Method of determining time of contact between diesel fuel and water
SUBSTANCE: method involves taking a sample, concentration of impurities, chromatographic analysis with separation of the concentrate on a capillary column and mass-selective detection while raising temperature from 35°C to 280°C, isolation of tridecane and 1-methylnaphthalene as reference compounds on the chromatogram, calculation of their concentration ratio in the sample and calculation of the time of contact between diesel fuel and water using the formula: x=0.42·y-1.8, where x is the time of contact between diesel fuel and water, h; y=Stridecane/Smethylnaphthalene; Stridecane and Smethylnaphthalene are area of peaks of tridecane and 1-methylnaphthalene on reconstructed chromatograms on selective ions with mass to charge ratio of 85 for tridecane and 145 for 1-methylnaphthalene, which correspond to concentrations of given compounds in the sample.
EFFECT: simple and reliable method with high information content.
1 ex, 1 tbl
The invention relates to the field of environmental and analytical chemistry, in particular to a method for determining the time of contact of diesel fuels with water.
In accordance with the list of certified and temporarily admitted to the use of methods of determining the content of oil products in natural and waste waters is recommended to use the following methods of analytical control: IR - and UV-spektrofotometricheskie, weight, fluorescent and chromatographic methods.
Current state standard GOST R 51797-2001 (Method for detecting the content of oil products) is IR-spectrometric method to determine the concentration of emulsified and dissolved aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons (petroleum products) in water. The method allows to determine the total oil content in the water, but not to establish the designated petroleum products (gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, etc) and the time of their contact with water.
The method of column chromatography with UV-spectrophotometric end is based on the absorption of aromatic hydrocarbons in the UV region of the spectrum. They make up 30% of the amount of petroleum hydrocarbons, and their share may increase substantially as the relatively rapid consumption by microorganisms aliphatic carbohydrate is childbirth. Thus, when using this method increases the accuracy of the TM when identifying the chronic pollution. (Golubeva M.L. Spectrophotometric determination of oil and oil products in the water. Sanitary-chemical control in the field of protection of water bodies. - M.: Medicine, 1964. P.142-146).
The method of column chromatography with gravimetric (weight) ending is often used in laboratories for the analysis of natural waters and industrial effluents. However, using the gravimetric method can be difficult due to the loss of volatile components of the NP in the sample preparation. Also significant interference to the use of the method create halogenated hydrocarbons included in the NP (PNDF 14.1:7.116-97. The method of measurement of mass concentration of oil products in samples of natural and treated wastewater by the method of column chromatography with a gravimetric finish. M, 1997).
In the recommended techniques (Definition of index of liquid petroleum products in the water. ISO 9377-2:2000 // Drinking water. 2001. No. 5. P.17-21; Korenman YA, žilina SURDS, V. Fokin. Chromatographic determination of oil products in natural and mineral waters // Chemistry and technology of water. 2005. V.27. No. 2. Pp.163-172) described detection methods, chromatographic identification of petroleum products in natural and mineral waters. Meth is water enables you to install a high quality accessory (fractional composition of petroleum products by the appearance of the chromatograms ("fingerprints"). To reliably determine variety of facilities recommended to create a working Atlas the most likely contaminants. This suggests a comparison with known standards (samples) of petroleum products and leads to difficulties in their primary identification in the operational monitoring of water. This method is applicable when the dispersed, dissolved portion of the oil in water similar in composition to the original, which is possible only with fresh dirt, when oil products are not susceptible to degradation.
Fluorescent method is based on measuring fluorescence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons included in the NP. Methods based on absorption of UV and fluorescent radiation, characterized only aromatic, mainly polycyclic structure, and the absorption coefficients of different aromatic structures can greatly vary. In this regard, the results obtained depend not only on quantity but also on the composition of aromatic compounds, which in turn may differ from the NP of different brands (Drugov US, Rodin A.A. Ecological analysis in oil and oil products. Practical guide. S.-Pb.: Anatoly, 2000, 250 C.)
