Composition for construction material and gypsum board, method for construction with their application and wall

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: construction material on the basis of gypsum is produced by addition of water to composition, in which basic material represents combination of hydraulic gypsum and one type or two or more types of dry-hardening calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide, or is producd by means of mixing emulsions of synthetic resins with it and inorganic filler with high specific weight so that to execute reaction and setting or drying, at the same time composiiton differs by the fact that it includes 100 weight parts of at least one type or two or more types of main materials, selected from the group including calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide, and also emulsions of organic synthetic resins and 50-3000 weight parts of at least one type or two or more types of inorganic fillers, true specidic weight of which makes 3.5-6.0, selected from the group, including barium chloride, zinc oxide, aluminium oxide, titanium oxide, barium oxide, strontium carbonate, barium carbonate and barium sulfate.

EFFECT: protection against radioactive radiation, small weight, convenience in use, safe for human body.

 

The present invention mainly relates to a composition for building material based on gypsum and gypsum plate, obtained by setting the composition, in particular, relates to a plaster plate with a high proportion applicable to partitions with good sound insulating properties, as a construction material for building interiors, as well as concerns protection from radioactive exposure gypsum boards, can effectively be protected from exposure to radiation from a radioactive source without the use of lead in using radioactive radiation devices, such as using x-ray installation, etc. in Addition, it relates to a method of dry construction sound walls or so using the above-mentioned gypsum boards and method of dry construction, protects against radiation, as well as the walls, ceiling, floor, devices, etc.

As a conventional building material based on gypsum developed gypsum. Plaster plate usually obtained by pouring the solution (plaster solution)obtained by mixing calcined gypsum and water between the upper and lower covers for gypsum cardboard plates, shaping it in the form of a plate, pre-slicing her after the solution and the end is positive slicing it on the plate size after drying. In other words, gypsum plate, obtained by the method of casting-molding, has a gypsum core covered with protective cardboard for gypsum boards, and has the desired properties, such as flame-retardant and fire-resistant properties, sound insulating properties, manufacturability and cost effectiveness. Due to such characteristics of the plaster plate used for dry separation walls in receiving in recent times, the rapid spread of high-altitude and high-altitude buildings, it was found that gypsum has excellent characteristics, such as the ability to processing, the weight savings, the ability to withstand earthquakes, etc.

Dry separation wall can be installed later during the process of interior decoration, separate from the framing stage. It includes the design of the racks located on a lightweight steel frame (top or bottom rail) or the like, mounted on the frame and does not include rack design without a frame, and ends with the Assembly of base panels, such as gypsum, reinforced plaster slab and the slab of calcium silicate on both sides of each main frame so that it contains a material such as glass wool having insulation properties, attach them using samonarezayuschih the screws or the like, forming the wall, and then overlaying plates for coatings on their surfaces on both sides using glue in combination with staples, nails or screws. Such dry dividing walls create a comfortable living environment and the protection of life and property, etc. during disasters (fire etc), in addition to the implementation of important tasks for separation from adjacent premises, protection against fire and resistance to fire, it must also be resistant to deformation, resistance to bending out of the plane, impact resistance, hardness, etc. in Addition, the requirements to the wall, ceiling, floor, etc. with high sound insulation characteristics for damping of sounds emanating from a neighboring house, ceiling or floor, recently increased according to the quality of stay etc. in hotels, apartment houses and the like, because of lifestyle changes and improve living standards. Moreover, even the renovation of existing places of residence, etc. need to give a higher sound insulation characteristics of the separation wall, partition, etc.

One can hardly say that gypsum (with a specific gravity of 0.65 to 0.9), usually commercially available in the form of a plate coating has a sufficient hardness, banded stiffness out of plane and the resistance.

To improve noise insulation also can the be used to increase the thickness of the wall, the mass increase of the wall by using a larger number of cladding material (plate) for hollow walls (double or multilayer wall having air-filled pore space, or the like, suitably selected in each case depending on situations, such as new construction and reconstruction. In that case, if the specific weight of cladding material used for this improve the sound insulation properties, higher specific weight of the above-mentioned commercially available gypsum boards, the flexibility of its design or selection may be improved.

To eliminate the drawbacks of the above properties of commercially available gypsum boards, such as hardness, bending strength outside the plane and impact strength, was developed gypsum with a specific gravity of 1.15-1,23, being formed after pouring a plaster solution obtained by mixing 10-250 parts by weight of digitalneho plaster with 100 weight parts of the water-gypsum, between covering for gypsum cardboard plates, and how economical the manufacture of gypsum boards with good strength properties and high specific gravity (e.g., publication of the application in Japanese patent No. 08-325045).

