Composition of stowage mixture
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and can be implemented at development of mineral deposits with stowing mined space. Composition of stowage mixture containing milled granulated blast furnace slag, inert filler and water consists of the said acidic slag of fractions smaller, than 0.071 mm not less 90 wt %, as inert filler - wastes of concentration of wet magnet separation of ferrous quartzite containing fractions smaller, than 0.071 mm not less 90 wt %, additionally - super fluidising agent SP-1 at the following ratio of components, wt % said slag 22, said wastes 54.5, super fluidising agent SP-1 0.4 of slag contents, water - the rest.
EFFECT: raised strength, increased volumes of utilised anthropogenic wastes for considerable improvement of ecological medium.
1 ex, 2 tbl
The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in the development of mineral deposits with the mined-out space.
Known filling mixture comprising cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag, aggregate, and water in the following ratio, wt.%: cement - 2; ground granulated blast furnace slag - 18,4; aggregate - 61,38; water-other .
The disadvantages of this mixture are low ductility due to insufficient content of the fine fraction, and low strength of 3.0 MPa at 90 days of constructed array through the use of a filler with a tensile strength below the normative strength of the bookmark.
Closest to the proposed invention is a compound of backfill mixture comprising cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag, inert filler and water. As the inert filler the composition contains amorphous precipitation neutralization of sulfuric acid with limestone, pre-treated with an aqueous solution of sulphate of iron (III) Fe(OH)SO4, in the following ratio, wt.%: cement 4,0-6,8; ground granulated blast furnace slag of 9.7 to 16.5; amorphous precipitation neutralization of sulfuric acid with limestone 31,7 of 40.8; hydroconsult iron (III) 1,2-2,0; water - the rest .
The disadvantages of this structure are used as a binder scarce material - cement and slag with a higher quality factor 1,51 (table 1); the complexity of the composition, complicating cooking it in an industrial application, as it will require additional lines and operations to add each component; high consumption of water, requiring additional funds and equipment for drainage operations.
Objectives of the invention are: the exclusion of expensive cement and the use of slag lower grades at higher strength;
reducing the amount of water, while maintaining effective flowing property of filling mixture;
the reduction of components of the mixture and increasing the volume of recyclable industrial waste to a significant improvement of the ecological environment of the region.
The problem is solved by the proposed composition of the filling mixture, which includes ground granulated blast furnace slag, a binder, an inert filler and water, and further comprises a surface-active additive superplasticizer SP-1, and as an inert filler use tailings wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzite containing particles less than 0.071 mm not less than 90%, in addition the binder ground granulated blast acidic slag, containing not less than 90% fractions less than 0.071 mm, the next CEO of the wearing components, wt.%:
ground granulated blast acidic slag - 22;
tailings wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzite is 54.5;
superplasticizer SP-1 - 0,4 content of the slag;
water - the rest.
Example. Granulated blast furnace slag to grind in a ball mill to a particle size at a ratio of not less than 90% of the class less 0,071, mixed waste processing, containing not less than 90% of particles less than 0.071 mm, and closed the water in which pre-add superplasticizer SP-1. The final mixture was mixed to a uniform consistency. The resulting mixture is prepared samples of size 70×70×70 mm, which were kept in a climatic chamber for 2-3 days before reaching the Stripping strength of the samples. In the chamber was maintained temperature 20±20°C and relative humidity of 90-95%, i.e. conditions similar to the conditions of curing of the array in the mine. After demoulding, the specimens were again placed in the climatic chamber for further curing for 90 days, after which determined the mechanical strength using a hydraulic press. The following results are obtained: flowing the filling mixture - 165 mm, sediment cone "Strasznie" - 15 cm, the mechanical strength is 7.0 MPa at the age of 90 days when the water content of 23.4%. Similarly prepared and tested different formulations of filling mixtures.
|The chemical composition of blast furnace slag|
|The quality factor||CaO, %||SiO2, %||Al2About3, %||MgO, %||MnO, %||Other %|
|The placeholder||1,51||28,9||36,5||17,6||10,9||0,7||of 5.40|
Table 1 presents the chemical composition of the granulated blast furnace slag, and in table 2 - source gross composition of the mixtures and the results of testing the mechanical strength of samples prepared from these mixtures.