The known method (Patent RF №2152613, 10.07.2000, Bulletin No. 19) detection of petroleum products in aqueous solutions by the method of LUMIN santoy spectroscopy by assessing the accumulation of oil on aquatic blue-violet glow of fat inclusions crustaceans. The method does not allow to determine the composition of the oil and does not differentiate the process of accumulation of petroleum aquatic organisms due to contact time or increase their concentration in the water.
These methods do not answer the question about the sources of water pollution NP, duration of contact of pollutants with water, when possible secondary pollution of water sources due to the biodegradation of the contaminant in the water. (Yasser Moustafa M. Oriental. Assessment of pollution of waters by oil. J.Chern. 2004. 20, No. 2, s.219-226) in the study of water samples taken at different distances from the Strait of oil, it is noted that with increasing distance from the Strait of reduced total content of the NP in the water and increases the content of polar compounds, which are products of decomposition of the original components. However, the authors are not aware of the use of the obtained data to determine the time of contact of the NP with water.
(Tzing S.H., Chang J.Y., Ghule, A., Chang J.J., Lo C., Ling, Y.C. Simple and fast method of identifying the source of spilled oil using an electronic nose": (Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan). Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom 2003. 17, No. 16, 1873-1880) offers a simple and fast method of identifying the source of spilled oil using two types of "electronic nose", acting on the basis of different principles. For PR the constituent multicomponent analysis recommended multi-sensor device with a resolution in space, allowing on the basis of the graphic image to set the source, and quick time-chromatography-mass spectral analysis of the composition of the sample. Because we are talking about multi-component mixtures of compounds of different nature and biochemical properties, the results are unlikely to be unambiguous and applicable to any kind of NP.
Closest to the invention to the technical essence and the achieved result is the method of determining the time of contact of gasoline with water (the Method for determining the time of contact of gasoline with water (authors Gordienko, B.C., Kantor LI, Tsybysheva L.G. and others, patent No. 2324930, application No. 2006128560). In this way the duration of the gasoline in the water is determined by the ratio of the concentration of the most volatile and less volatile components (frames) in a given time. As reference points selected characteristic and is constantly present in gasoline aromatic hydrocarbons, toluene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (1,2,4-TMB). Selected frames belong to the same class of organic compounds of similar chemical properties and resistance to biodegradation, easily dispersed in water and therefore longer hold it. Changes in the concentration of frames in continuous contact with gasoline water only due to their volatility. The timing of contact of the fuel with the ode is made on a pre-identified dependency relationships concentrations (response detector) frames from time gasoline in the water in these climatic conditions. Selective determination of these compounds in water is carried out after pre-concentration of volatile impurities in the vapor phase of water and chromatographic separation on columns with a highly polar stationary phase. The method is relatively simple, but is applicable only to determine in water volatile fractions of NP (gasoline).
Thus, in the literature not found a simple and reliable method for determining the time of contact of diesel fuels with water.
Diesel fuel (DF) is a mixture of hydrocarbons (HC), wikipaedia in the range of 240-360°C and a density of 0.82 is 0.86 g/cm3. The main components of the DT - alkanes, isoalkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons and PAHs.
The authors propose a method for determining the time of contact of diesel fuels with water.
The invention consists in the selective determination of the content of one of the most characteristic and is constantly present in diesel fuels limit HC - tridecane (13) and one of PAHs 1 - methylnaphthalene (frames) and determining the relationships of their concentrations. The timing of contact of the fuel with water are made on a pre-identified according to the ratio of frames from the time of diesel fuel in the water.