In a similar manner described solid gypsum, the proportion of which is 1-1,6, gypsum heart is evina which can be attached by means of nails or screws, possessing hardness, resistance to bending out of the plane and shock and including certain quantity of inorganic fibers and organic fibers dispersed in the gypsum core covered with cardboard for gypsum boards (for example, the publication of the application in Japanese patent No. 08-042111).

Also described is a dry separation wall having sufficient flame-retarding properties, sound insulating properties, ability to withstand deformation, bending strength outside the plane, hardness, etc., light weight and small thickness, for which the covering plate use solid plaster plate, described in publication of Japanese patent No. 08-042111 (for example, the publication of the application in Japanese patent No. 08-074358).

Also known traditional use of protecting humans from radiation material using radioactive radiation devices, such as, for example, the setup for x-ray examinations in medical or industrial purposes, the device using acceleration and installation for atomic energy, etc. for Example, as the material most commonly used for protection against x-ray installation, use lead. When using lead as protecting against radioactive radiation material, it is used in the de lead block or a mixture of lead powder with rubber or sheet of synthetic resin of vinyl chloride or the like Also describes the use of fire resistant building material, such as the aforementioned gypsum, for facing the dividing wall lead the panel to give it the ability to protect against x-ray radiation (e.g., publication of an application for Japanese patent No. 2005-133414).

Despite the fact that lead has a high ability to protect against x-rays and is a good material for protection against radioactive radiation, it has a large mass and it is not easy to apply, can also be a problem from the point of view of its influence on the human body. Recently there is a tendency not to use lead in electronic devices, paint and the like, there is a probability distribution such restrictions on the use of lead in building components. It was therefore proposed a way to use instead of lead, as the protect from radioactive material, compounds of barium (barium salts, such as BaCO3, BaSO4and BaCl3), harmless to human body and placed in the clay, silicon rubber or the like (for example, the publication of the application in Japanese patent No. 59-214799 and the publication of the application in Japanese patent No. 05-26488).

In the above-mentioned publication of the application in Japanese patent No. 08-325045 and the application was published in Japanese Pat the NT No. 08-042111 described intended for the construction of the stove on the basis of plaster with a high specific gravity, having prochnostyu characteristic that exceeds the same characteristics of commercially available gypsum boards. However, the main materials that make up the gypsum core, are gypsum (specific gravity digitalneho gypsum is 2,32) or inorganic fiber (specific gravity of glass is 2.5 to 3.0) and organic fiber (true specific weight of the cellulose fibers is 1.5 to 1.6), and the retrieval method includes pouring a plaster solution, which is dispersed and mixed with water above the material between the covering for gypsum cardboard plates and molding. Therefore, when forming the gypsum core with a high specific gravity it is necessary to increase the content of mixed inorganic fiber and water content in the solution, thus the higher the share, the higher not only the viscosity of the fluid, impairing its production, but also the upper limit of the specific gravity at which it is appropriate.

Despite the use of salts of barium for protection against radioactive radiation instead of lead in protecting against radioactive radiation the material described in the aforementioned publication of the application in Japanese patent No. 59-214799, barium is present in facing tiles in the form of celsiana, therefore, designed to protect against radioactive radiation mA is Arial, performing the function of such tiles. However, because the resulting material is a tile, its weight is large, and when used as a building material in the premises of its use is necessarily limited to tile, so the use of such material is limited and the method of construction with its use is also limited.

Moreover, since traditionally used commercially available gypsum, of course, has no effect on protection against radioactive radiation, for protection against radiant radioactivity devices use plaster plate to which is attached a lead sheet with a thickness of 1-2 mm, However, as mentioned above, getting free from lead-free material you will need in the future, however, free of lead plate for buildings has not yet been proposed, at least gypsum.

The present invention was made in consideration of the above problems, therefore, the present invention is the creation of gypsum boards having a gypsum core with a high proportion and configuration that is entirely different from the known configuration, with gypsum can be attached by means of nails or screws and has a hardness, bending strength is not plane and impact strength, as well as the development of the method of construction of sound walls, sound proof wall, etc. using such gypsum boards.

Another objective of the present invention is a gypsum plate, which has the function of protection against radioactive radiation, relatively light weight, easy to use, harmless to human body, attached by screws, etc. easily attached to the wall or ceiling, as well as how dry construction for protection against radioactive radiation using such a gypsum Board and a device for protection against radioactive radiation, etc. installed.

In addition, the next task of the present invention is to provide a composition for building material, which can be used as filler for expansion joints in dry construction for protection against radioactive radiation or as a wet coating such as plaster, composition for compounds and ink for wet method of construction of a wall, ceiling or floor, after his direct mixing with water.