Superplasticizer SP-1 on the basis of a product of condensation of naphthalenesulfonate and formald the guide (polynaphthalenesulfonate or methylenbis(naphthalenesulfonate) sodium) produced according to TU 5870-005-58042865-05.
Hydraulic properties of blast furnace slag evaluated according to GOST 3476-74 the quality factor K, which is determined by the formula:
when the content of magnesium oxide to 10%
when the content of magnesium oxide is more than 10%:
For grades 1 K=1,65, 2 varieties K=1,45, 3 varieties of 1.2.
From table 2 it follows that the task of increasing the mechanical strength backfill mixtures according to the prototype (4,35 MPa), reducing the amount of water, while maintaining the consistency of the mixture, suitable for transportation, is achieved by adding plasticizer SP-1 and provided that the content of particles less than 0.071 mm, % in the tailings and hammer granulated blast furnace slag is not less than 90%.
The use of the proposed technical solution completely eliminates the consumption for filling operations of expensive cement, and also allows you to provide high technological properties of backfill mixes - spreading and normative strength while reducing the volume of water, replacement of slag on the more low-grade, to reduce the number of components of the mixture and to increase the volume of recyclable industrial waste to a significant improvement of the ecological environment of the region.
Sources of information
1. Lukowski, Emeniem, Kuip. The use of blast furnace slag dump for the preparation of a knitting bet is offered by the mixture. Mining magazine, 1979, No. 1, p.39.
2. RF patent №2186989 published 10.08.2002,
The composition of the filling mixture, including ground granulated blast furnace slag, inert filler and water, characterized in that it contains the specified acidic slag containing particles less than 0.071 mm not less than 90 wt.%, as the inert filler - tailings wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzite containing particles less than 0.071 mm not less than 90 wt.%, optional superplasticizer SP-1, in the following ratio, wt.%:
|superplasticizer SP-1||0,4 content of the slag|
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and can be implemented at underground development of mineral deposits with stowing mined space. Stowage mixture contains, wt %: Portland cement or its milled clinker 1.4 - 13.68, milled zeolite rock 0.21-10.4, brine of 20÷105 g/l mineralisation, mainly of sodium chloride at temperature facilitating temperature of stowage mixture not below +15°C 14.9 - 26.96, fluidizing agent 0.01 - 0.3, filler - the rest. The invention is developed in dependant claims of the invention formula.
EFFECT: raised mobility and flowability of stowage mixtures, reduced shrinking at maintaining specified hardness, and reduced costs for nature conserving measures from negative effect of harmful salt saturated wastes of diamond extraction.
4 cl, 3 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: shaft pneumatic bridging comprises pneumatic shell, suspension unit, protective jacket, manometric and air-supply hoses, device for filling, control of excessive air pressure and its ejection, mount cord. At the same time pneumatic shell is arranged in the form of soft axisymmetric toroidal shell of rectangular section, inside of which there is sleeve arranged, and along its axis there is pipe mounted in with diametre that is less compared to sleeve. Besides pneumatic shell is separated into two equal parts by means of perforated web, upper end and its side surfaces are coated by loose-fitting meshy web with lap towards working zone of rise heading, upper end is made of synthetic high-module fibre of high strength.
EFFECT: improved operational reliability of shaft pneumatic bridging.
SUBSTANCE: half-open course is arranged along chamber perimetre at the level of drilling crossdrift in interchamber pillars, and wooden lining is arranged in it as protruding with its dead part into stripped area of chamber. In discharge courses there are drain partitions installed, and hydraulic stowage finely dispersed material without binder is supplied through course into stripped chamber to the level of ventilation crossdrift. After drainage of water and setting of stowage massif from preserved half-open course along processed pillars there is a row of vertical and inclined wells drilled for the whole capacity of stowage massif, casing pipes are lowered from the surface of which into wells together with reinforcement rods, which protrude over the level of stowage massif. Afterwards the hardening solution is used to fill the following: at first, through wells - preserved half-open courses, then - the wells themselves, and lastly, upper part of chamber till its ceiling, which forms capping.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of binder.