Selected compounds differ in physico-chemical properties and the ability to biodegra the emission in water. Changes in the concentration of tridecane in the water due to biological decomposition occurs very quickly, compared to 1-methylnaphthalene, because alkanes are more available for microbial oxidation than aromatic hydrocarbons (Brodsky, Surico L. F., Finkelstein SI, Basmanov BP, Yankevich M.I., Yakovlev V.I., Golovlev L.A. Recycling of oil in soil and water microbial cells. Microbiology. 1995. So 64, No. 3, s-398). Therefore, the rate of change of their concentration in the water in time will be different. This difference of speed of biodegradation of selected compounds of the basis for determining the time of contact with water two varieties DT - winter (DZ) and summer (DL) (see table 1). Quantitative determination of the sample components in the water is conducted by a method GC / MS with prior extraction extraction and concentration of organic impurities from water. The concentration of the reference compounds measured at the reconstructed chromatograms of selective ions. The separation of ions takes place in accordance with the ratio of ion mass to charge (m/z): for tridecane m/z=85, for 1-methylnaphthalene m/z=142.
The concentration of the reference compound (S) in the sample correspond to the squares of their peaks on the chromatogram (S).
|The contact time, h||Withtridecan/S1-Mentaly|
The dependence relationship Withtridecan/S1-Mentalyfrom time diesel fuel in the water under the above conditions:
x - contact time diesel fuel with water, including
The obtained dependence is applicable to estimate the time of contact of diesel fuels two varieties of water.
Largest relationship of concentrations (response) frames at a given time (Ctridecan/C1-Mentaly) and installed according to x=0,42·1,8you can estimate the time of contact of diesel fuels of different brands of water, and if this river with a known velocity, the distance from the pollution source.
The proposed method is carried out in the following sequence.
A water sample taken in a glass bowl. The volume of the sample should be not less than 0.5 DM3. Quantitative determination of the sample components in the water is conducted by a method GC / MS with prior extraction preconcentration limited-volatile organic impurities. Identification of the components of the concentrate of impurities was performed using a gas chromatograph HP 6890N and mass-selective detector 5973 inert firm "Agilent". Chromatographic separation was obtained concentrate was carried out on a capillary column HP-5MS (30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 μm) when programming thermostat temperature columns from 35°C at a rate of 20°C/min to 60°C and with a speed of 6°C/min to 280°C (10 min), (Tsource=230°C, TCOI=250°C). The method of ionization - electron impact (70 eV). The calculation of the concentration is AI (peak area) of the reference compounds were reconstructed chromatograms of selective ions (for tridecane m/z=85, for 1-methylnaphthalene m/z=142).
The chromatogram of the sample are suggested by the authors of reference compounds, tridecan and 1-methylnaphthalene and calculate the ratio of the response (concentration) of the detector tridecane 1-methylnaphthalene (Ctridecan/C1-Mentaly). The obtained values are used to calculate the contact time of diesel fuel with water previously found dependency
x - contact time diesel fuel with water.
Example 1. Select 0,5 DM3water samples from wells Baimak district and conduct extraction concentration; 0,5 DM3the sample is acidified with 10% hydrochloric acid to pH 2, add 50 g of sodium chloride and 10 cm methylene chloride. Shake for 2 minutes, the Extract dried with sodium sulfate and then concentrated in thermostat to 50 mm3. Concentrate the sample is introduced into the evaporator gas chromatograph and separated on a capillary column HP-5MS (30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 μm) when programming thermostat temperature columns from 35°C at a rate of 20°C/min to 60°C and with a speed of 6°C/min to 280°C (10 min), (Tsource=230°C, TCOI=250°C).
On the chromatogram find reference compounds (see table 2).
|Index||Retention time, min||The peak area, mV·c|
Calculated by the chromatogram attitude
As required by the authors according to x=0,42·-1,8
x=2.1 hours contact time of diesel fuel with water.
In the middle reaches of the river 2.8 km/hour distance to the source of the spill will be 2.8 km/h 2,1 h = 5,9 km
Example No. 2. Select 0,5 DM3water samples R. White and analyzed as in example 1. Get the chromatogram of water sample, which does not find one of the reference compounds. In the absence of one of the frames make a conclusion about the water pollution anthropogenic admixtures another source, not diesel fuel.