The present invention was created after extensive research of the composition of the gypsum core and the configuration of gypsum boards in a range of practical characteristics of the building material is, in particular, the construction material based on gypsum, on the basis of the discovery, namely, that the proportion in excess of known specific gravity in the range of 1.4 to 2.0, more specifically, in the range of 1.6 to 2.0, with difficulty obtained by known methods), can be relatively easily obtained if the basic material is a combination of hydraulic gypsum and one or two or more kinds of stiffening dry calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide or emulsions of synthetic resins and compositions obtained by mixing with him inorganic filler with a certain specific gravity, able to ensure the reaction and the setting or drying and adhesion after water addition.

The present invention was completed after extensive research on gypsum Board, is able to protect against radioactive radiation, while maintaining excellent characteristics of building material, comparable with the characteristics of gypsum boards and consists in the fact that this Board is easy to work and during construction, it may be attached by screws, on the basis of the discovery, the essence of which is that in the solid state composition according to the present invention has the practical ability to protect against radioactive radiation, such ka the x-ray radiation, in that case, if a specific inorganic filler with a high specific gravity is a protection from radioactive material.

In other words, the present invention includes:

(1) a composition for building material, characterized in that it comprises 100 weight parts of at least one kind or two or more kinds of basic materials selected from the group comprising calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide and the organic emulsion of a synthetic resin, and 50-3000 weight parts of at least one kind or two or more kinds of inorganic fillers, the true specific gravity of which is 3.5-6.0 and selected from the group comprising barium chloride, zinc oxide, aluminum oxide, titanium oxide, barium oxide, strontium carbonate, barium carbonate and barium sulfate;

(2) a composition for building material according to claim 1, characterized in that subsequently it is subjected to hardening by adding water;

(3) a composition for building material according to claim 1 or 2, in which inorganic fillers are barium chloride, titanium oxide, barium oxide, strontium carbonate, barium carbonate and barium sulfate;

(4) gypsum plate, characterized in that it is a facing material thickness of 5-40 mm, in which the gypsum core formed put the m setting of the suspension, obtained by adding 100 parts by weight of calcium sulphate, which represents the hydraulic gypsum, 50-200 parts by weight of at least one kind or two or more kinds of inorganic fillers selected from the group comprising barium chloride, zinc oxide, aluminum oxide, titanium oxide, barium oxide, strontium carbonate, barium carbonate and barium sulfate, and water, covered with one or two sheets to cover;

(5) plaster plate according to claim 4, in which the weight of cladding material is 1,2-2,0;

(6) plaster plate according to claim 4, whose density is 0.8-2.0 and which is able to protect from radiation exposure, in which inorganic fillers are barium chloride, titanium oxide, barium oxide, strontium carbonate, barium carbonate and barium sulfate;

(7) gypsum plate according to any one of PP-6, characterized in that the sheet for coatings is a painting of fiberglass;

(8) plaster plate according to any one of PP-6, characterized in that the sheet for coatings is the cardboard to cover the plaster boards;

(9) plaster plate according to any one of PP-8, characterized in that the gypsum core further comprises 1-5 weight parts of inorganic fibers or organic fibers;

(10) gypsum plate according to claim 9, wherein the inorganic fiber is clovelike or carbon fiber;

(11) plaster plate according to claim 9, wherein the organic fiber is an aramid, cellulose (including pulp), acrylic (including polyacrylonitrile), complex polyester including polyethylene terephthalate), polyolefin (including polyethylene or polypropylene, or polyvinyl alcohol;

(12) plaster plate according to any one of PP-11, characterized in that at least two side front side are arranged essentially perpendicular to the essentially parallel front and rear face sides of the facing material;

(13) a method of dry construction for insulation, characterized in that the wall, ceiling and floor are formed with the use of gypsum boards according to claim 5;

(14) soundproofing a wall, soundproofing a ceiling and the sound-insulating floor, characterized by the use of gypsum boards according to claim 5;

(15) a method of dry construction for protection against radioactive radiation, characterized in that the wall of partition (including sliding dividing wall or sliding wall is desirable or greater height), ceiling or floor formed with the use of gypsum boards according to claim 6;

(16) a method of dry construction for protection against radioactive radiation through 15, characterized in that use multiple plaster plates 6 and laid one on another;

(17) a method of dry construction for protection glad aktivnogo radiation indicated in paragraph 15 or 16, characterized in that the composition for building material according to claim 3 is placed and subjected to hardening in the gap on the end part or the connecting part between the lateral sides of the gypsum boards, front side which are adjacent to each other, or the side of the gypsum boards and the ceiling, floor or rack, adding water as needed;

(18) a method of dry construction for protection against radioactive radiation through 15, characterized in that use plaster plate 12 and place it so that the gap on the end part between the lateral sides of the gypsum plates adjacent to one another, essentially not formed;

(19) design for protection from the use of radioactive radiation device, characterized in that the gypsum panel of claim 6 attached to the wall, the septum (including sliding dividing wall or sliding wall is desirable or greater height), ceiling or floor; and

(20) design for protection from the use of radioactive radiation device, characterized in that the gypsum plate 6 is attached to the wall, the septum (including sliding dividing wall or sliding wall is desirable or greater height), ceiling or floor, and a solid composition for building material according to claim 3 is placed in the gap on the end part or the connecting cha the t between the side face attached gypsum boards, adjacent to one another, or side face gypsum boards and ceiling, floor or rack.