SUBSTANCE: method of goaf stowing during underground development of steeply dipping thick ore bodies involves bottom-upward excavation of inclined ore streaks 5 in horizontal layers up to 8 m wide with the inclination angle equal to angle of dip of ore body starting from the hanging side towards the lying side, ore breaking to the mine goaf of the bed, loading of the broken ore from the mine goaf, installation of insulating bulkheads on the bed flanks and filling of the mine goaf with hydraulic stowing mixture 2. Before the mine goaf is filled with hydraulic stowing mixture 2, there built near exposed surface of the adjacent inclined ore streak 6 is concrete retaining wall 1 with the thickness taken depending on the bed width and the specified strength of wall 1. After the rest part of the mine goaf is filled with hydraulic stowing mixture 2 and water is filtered, injection of hardening - cement-and-sand solution is performed to its upper part to the depth of 100…300 mm for movement of self-propelled machines along the filling surface 4.
EFFECT: invention will allow decreasing the flow rate of hardening stowing mixture owing to the construction of concrete retaining wall and reducing the prime cost of the mine production.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and can be implemented at coal mines during development edge and steeply pitching beds of coal by hydro-cutting. The procedure consists in exposing extraction field, in dividing it to extraction blocks, in leaving inter-block coal solids, in exposing extraction blocks with ventilation and accumulating crosscuts, in driving load handling slopes, ventilation furnaces and pulp furnaces, in dividing extraction blocks to stories, in driving story extraction drifts, and in mining stories of extraction blocks with a system of story hydro-cutting by passes along strike from story extraction drifts and facilitating rock falling in stripped area. Mining of stories is performed in a descending order. Exposure of extraction field is carried out at flanks with ventilation and accumulating crosscuts wherefrom coal is extracted from solids with the system of extraction; also stripped area is stowed with non-combustible fill; the solid functions as a protection for crosscuts forming a barrier solid. Block mining within ranges of an extraction pillar is performed successively starting from a mining block adjoining the formed barrier solid. Along the whole length of the extracting pillar inter-block coal solids are mined together with stories of adjacent mined extraction blocks.
EFFECT: increased safety of miners labour due to elimination of endogenous fires and increased efficiency owing to extraction of inter-block coal solids.
FIELD: oil-and-gas production.
SUBSTANCE: stowing mixture contains, wt %: halite wastes of reprocessing of potassic ores 96.5-98.3, bonding agent - magnesia cement 1-2, lignosulfonate 0.7-1.5%.
EFFECT: achievement of required strength of backfilling at minimal content of bonding agent.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining industry, and namely to the method used for hydraulic filling of long single mine workings. It involves influence of retaining and filtering connection straps, installation of pulp pipeline, and supply of filling pulp. Water is drained via drain holes made in connection straps installed on the side opposite to the pulp supply. Filling pulp is supplied to the filled area via pulp pipeline with the holes made in lower part, which is attached to the roof of mine working throughout its length. The holes made at the beginning of the pipeline are equipped with petal valves.
EFFECT: increases the filling degree of the worked-out area in hard-to-reach sections.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry, namely to method for preparation of stowing mix. Tails of dressing works are sent to several stowing complexes with application of hydraulic transport system, comprising working and drain branches. Tails are separated in each stowing complex into condensed product sent for preparation of stowing mix and lightened discharge. Working and drain branches of hydraulic transport system are separated. Tails from working branch are sent to each stowing complex, and lightened discharge is drained to drain branch. End part of working branch and beginning of drain branch in hydraulic transport system are joined by emergency bridge comprising stop valves. Each stowing complex newly added to system of hydraulic transport is duplicated with emergency bridge. System of hydraulic transport includes several separated working and drain branches, which service groups of stowing complexes that vary in number. Working and drain branches of hydraulic transport system for sending of tails to several groups of stowing complexes may be combined into headers.
EFFECT: provision of stable high quality of mines stowing, increased efficiency and safety of mining works, lower costs for preparation of stowing mix and transportation of dressing works tails in servicing of several mines.