The method for determining the time (duration) contact diesel fuels with water, including sampling, the concentration of impurities chromatographic analysis by separation concentrate on capillary column and mass-selective detection with the rise of temperature from 35 to 280°C, the selection to chromate the gram as reference compounds tridecane and 1-methylnaphthalene,
calculation relationships of their concentrations in the sample and calculating the time of contact of diesel fuels with water according to the formula:
where x is the time of contact of diesel fuels with water, h;
Stridecanand S1-methylnaphthalenesquare peaks tridecane and 1-methylnaphthalene in the reconstructed chromatograms for selective ions with mass-to-charge 85 for tridecane and 142 for 1-methylnaphthalene, corresponding to the concentrations of these compounds in the sample.
SUBSTANCE: there is performed laboratory coking. Quality of each i-coal component used for preparation of charge for coking is evaluated relative to coefficient of process value (CPVi). Share of each i-coal component used at preparation of charge is determined in a coke and caking groups and by their dimension with consideration to coefficient of process value of each i-coal component. Coefficient of process value is determined correspondingly of the coke group (CPVk) and of the caking group (CPVc) and for coal charge (CPVch). Further there are determined shares of coke and caking groups in coal charge for production of metallurgical coke (Ccch, Ccakech). Share of each i-coal component contained correspondingly in coke and caking groups in charge for production of metallurgical coke is determined on base of value of share of each i-coal component used for preparation of coal charge correspondingly in the coke and caking groups and on base of shares of the coke and caking groups in coal charge for preparation of metallurgical coke.
EFFECT: preparing coal charge including coal components of various grades and wide range of coal basins for production of metallurgical coke of high mechanical properties.
SUBSTANCE: method involves putting a sample into a vessel which is put into a bomb and kept in a liquid thermostat at high pressure for a given period of time. The sample is then cooled for a given a period of time at the end of which chemical stability is determined from the value of an information factor calculated using a mathematical relationship. Oxygen is fed into the sealed bomb containing the sample until achieving excess pressure of 800±10 kPa which is fixed. Temperature of ambient air is measured and the bomb is put into a liquid thermostat preheated to 120°C at which the bomb is held for 180 minutes. The bomb is then taken out of the liquid thermostat and held at ambient temperature for 180 minutes. Further, ambient temperature and oxygen pressure are then measured. The information factor A is the fraction of absorbed oxygen which is calculated from a given relationship and if A≤25%, the motor petrol is chemically highly stable and suitable for prolonged storage. If 25<A≤85%, the motor petrol is chemically stable and suitable for short-term storage.
EFFECT: increased reliability and faster determination.
2 ex, 3 tbl
FIELD: measurement technique.
SUBSTANCE: rapid method for determination of water content in liquid fuel in domestic conditions. Method for determination of water content in liquid fuel in domestic conditions includes preparation of fuel samples by taking fuel sample into transparent measuring container and mixing in it. Testing is performed by freezing fuel sample at temperature below ice point. Then during freezing sample is visually inspected for presence of water in solid state in it. Further, after freezing completion, water amount collection is performed by filtering water crystals. Then water is defrosted, its volume is measured by weighing and percentage of water in the sample is calculated.
EFFECT: development of water content in fuel determination without using expensive equipment and special solvents.
1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to analysis of materials by determining chemical or physical properties of explosive substances. The device for determining sensitivity to the impact wave of an explosive charge (EC) has series-arranged triggering apparatus, initial charge, inert barrier, inert charge, facing the inert barrier and on the opposite surface. The said initial charge contains at least 90% octogene and the inert barrier is made from polymer substance with an amorphous structure. Thickness and density of the initial charge and thickness of the barrier satisfy the following expressions: 0.3<hic/hba<3; 1.3<hic×ρic<5.7; where pic is thickness of the initial charge, cm, ρic is density of the initial charge, g/cm3, hba is thickness of the barrier, cm.
EFFECT: more accurate control.