Gypsum according to the present invention has a gypsum core with a high proportion and configuration that is entirely different from the known configuration, can be attached by means of nails or screws, because it is covered with a protective sheet and has a hardness, resistance to bending out of the plane and impact strength. Therefore, the insulating properties of the separation wall, etc. can be improved through the use of such gypsum boards with high specific gravity.

Gypsum according to the present invention is also free of lead, has a function of protection against radioactive radiation, has a relatively small weight, easy to use, harmless to human body, can be used in the design by means of the fastening screws, etc. and can be easily attached to the wall or ceiling. Therefore, a method of dry construction for protection against radioactive radiation with the use of gypsum Board according to the present invention. Using this method of construction can be also installed a device for protection against radioactive radiation. In addition, there may be obtained a composition for building material, to ora can be used as filler for expansion joints in dry construction for protection against radioactive radiation.

Composition for building material according to the present invention is designed to receive plaster or plaster or composition for compounds grasp reaction method or a dry method. Such compositions for construction materials directly used as a liquid or non-liquid solution or paste, adding appropriate amount of water when wet construction for forming a wall, ceiling or floor, or used for sealing the joints between gypsum boards adjacent to one another, or the gap between the wall and the ceiling, floor or the like by the dry construction using gypsum boards according to the present invention in the following description.

Calcium sulfate as one of the main materials used in the present invention is a gypsum and hydraulic gypsum is a semi-aquatic gypsum α-type and/or semi-aquatic gypsum β-type, with semi-aquatic gypsum is a calcined gypsum obtained by calcining natural gypsum, chemical gypsum, desulphogypsum or the like in water or in the air. Gypsum α-type obtained by firing in the water (including steam), and gypsum β-type obtained by firing in the air. Further, the term “calcined gypsum” is used as a synonym for semi-aquatic gypsum./p>

As hydraulic plaster compositions intended for building material according to the present invention typically use burnt plaster α-type. However, it can be used in combination with the calcined gypsum, β-type, in addition, if necessary, it can be used in combination with the emulsion of calcium carbonate or resin, which, as described below, represents another key material. When using calcined gypsum α-type to the calcined gypsum is preferably generally add 35-45% of water so as to obtain the required gypsum slurry.

Other basic material in the present invention is calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide or emulsion of the resin used as the main material for compounds grasp dry or aqueous coating. In that case, if the base material is calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide, the desired amount of water is mixed with the resulting composition used. If necessary, may be added pasty material or filler, such as fiber to the plaster.

The emulsion resin is an emulsion of ethylene type, namely, preferred is the use of emulsion resin copolymer acetate-ethylene, and the emulsion is malls of terpolymer acetate-ethylene-vinyl chloride, emulsion resin of a copolymer of vinyl acetate-ethylene-acrylic etc. if the base material is an emulsion resin, may be added water and the mixture can be obtained without change or as needed so that it can be used as a composition for compounds or paints.

In addition, each of the above-mentioned base materials can be used as the base material individually or in combination of two or more kinds. You can select various compositions for construction materials depending on their technological properties, including filling ability, extensibility, the ability to form coatings, adhesive ability and the ability to drying when used as a filler or paint.

The inorganic filler to the composition intended for building material according to the present invention, preferably has a true specific gravity average of 3.5 to 6.0 and which is higher than the specific weight of the base material. Specifically, preferably can be used chloride of barium, zinc oxide, aluminum oxide, titanium oxide, barium oxide, strontium carbonate, barium carbonate and barium sulfate. Appropriate specific gravity of such inorganic fillers contained the s below in table 1.

Table 1
Inorganic fillerShareInorganic fillerShare
The barium chloride3,856The barium oxide5,72
Zinc oxide5,61Strontium carbonate3,7
Aluminium oxide3,7Barium carbonate4,43
The titanium oxide4,2Barium sulphate4,5

Of the above fillers when receiving particulate filler with a high specific gravity with regard to price, availability, etc. can be preferably used aluminum oxide and barium sulfate.

