizontal beams (5, 7).

9. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that the upright (3) consist of wood.

10. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that the upright (3) consist of a metal profile.

11. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that the horizontal beams (5, 7) consist of wood.

12. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that the horizontal beams (5, 7) are profiles of steel.

13. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that the horizontal beams (5, 7) are connected with vertical posts (3) through metal corners (17) or the connecting pads (76), lock-up region of the junction between these structural elements.

14. The frame indicated in paragraph 13, wherein the metal corners (17) or with denitely pads (76) are pressed from two sides related to each other upright (3) and horizontal beams (5, 7).

15. The frame indicated in paragraph 13 or 14, characterized in that the metal parts (17) are located on the upper horizontal beams (3) in the area of the ends of the horizontal beams (3).

16. The frame indicated in paragraph 15, characterized in that the ends of the horizontal beams (3)essentially coincide with the outer edges (24) of the vertical shelves (23) metal corners (17).

17. The frame indicated in paragraph 15, characterized in that the metal parts (17) are mounted on the horizontal beams (7), which are located between the lower end and the upper end of the frame element (9), speaking for the ends of the beams (7).

18. The frame at 17, characterized in that the outer edges (24) of the vertical shelves (23) metal corners (17) protruding beyond the end surface of the beam (7).

19. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that for fixing the beams (11), connecting with each other upright support (3) on vertical racks (3) of the framework elements (9), are provided with metal corners (17), in which one shelf (23) mounted on a vertical rack (3), and the other shelf (23) on the beam (11).

20. The frame according to claim 19, characterized in that when the beams (11), composed of several bars (15), a horizontal shelf (23) metal bracket (17) is located between the bars (15), premika the longitudinal joint.

21. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that the upper beam (5) of the framework elements (9) are held and/or directed so that the direction corresponds to the configuration of the roof constructed using a frame (1) of the building.

22. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that the upright (3) made of metal, and the horizontal beams (5) - wood.

23. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that the horizontal beams (37) associated with vertical posts (3) using parts (43, 44) mounting bolts for tightening, etc.

24. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that is provided by wall elements (39)having window openings and/or doorways.

25. The frame at point 24, characterized in that the wall element (39) is connected, at least two beams (37) in a single unit.

26. Frame by paragraph 24 or 25, characterized in that the wall elements (39) are on the outside layer of plaster (45).

27. The frame at point 24, characterized in that the wall elements (39) are made of wood, metal, plastic or mineral material.

28. The frame at point 24 or 27, characterized in that the wall elements (39) can be composed of several longitudinal blades or strips.

29. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that the lugs (50) is made of wood, metal, plastic or mineral material.

30. The frame at point 24, characterized in that the wall elements (39) is performed by a height from the floor.

31. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that on each floor frame (1) between adjacent racks (3) of the framework elements (9) are provided, at least two horizontal beams (37)

32. The frame at point 24 or 30, characterized in that arranged one above the other wall elements (39) are tightly connected.

33. The frame at point 24 or 30, characterized in that arranged one above the other wall elements (39) overlap.

34. The frame on p, characterized in that the upper wall element (39) is imposed on the bottom wall element (39) it partially overlapping.

35. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that the rack (3) of the framework elements (9) are made integral and the area of the junction (47) rest directly on one another.

36. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that recourse to the building side of the beam (37) provided insulation (41).

37. The frame at point 24, characterized in that recourse to the building side wall elements (39) are provided insulation (41).

38. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that the beams (37) made of wood or metal.

39. Frame by § 38, characterized in that the beams (37) of the metal are at the ends of the crossbars, which are connected with the upright supports (3) of the framework elements (9).

40. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that the upright (3) with horizontal beams (5, 7) are connected to each other by the connecting plates (60, 76)within the ends of the uprights (3) / beams (5, 7).

41. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that the beam (11), connecting the frame elements (9)are connected with the vertical the racks (3) of the connecting plates (60), within the ends of the beams (11).

42. The frame on p or 41, characterized in that the connecting pads (60, 76) installed between connected between the wooden parts forming the beams (5, 7), hours (3) and/or beams (11).

43. The frame on p or 41, characterized in that the connecting pads (60) mounted on the crossbar (62) beams (5, 7, 11), made of metal profile I-beam section.

44. The frame on p or 41, characterized in that the connecting pads (60) installed between the middle shelves (64) stacked with each other middle shelves metal bars (63)forming beams(5, 7, 11).

45. The frame on p or 41, characterized in that the rack (3) is provided by at least two connecting plates (60), which form with each other an angle, in particular a 90°angle.

46. The frame according to claim 1, wherein the horizontal racks (3) is attached, at least two horizontal beams (5), oriented in different directions.

47. The frame on p.46, characterized in that for fixing the horizontal beams (5, 7) to the upright (3) ends, at least one of the horizontal beams (5) and the upright (3) provided with recesses in the form of a groove or, respectively, in the form of a slit for the installation of connection pads (60, 76).

48. The frame on p, characterized in that will connect the global pads (60) are rectangular in shape.

49. The frame on p, characterized in that the connecting pads (76) are T-shaped.

50. The frame on p, characterized in that the horizontal beams (5), attached to the horizontal elements connecting pads (76), installed with the possibility of rotation around the horizontal axis.

51. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that the vertical racks (3) provided protruding tabs (78) for horizontal support beams (11).

52. Frame by § 51, characterized in that the projections (78) made integral with the connecting plates (76).

53. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that between the vertical uprights (3) of the framework elements (9) are provided, at least one stretching (70)passing at an angle.

54. The frame on item 53, wherein the provided stretch between resistant (3) of the framework element (9)located in the corner area of the frame (1) and the next inward stand (3) adjacent frame element(9).

55. The frame on item 53 or 54, characterized in that stretch (70) is directed to the corner of the frame (1), passing at an angle upward.

56. The frame on item 53 or 54, characterized in that there are two marks (70), between which is mounted a transverse rod (72)is provided approximately in the middle of the vertical height of the rack (3).

57. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that the external stanov the e elements (39) with gasket (80) between them mounted on vertical posts (3) of the framework elements (9).

58. The frame on § 57, characterized in that the butt seam (81) between the adjacent external wall elements (39) a protective plate (84).

59. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that the wall elements (39) is fixed between the posts (3) on fixed between the uprights (3) bars (83), in particular hung.

60. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that between the posts (3) adjacent frame elements (9) provides field hardness.

61. The frame on p, characterized in that the rigidity of the rectangular frame.

62. The frame on p or 61, characterized in that the reinforcing elements are provided, at least one stretching (70)passing at an angle (diagonally).

63. The frame on item 53, wherein an angled stretch marks (70) is fixed between the vertical uprights (3) adjacent frame elements (9) wedges (74).

64. The frame on p, characterized in that the fields stiffness Rethimno fixed between vertical posts (3) adjacent frame elements (9) wedges (74) or mounting bolts.

65. The frame according to claim 1, characterized in that place between the vertical uprights (3) wall elements (39) are set to rotate in their working position, located between the vertical posts (3).

66. The frame on p, characterized in that the wall elements (39) installed capacity which allows rotation around the horizontal axis.

67. The frame on p, characterized in that the wall elements (39) are installed with the possibility of rotation around the vertical axis.

68. The frame on p, characterized in that the wall elements (39) are installed with the possibility of rotation around the hinge (90).

69. The frame on p, characterized in that the lugs (50) installed inside of the strap to seal the joints between the stop (50) and the wall element (39).

70. The frame on p, characterized in that the wall element (39) after turning in a working position locked in this position by means of fastening, such as hammered or pressed wedges.



 

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