1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to apparatus for controlling quality of engine fuel. The chemical sensor is a plate made from aluminium foil, coated with a composite sorbent and an indicator. The composite sorbent used is a mixture which consists of silica gel 60, gypsum and liquid glass, and the indicator is a mixture of potassium ferrocyanide K3[Fe(CN)6] and iron sulphate FeSO4, which is blue in the presence of water due to formation of a coordination compound.
EFFECT: more reliable control.
FIELD: blasting jobs.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laboratory equipment used in training in theory of explosives, explosion effects and experimental methods of physics of explosion. Proposed laboratory comprises blasting chamber 1 accommodating mount 2 to place thereon or suspend thereto an explosive charge, electric pulse source arranged outside the chamber and electric cable 11 to connect aforesaid source with charge. Aforesaid charge is made from liquid explosive substance 4 representing a mix of liquid oxidiser and combustible filled in metal or non-metal shell 3. It comprises also spark discharger 5 or exploding conductor dipped into liquid explosive 4. Discharger 5 is connected, via high-voltage cable 11, with electric pulse source.
EFFECT: higher safety of experiments.
21 cl, 15 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: oil is deasphalted, prepared 0.5% solution of asphalt-free oil in toluol, photocolorimetered it at length of wave 510 nm, it is defined transmission density, by its value there are calculated absorption of light coefficient (Kla) of solution of asphalt-free oil from correlation: Kla= 100%*D/0.4343CL [cm-1], where D - value of transmission density at absorption band 510 nm; C - concentration of asphalt-free oil in toluol, %; L - absorption layer thickness of solution of asphalt-free oil in used liquid measuring cavity, cm; and by value Kla it is calculated content of resins in oil by empirically established formula:
EFFECT: simplicity and acceleration of analysis.
1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to methods of research and analysis of motor fuels and their components applied in oil processing industry, The method of determination of octane number of motor petrol and its components by research in range of 100-110 points consists in testing of researched product at an installation containing an internal combustion carburettor engine with variable compression ratio and a device for measurement of detonation intensity; further, the method consists in comparing research fuel detonation intensity with two reference fuels with a known octane number at degree of compression facilitating an average level of detonation with other things being equal; also mixtures of toluene with isooctane are used as reference fuels with known octane number; notably, share of toluene in reference mixture is determined from the chart prepared beforehand.
EFFECT: safety of analysis due to exclusion of toxic tetraethyl lead from reference fuels.
2 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: detection is carried out by application of finely dispersed aerosol of indicator formulation onto investigated surface with subsequent visual detection of indicator effect. Indicator composition is prepared using alcohol solution of tetrabutyl ammonia hydroxide, having properties of surface-active substance that helps to increase sensitivity and specificity of detection. For storage, transportation and application of suggested indicator composition, aerosol device is used, being made of low and high density polyethylene mix. Aerosol device and indicator composition have considerable advantages compared to existing facilities for detection of explosives as simplicity of handling does not require special training of personnel.
EFFECT: low time of detection will make it possible to take appropriate protection measures.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to analysis and controlling quality of liquid hydrocarbon fuels and determination of possibility of prolonged storage of fuel. The method involves taking and preparing a sample, mixing it with a distillate component, heating the mixture to 100°C and evaluating the deposit. The sample is mixed with the distillate component before viscosity of the mixture reaches (1.75+0.05) mm2/s at 100°C. The required amount of mixture is poured into a pre-weighed metallic vessel m1, and the weight of the vessel with the mixture m2 is recorded. After heating the mixture to 100°C the vessel with the mixture is kept in a drying chamber for 50 minutes at (105+3)°C. This mixture is centrifuged at temperature sufficient for keeping molten paraffins in liquid state. The liquid part is poured out. The deposit remaining in the vessel is mixed with petroleum ether, after which the obtained solution is centrifuged. The liquid part is poured out and the deposit remaining in the vessel is dried to a constant mass m3. Asphaltenes are then separated from this deposit, for which the deposit is mixed with toluene, centrifuged, the liquid toluene part is poured out and the deposit remaining in the vessel is dried to a constant mass m4. After that the information indicator is calculated form the given ratio and if A < 0.005 wt %, there are no secondary residual products from refining oil in the analysed fuel.