In particular, when producing solid filler, which are able to protect against radioactive radiation, preferably can be used chloride of barium, titanium oxide, barium oxide, carbonate stronzi is, barium carbonate and barium sulfate, and the titanium oxide, barium oxide, strontium carbonate and barium sulfate are preferred, and barium sulfate is especially preferred from the standpoint of its ability to protect against radiation and availability.

If necessary, the composition for building material according to the present invention can be arbitrarily added to and mixed with the accelerator, retarder, filler, all kinds of organic polymer, an organic solvent, a surfactant as a dispersant or foaming agents, or the like

The mixing ratio of the base material and the inorganic filler is 50-3000 weight parts of inorganic filler per 100 weight parts of the base material upon receipt of a composition for building material, used as a composition for compounds or paints, or 50-200 weight parts of inorganic filler per 100 weight parts of the base material during the formation of gypsum boards. Using less than 50 weight parts of inorganic filler cannot provide gypsum boards with a high specific gravity, or protective ability against radioactive radiation solid composition for building material or material gypsum is th core may be insufficient. On the other hand, the use of a composition for building material, containing more than 3000 weight parts of inorganic filler can have a reverse effect on the ability to grasp the composition for building material, not providing coating and film-forming properties or the necessary physical properties of solids. Also when using gypsum boards containing more than 200 parts by weight of inorganic filler, the ability to grasp and the formation of the gypsum core may be sufficient to obtain the required properties of solids. When using gypsum boards preferable mixing ratio of the inorganic filler is 80-170 weight parts, more preferred content is from 100 to 140 weight parts. In addition, the content of the inorganic filler is set at the level 30-97 wt.% relative to the total mass of solids using the composition for building material. Content, comprising 40-90 wt.%, is preferred, and 44-80 wt.% more preferred. The content is also set at the level of 30-80 wt.% relative to the total weight of the gypsum core when using gypsum boards. Content, comprising 40-70 wt.%, is predpochtitel the YM, and 44-67 wt.% more preferred.

For the cover sheet, applicable in the invention, use cloth from fiberglass or cardboard for the covers.

Webs of glass fiber preferably has the form of a woven fabric, knitted fabric or woven material associated corresponding synthetic resin or a nonwoven material. One side of the sheet of glass may be covered with an appropriate synthetic resin, for example, a coating layer of synthetic resin, partially impregnated with acrylic resin or the like to an arbitrary depth. Part or all of the cloth from fiberglass are buried in the surface of the material for the core, while after sealing on the outer surface of the fiberglass necessarily form a smooth and continuous film of plaster and preferably place a cloth of glass fiber as close as possible to the surface of the core material, i.e. the surface of the gypsum boards.

To cover the gypsum core can be used to cover the cardboard, usually having a base weight equal to the 70-300 g/m2traditionally used for gypsum boards.

In case the plaster plate according to the present invention is a plaster slab with high specific weight, the inorganic filler is in me is greater least one compound or two or more compounds, selected from barium chloride, zinc oxide, aluminum oxide, titanium oxide, barium oxide, strontium carbonate, barium carbonate and barium sulfate and having a true specific gravity average of 3.5 to 6.0. In particular, aluminum oxide or barium sulfate is preferred because it has little effect on the ability to grasp the gypsum slurry and more accessible.

The weight of gypsum boards according to the present invention also is 1.2-2.0. In that case, if the specific gravity is less than 1.2, the increase in the proportion of the surface and, consequently, the level of sound insulation is insufficient, while if the proportion is more than 2.0, you may encounter the above problem, such as the formation of cracks during the driving of nails, the mass of gypsum boards can be so high that there will be difficulties with its use and handling. In addition, despite the fact that practical share usually has an upper limit of about 1,4, and in practice, the fabrication was performed at this or a lower specific gravity due to limitations in obtaining stable gypsum slurry during the manufacturing process, etc. solid gypsum boards, in which the fiber dispersed in the gypsum core according to known methods, the proportion of gypsum or the s according to the present invention exceeds this proportion, therefore, gypsum shares constituting more than 1.6, can be manufactured relatively easily.

In case the plaster plate according to the present invention has the action for protection against radioactive radiation, inorganic filler is a chloride of barium, titanium oxide, barium oxide, strontium carbonate, barium carbonate or barium sulfate, more preferably titanium oxide, strontium carbonate or barium sulfate, and most preferably barium sulfate, by comparing the results of actions on protection against radioactive radiation per unit of content. In this case, the weight of the plaster plate is 0.8 to 2.0, preferably from 1.0 to 1.6. In that case, if the specific gravity is less than 0.8, the amount of inorganic filler necessary to maintain actions for protection against radioactive radiation, may also be insufficient. In that case, if the specific gravity is more than 2.0, while hammering nails can cause undesirable crack preventing the attaching gypsum boards to the base, or it can be bent per se, depending on the strength of the fastening means, such as a nail, thus preventing the attachment.