7 cl, 8 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining engineering and can be used during underground development of mineral deposits. Erection method of filling connection strap involves making of rock dike by laying as to width and height of the filling working of large rock pieces 1, on which there put is layer of finer rock or sand 2 with drain pipe 3 passed through rock dike. On rock dike there installed are pneumocylinders 4, which are forced outwards, between rock dike and roof of working by supplying to pneumocylinders 4 of compressed air with outward pressure which is more than limit value, at decrease of which pneumocylinders 4 are forced with backfill material 5 to the side of non-filled part of the working. Distance between rock dike and roof of working is determined by the ratio: amin<h<0.75amax, where: amin - minimum height of pneumocylinder 4 when in folded position till compressed air is supplied to it; h - distance between rock dike and roof of working; amax - size of pneumocylinder 4 after compressed air has been supplied to it.
EFFECT: increasing efficiency of filling operations.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry, namely to hardening fill mixtures. It includes filler, liquid sodium glass, gypsum, cement. Fill mixture is additionally supplemented with flocculant and martite-hematite iron ore, with the following ratio of mixture components: liquid sodium glass 20-22%; cement 1-2%; gypsum 1-2%; flocculant 0.002-0.004%; martite-hematite iron ore 1%; filler - the rest.
EFFECT: improved quality of technological properties of hardening fill mixture, reduced prime cost, increased bearing capacity of filled mass, reduced consumption of hardening solution and simplified technology of stripped area filling.
2 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes partial filling of extracted space of side and central mains by filling stripes from lava extracting shafts. At center of semi-lava on the side of massive, wherein next extractive column will be cut, filling shaft is additionally driven, wherefrom full filling of space between central fill stripe and fill stripe on the side of massive is performed. Preparation of next extraction column is performed under protection of erected fill stripes.
EFFECT: higher safety, higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of rows of main platforms along bed length in staggered order with length equal or divisible by step value for support displacement, and placing filling material thereon. Along length of main platforms between ceiling and bed soil post support is mounted, upon which filling material is fed. After that between main platforms additional platforms are erected with wedge supporting, and main platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support and it is displaced for one drive step. During that filling material, while lowering, unwedges wedge support between ceiling and bed soil and forms artificial supports. After that additional platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support. After movement of cleaning face for two drive steps operations for constructing artificial supports are repeated. Distance between main platforms along bed fall line are selected from mathematical expression.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation and well extraction of resources of chambers with partial backfill of extraction space. Blocks of upper level relatively to blocks of lower level are placed in staggered order, while blocks are made in form of a stretched upwards hexahedron. Resources of block within one hexahedron are separated on two chambers, one of which, placed along periphery of hexahedron, after extraction and removal of ore from it is filled by hardening backfill. Second order chamber is made of hexahedron-like shape, extracted and removed under protection from artificial block on all six sides of this chamber. Removal of ore from first order chambers is performed through one removal mine - end of level ort and cross-cut in lower portion of block and intermediate sub-level cross-cuts.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of deposit resources by chambers through one of them, construction of ice-rock backfill in extracted space of primary chambers and following extraction of inter-chamber blocks. In inter-chamber blocks wedge-shaped slits are formed immediately in ceiling of deposit, space of slits is filled with ice-rock backfill, while slits are formed of inter-chamber blocks for 1/3 of width.
EFFECT: higher durability, higher effectiveness.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has surface composed of upper section with wedges and lower section and backfill material placed on said surface. Upper section is made in form of a rectangle, composed of rectangular triangle and rectangular trapezoid with possible displacement of trapezoid along triangle hypotenuse. Lower section is made of two plates, mounted on holder, fixed to pipe for feeding compressed air. Plate, positioned above the trapezoid, is mounted with possible counter-clockwise rotation around holder. Value of greater base of trapezoid hδ is selected from relation hδ = m - 0.9k, where m - bed massiveness, m, k - size of backfill material, m.
EFFECT: simplified construction, lower laboriousness.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly to develop mineral deposit along with backfilling of worked-out areas.
SUBSTANCE: backfill mix comprises cement, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag, filler and water. The backfill mix additionally has shredded straw. Grinded diabase is used as the filler. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): cement - 2.9-5.07, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag - 15.21-16.91, grinded diabase - 52.24-53.22, shredded straw - 0.02-0.076, water - remainder.
EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in development of minerals with systems involving filling mined-out space with solidifying stowing mix. The latter is composed of broken lime-containing binder in the form of active aluminosilicate material (5.6-33.2%) and fired carbonate rocks (1.0-16.7%), tempering water with phlegmatizer (10.6-27.5%), and filler. Carbonate rocks are fired at 900-1200°C, contain active calcium-magnesium oxides CaO+MgO at least 40% and not more than 9.1% based on the total weight of mix, which are broken to screen residue 0.08 mm not more than 15%. Active aluminosilicate material is fired marl or fired clay, or fired kimberlite ore concentration tails, or granulated blast furnace slag. Tempering water contains phlegmatizer in amounts found from formula [Ph] = (0.005-0.021)*Cr/Cw, where [Ph] amount of water in 1 L tempering water, kg; (0.005-0.021) coefficient taking into account proportion between phlegmatizer and fired carbonate rocks in mix; Cr amount of carbonate rocks in mix, kg; and Cw experimentally found consumption of tempering water with mix, L. When indicated amount of CaO+MgO in mixture is exceeded, CaO and MgO are converted into hydroxides by spraying with water in amount not higher than 20% of the weight of fired carbonate rocks (on conversion to active CaO+MgO). As carbonate rocks, host rocks of kimberlite deposits are used; as filler, sand and/or concentration tails, and/or broken aluminosilicate rock; and, as phlegmatizer, industrial-grade lignosulfonate or superplasticizer.
EFFECT: improved workability of mix and reduced cost.
5 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: mining and underground building, particularly underground mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves double-stage mineral deposit development; erecting artificial rock-and-concrete supports of previously cut primary chamber roof rock in at least two adjacent primary chambers; extracting secondary chamber resources; filling space defined by cut rock with hardening material mix. Mines for drilling and/or filling operations performing are arranged in deposit roof over or inside ore pillars of secondary chambers. Primary chamber roof rock is cut by well undercharge method. Hardening material mix is supplied via cross headings located between mine and cavities and/or via undercharged well sections remained after rock cutting operation.
EFFECT: increased safety and economical efficiency due to reduced number of drilling and filling mines or accompanying mineral excavation, possibility to use drilling and filling mines at secondary chamber development stage for ore cutting, venting and roof condition control.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, particularly underground mineral mining with excavated space filling with hardening filling mix.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing grinded lime-containing binding agent, mixing water and filler; delivering the filling mix to area to be filled; filling mine space with the filling mix in several layers. The lime-containing binding agent is active silica-alumina material and burnt carbonate rock including at least 40% of active Cao+MgO. Above rock is grinded so that not more than 15% of grinded material remains on sieve having 0.08 orifice dimensions. Amount of the grinded burnt carbonate rock is selected so that active Cao+MgO is not more than 9.1% of filling mix mass. Water consumption for oxide Ca and Mg conversion in hydroxide is not more than 20% of burnt carbonate rock recalculated to active CaO+MgO. Retarder is added in mixing water in amount determined from R=(0.005-0.021)-Cr/Cw, where R is retarder content in 1 l of mixing water, kg; (0.005-0.021) is factor, which considers retarder-burnt carbonate rock ratio in the filling mix; Cr is burnt carbonate rock content in filling mix, kg; Cw is experimentally determined mixing water content in filling mix, l. Mine space filling rate is chosen from hardening time and self-heating degree of filing mass. The filling mix contains active silica-alumina material in amount of 5.6-33.2% by weight, carbonate rock burnt at 900-1200°C and containing active CaO+MgO of not less than 40% in amount of 1.0-16.7%, mixing water with retarder in amount of 10.6-27.5%, remainder is filler.
EFFECT: increased operational safety due to improved quality mine space filling, reduced costs and increased mine intensity.
6 cl, 4 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to develop valuable mineral deposits along with goaf filling.
SUBSTANCE: fill mix comprises quick lime, grinded blast furnace slag, filler, industrial lignosulphonate and water. The fill mix additionally comprises trisodiumphosphate. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): quick lime - 1.61-4.8, grinded blast furnace slag - 10.79-14.4, filler - 60.85-62.14, industrial lignosulphonate - 0.016-0.11, trisodiumphosphate - 0.124-0.35, remainder is water.
EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance of fill mix over the full fill body.