EFFECT: more accurate detection, as well as possibility of differentiating mixed fuels.
2 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of determining content of oil products in water is based on concentrating oil products through liquid-liquid extraction using a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform taken in ratio of 1:1 as the extraction agent, quenching fluorescence of non-hydrocarbon components with sodium nitrite and measuring fluorescence intensity.
EFFECT: faster and more reliable analysis.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves continuous measurement of behavioural and/or physiological reactions of aquatic organisms in natural conditions using measuring devices connected to a self-recording device or a computer and a signalling device. Bioindication takes place based on results of complex changes in functional characteristics of indicator organisms. Values of measured parametres are processed by the computer in real time separately for each specific indicator organism with subsequent averaging and integration of the results. Changes are evaluated from measurements of not less than three main parametres of behavioural and/or physiological reactions of indicator organisms and their fluctuation frequency. By comparing the current state of the indicator organism with its normal state and analysing the integrated measurement results, an alarm signal is generated automatically. The said signal indicates changes in conditions of the aquatic medium and degree of deviation from normal conditions. Bioindication is carried out using not less than two types of indicator organisms for one and/or more biotopes, where the biotopes used are different water layers or bodies.
EFFECT: increased reliability and efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: method involves the measurement of boiler water conductivity and calculating the concentration of phosphate, at that the electrical conductivity of cooled samples of feedwater and boiler water of salt compartment of the boiler drum, passed through H-cationite filter, is measured, and calculation of concentration of phosphates is made proceeding from correlation: where Cp is a concentration of phosphates per PO4 3-, mg/dm3; electrical conductivities of H-cationed samples of salt compartment boiler water and feedwater reduced to a temperature of 25°C, mcCm /cm.
EFFECT: increased informativeness of analysis.
2 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measurement technique.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to monitoring and rapid methods for evaluation of surface water body contamination level by means of bioindication methods using macrozoobenthos as indicator. The method includes extraction of indicator related to macrozoobenthos from water medium, its identification, determination of water body contamination level through evaluation of water rating and saprobity depending on indicator while wigglers of Tanypodinae subfamily (Diptera, Chironomidae) of natural water body are selected as the indicator, their species belonging is determined according to which water body rating and saprobity is defined depending on presence of particular species of wigglers from specified subfamily.
EFFECT: high accuracy and simplification of determination is achieved.
FIELD: chemistry; biochemistry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biotechnology and can be used in determining quality of water. The method involves the following. Filter paper is impregnated with the water under analysis. 300 Musca domestica housefly eggs are then placed on the surface of the said impregnated filter paper. The filter paper is then kept in a temperature-controlled cabinet at 25°C for 24 hours and percentage reproduction of housefly larvae is determined. Contamination of the water is determined from the said percentage value after 24 hours.
EFFECT: invention simplifies the method and increases its efficiency.
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method provides preliminary mechanical cleaning of external surface of ice specimens from biological and chemical contaminations by germless tool under minus 15°C. Then ice segments are treated by acyclic saturated hydrocarbon under minus 15°C by means of their submergence in vessel with acyclic saturated hydrocarbon. As acyclic saturated hydrocarbon pentane is used. After that ice segments are submerged in Freon cooled to minus 15°C for removal of acyclic saturated hydrocarbon. Ice specimens are ozonised in air-tight aluminium box using germicide UV lamp during not less than 30 min under minus 15°C. After that ice is treated by disinfectant solution free from chlorine in air atmosphere containing less than 100 particles of size less than 0.5 mcm in cubic foot. Ice specimens are washed with pure water first by means of submerging, then under water flow. After that ice is placed in sterile vessels. Pure water has resistance 18 megohm, it contains dissolved organic carbon 1 mcg per litre and is additionally cleaned by membrane with pore size of 5 kDa.