As the fibers are mixed with the gypsum core according to the present invention, use org the organic fiber, inorganic fiber, or a mixture, there may be used a combination of organic fibers and inorganic fibers.

As inorganic fibers using mineral fibers such as mineral wool and thick, fiberglass, carbon fiber, etc. while it is preferable fiberglass or carbon fiber. As the organic fibers are used in various kinds of organic fibers, while preferably can be used aramid, cellulose (including milled slurry, in particular, shredded paper), acrylic (including polyacrylonitrile), complex polyester including polyethylene terephthalate), polyolefin (including polyethylene or polypropylene, or polyvinyl alcohol.

To improve the dispersion properties of such fibers in the gypsum core, the surface of the fiber preferably cover the burnt gypsum, for example, mixing the fiber with calcined gypsum or loading it into a mixing device for mixing the calcined gypsum, water, etc. such as a stirrer, after surface treatment, for example, polyethylene oxide, giving the ability to shrinkage and dispersion upon contact with water. Thus, in the case when the surface of the fibers are coated with calcined gypsum or dispersing agent, it is believed that the fiber easily and evenly distributed in the suspension and mixed with captured plaster mass so what fiber is used as a binder for the captured mass. As a result, even when using screws or nails for conventional attachment of gypsum Board or its attachment to the substrate material, it is expected that in the solid plaster plate will not have any cracks and can be obtained sufficient strength against bending out of the plane and increased impact strength. In particular, when using a combination of inorganic fiber and organic fiber level prevent cracking preferably increased.

Add the amount of such fiber is 1-5 weight parts per 100 weight parts of calcined gypsum, preferably 1.2 to 4 weight parts, more preferably 1.5 to 3 weight parts. As for the form of fibers, are preferred diameter of 5-50 microns, and the length component of 3-12 mm, from the viewpoint of quality and production, it is particularly preferred is a diameter of 10-20 μm, and the length component of 3-6 mm Fiber may also take the form of a grid (lattice). In addition, when using a combination of inorganic fibers and organic fibers, their ratio is preferably 1:0.05 to 0.1:1 (weight ratio). The amount used of the organic filler is also preferably amounts to a maximum of 2.5 weight parts per 100 is of nowych parts of calcined gypsum, while adding more organic fiber fluidity of the slurry (gypsum slurry) can be lowered, which is undesirable from the point of view of production.

In addition, gypsum may contain various kinds of additives such as a filler, foam stabilizer, defoamer, improving the adhesion additive, water-repelling additive, an accelerator, a retarder, absorbent and deformirujuschij moisture agent; the agent causing the adsorption and decomposition of formaldehyde, activated carbon and VOC (volatile organic compound) - adsorbing agent traditionally used to improve quality or production, provided that they do not impair the effect of the present invention.

When using a dispersant in a method of producing gypsum boards according to the present invention, the amount of water mixed with the calcined gypsum can be reduced, while the strength of the product increases and, in addition, the amount of drying energy can be reduced, which is advantageous in the manufacture of gypsum boards. As for the dispersant, there can be used any dispersant, for example, on the basis of naphthalene, lignin, melamine, polycarboxylic acid and bisphenol type. The amount of additive is 2 weight parts or less, preferably 0.1 to 1,vesovic parts per 100 weight parts of plaster.

Also in the manufacture of gypsum boards the presence of bubbles in the solution is not required, however, in the presence of mixed air bubbles caught in the plaster mass, such bubbles preferably prevent cracking while attaching gypsum boards by screws or nails. When using foaming agents added amount of such substance preferably is 0.05 weight parts or less per 100 parts by weight of calcined gypsum. In addition, instead of foaming agents or in combination with it can also be used lightweight aggregate.

Gypsum according to the present invention can also be used for the construction of a dry separation wall high-altitude or high-altitude, apartment buildings or the like, or partitions, ceilings or floors of different buildings to improve each of their strength.

For example, when filling out the sound-absorbing material such as fiberglass and mineral wool, the hollow space acoustically hollow structure in which the cladding materials are available on both sides of the rack, and used for coating materials combinations gypsum boards according to the claimed invention as a coating and commercially available normal GUI the new plate or another plate for construction as a basis on both sides, the sound effect of the separation wall can be improved.

Also, regarding the realignment of existing dwellings, the sound effect can be improved through the use of additional gypsum boards or boards with a high proportion according to the present invention on one face side or both front sides of a partition or dividing wall having a hollow space. Also the sound effect of the existing reinforced concrete (RC) walls can be improved by quenching to obtain the hollow space and the use of gypsum boards with a high proportion according to the present invention.

The ability to protect against radioactive radiation is expressed as the thickness of the lead sheet in units of lead equivalent (Pb). For example, 1 Pb corresponds ability to protect against radioactive radiation, this ability is the equivalent of a lead sheet of thickness 1 mm and the thickness of the concrete component 10 To see the walls of conventional x-ray Cabinet necessary protective action, which is about 1.5-2 Pb.

As for gypsum boards that can protect against radioactive radiation according to the present invention, in the case when the number of added barium sulfate in the gypsum core is 55 wt.%, and the thickness of isovol core is 12.5 mm, the ability to protect against radioactive radiation is about 0.8 Pb. Therefore, when using gypsum plate of such thickness need the ability to protect against radioactive radiation can be provided with its dual use.

In addition, when used during the construction described above, gypsum boards, when there is a connecting part or the gap between adjacent gypsum Board, or when a gap or air space in the front-end part between the gypsum boards and the ceiling, floor or the like, x-ray radiation penetrates through such a gap or air space, therefore, sufficient protection against radioactive radiation may be missing.

In the case when gypsum according to the present invention is, for example, the cladding material having a width and a length of 3 shaku (1 shaku = 30,3 cm) and 6 shaku, respectively, a constant thickness and 4 side surfaces, effective is the use of cladding material with essentially parallel front and rear face surfaces generally perpendicular to the front and rear face surfaces. If perpendicular to the lateral surface of such coating materials are connected with one another, the formation of a gap or air space can be prevented. Also, for example,when the required wall height 6 shaku or more, the wall may be erected without a clearance due to the use of cladding material with at least 3 side surfaces perpendicular to the front and rear face surfaces.

Gypsum according to the present invention having such a perpendicular side surface, can be made by pouring plaster suspension on the covering sheet and the mounting side edges in the longitudinal direction, hold the molding plate or the like during molding of continuous mass in the form of a plate so that they were perpendicular to the front and rear face surfaces. As for the side surfaces of the gypsum boards in the direction of the width, you may just need to cut gypsum core gypsum boards so that they were perpendicular to one another when it is cut into pieces of the desired size rotating saw or the like, after setting and drying. In addition, when using fiberglass cloth as a covering sheet in the manufacture of gypsum boards, its cutting implement so that its surface are perpendicular to one another, as may be necessary cutting plaster plates in the longitudinal direction through the rotating plate or the like, of Course, is the quality of the sheet to cover plaster plates covering cardboard, perpendicular to the lateral surface of the gypsum boards can also be obtained by cutting in a longitudinal direction with a rotary blade or the like

Alternatively, despite the increase in both the volume and value of work and its complexity in comparison with the use of cladding material having a perpendicular side surface, for clearance at the connection point or the like selects a composition for building material, which are able to protect against radioactive radiation according to the present invention, for filling and stiffening use a mixed composition obtained by adding a given amount of water. The result can be obtained given the ability to protect against radiation.

In addition, there may be used a composition for building material, which are able to protect against radioactive radiation, obtained by mixing 50-3000 weight parts of one kind or two or more kinds of inorganic fillers selected from the group comprising barium chloride, titanium oxide, barium oxide, strontium carbonate, barium carbonate and barium sulfate with 100 weight parts of one kind or two or more kinds of base materials selected from the group comprising calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, hydroxide, calc the I and emulsions synthetic organic resins. The amount of added inorganic filler is preferably 67-900 weight parts, more preferably 79-400 weight parts.

Among these compounds, the most preferred base material is calcium carbonate or emulsion of a synthetic resin, and inorganic filler is barium sulfate, from the viewpoint of processability or characteristics of solids.

Moreover, to the composition for building material according to the present invention can be further appropriately, as needed, the added padding that prevents cracking agent, adhesive, check the moisture agent, dye or other additive, without impairing the characteristics of the compositions according to the present invention.

In addition, the proportion subjected to skachivanie or dried mass obtained by adding water to the composition for building material according to the present invention so that otvetit it, regulate interval, preferably amounting to 1.2 to 2.4, more preferably of 1.4 to 2.0. If the specific weight of the solids is less than 1.2, a sufficient ability to protect against radioactive radiation may not be provided. Also, the proportion of more than 2.4 can degrade the processability of the composition and in the water.

Further, the present invention is described on the basis of practical examples. However, the practical examples merely illustrate a variant implementation of the present invention, which is not limited to these examples.

Practical examples

(i) a Composition for building material - filler for protection from x-rays

Practical examples 1-3

Composition for building material was obtained with the use of materials and compositions are shown in table 2, mixed with the addition of water so as to obtain a plaster for protection from x-radiation. Specific gravity of solids is given in the same table.