EFFECT: method allows to enhance integrity of decontamination performance.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns medicine, and can be used for water analysis for biological activity. That is ensured by preparing standard saline of water. Dead-end preparations of nervous cells are prepared and place cells in the saline for preset time. The cells are electrically stimulated by single square-wave pulses of duration 0.1 msec, superthreshold intensity at frequency 1 pulse per hour. Then the excitatory postsynaptic potentials are discharged and recorded both initial and each 2 hours within and after water reaction in cells from a receptor of a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylyoxizole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) of the first reciprocal total activating potential of compact neuron group, from a receptor of N-methyl-D-aspartate - the AMPA following reciprocal making active potential of compact neuron group and inhibitory postsynaptic neuron potentials. The biological activity of water in preset time intervals is determined by functioning of nervous cells depending on prolonged water reaction in comparing parametres of nervous cell activity both initial, and within reaction and thereafter.
EFFECT: possibility to compare biological activity of water at molecular-cell level through determining its reaction with dead-end nervous cells.
2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to analytical chemistry relative to water hardness determination. Method is characterised by the fact that sample is taken and subsequently passed through indicator and reagent; at that, as indicator and reagent, there used is calmagite and silica gel modified with monoethanolamine respectively. Clear container is filled with the above substances without their being mixed. Sample is added to container from indicator side, and water hardness degree is assessed as per length of coloured section by using the following equation: H = 0.0001*L2+0.0012*L, where H - water hardness, mol eqv/l; L - length of coloured reagent section, mm.
EFFECT: simplifying the determining method with possibility of its being performed in field conditions.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to biology and medicine, and can be used to analyse water for its biological activity that is ensured by preparing standard saline of water. Dead-end nerve cell preparations are prepared and placed in saline for 60 minutes. The cells are exposed to electric stimulation by after-threshold single rectangular pulses of length 0.1 msec at frequency 1 pulse per 30 minutes. It is followed with discharging and recording generated action potential, excitatory postsynaptic potentials and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials of cells both initial and during incubation in water in 30 and 60 minutes. Biological activity of water is determined by comparing parametres of evoked activity of nerve cells.
EFFECT: invention allows for quantitative cell-molecular measurement of biologically active water effect on dead-end nerve cells and for comparison of said properties of water of various sources both natural, and industrial, and also processed water.
2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, and can be used to analyse water for its biological activity that is ensured by preparing standard saline of water. Dead-end nerve cell preparations are prepared and placed in saline for 40 minutes. It is exposed to electric stimulation with four after-threshold intensity pulse packets at frequency 100 Hz. Packet length is 5 seconds with the interval 5 seconds. It is followed with discharging and recording excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitude of N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor both initial at the moment of stimulation and 5, 15, 30 and 40 minutes after stimulation. Biological activity of water is determined by comparing initial parametres of caused cell activity during incubation in water and thereupon considering duration of staying in water.
EFFECT: method allows analysing water of various sources for biological activity either prior to and after processing and comparing levels thereof.
2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: proposed invention relates to gas chromatographic analysis and can be used in alcohol quality tests. Proposed method consists in that, additionally, water-spirit mix in the ratio of 60/40% by volume is prepared to a series of model samples based thereon to prepared by adding every component of analysed drink separately in said mix. Then model sample are analysed at the inlet assembly temperature of 180°C, 250°C and 310°C. Note that unknown substance detected in model sample is qualified as artifact formed in analysis, while is it is absent from model samples, check sample is prepared by combining the entire series of model samples to be analysed at aforesaid 180°C, 250°C and 310°C. Then mass spectra and chromatograms related therewith are analyzed and, if there is no revealed unknown substance in check sample, it is qualified as marker of nonfoods origin.
EFFECT: unambiguous identification of chemical compounds and fragments thereof as well as their origin, higher accuracy and faster identification.
4 tbl, 3 ex