In addition, after the formation of the connecting part with a gap size of 10 mm after using protect from radiation gypsum boards according to the present invention in accordance with the following description and fill in any of the plasters of the practical examples 1-3, which were then subjected to adhesion with the help of a device for measuring x-ray experiments were carried out by measuring the x-ray shielding for each of the following conditions radiation: 100 kV - 15 mA, 125 kV to 12.5 mA and 150 kV - 10 mA, confirming their ability to protect from x-ray emission is, equivalent to or greater than the same capacity above gypsum boards. Any of plaster of practical examples 1-3 provides lead equivalent, equal to about 0.05 Pb, in conditions of radiation, up to 100 kV - 15 mA per 1 mm thickness.

Table 2
CompositionPractically. example 1Practically. example 2Practically. example 3
CompositionBase materialSemi-aquatic gypsum (burned gypsum)40
Calcium carbonate2
Calcium hydroxide39
Emulsion vinyl acetate resin32
The inorganic filler is barium sulfate 7958
The total amount of other additives *11161
Total (weight parts)100100100
Characteristics
Ki
Type of seizureReactionDryingThe reaction and drying
The specific gravity of solids1,551,611,46
Lead equivalent of 1 mm thickness (Pb)About 0.05About 0.05About 0.05
*1: prevent cracking agent, a filler to prevent sliming improving adhesion agent, retarding moisture agent, thickening agent, which improves the fluidity of the agent, antifreeze, protects from mold agent, etc.

(ii) Practical PR the steps of the method of manufacture of gypsum boards with a high specific weight and the results of its evaluation

Practical examples 4-10

Any of the solutions (gypsum solutions) with the composition shown in table 3, get through the mixer, pour between two sheets covering cardboard (usually used for gypsum plate height of 250 g/m2) and passed through a forming machine, receiving a plaster slab with thickness of 12.5 mm and a width of 910 mm, which is roughly cut into pieces of a specified size, dried in a drying machine and cut into pieces by a length of 1820 mm, thereby to obtain plaster plate. In this case, the fiber having a diameter of 20 microns and a length of 3.3 mm, prior to submission to the mixer is mixed with the calcined gypsum so that the surface of the fiber was covered with burnt gypsum. Use cellulose fiber obtained by crushing waste paper. Also as a dispersant dispersant use melamine type. In addition, the table below R1 presents a comparative example, in which the foaming agent is added a small amount of Las sodium.

In addition to table 3, the measurement results are tested gypsum boards are also presented in the table below 4.

Table 3
No. of practical example45678910R1
The composition of the gypsum coreBurnt plaster100100100100100100100100
Aluminium oxide120
The titanium oxide120
Strontium carbonate 120
Barium sulphate80
120
160
200
Fiberglass222 22222
Cellulose fiber1
Disperser0,60,60,60,60,60,60,90,6
Features
key
plaster
plate
Specific gravity1,401,411,401,351,421,722,041,2
The ability to protect against x-ray radiation (Pb)100kV
-15mA
-0,140,370,6 0,841,111,150,08
150kV
-15mA
-0,110,240,380,460,661,010,07
Power extraction screw
The ability to protect against fire
The ability to withstand deformation
Bending strength outside the plane
Surface hardness
Impact strength (high)
Load at break Flexural
Test the s on hammering nails

Table 4
The test sampleTest methodCriterion
Power extraction screwAccording to JIS Z2121 “Resistance when removing nails from wood, test method for retrieving screws, screw (⌀ 4,0, 35 mm), screwed in the sample, pulling out without bends and measure the maximum force it out.75 kg or more
The ability to protect against fireAccording to the Decree of the Ministry of construction No. 1828 Showa 45 (1970) conduct the test surface and the base materialIncombustibility
The ability to withstandAccording to JIS A - 6.18 “Test deformabilityNo abnormalities
deformation
Bending strength outside the planeAccording To (Found.) test method System to improve interiors for living “strength Test in a distributed pressure, the sample is subjected to horizontal pressure at a load of 180 kg and measure the offset against the pressure, and also examine the condition of the sample.15 mm or less
Surface hardness (impact strength (low)A steel ball of mass 1 kg is dropped onto the sample from a height of 1 m and measure the depth of the dents on its surface.1 mm or less
Impact strength (high)A bag of sand weighing 15 kg is dropped under gravity from a height of 45° by means of a rope of length 1 m and measure the amount of strain.8 mm or less
Load at break FlexuralThe test is carried out according to JIS A 1408 “Method of bending tests of building DOS is to etc.” 100 kg or more
Test nailsInvestigate cracking, etc. during driving of the nails using a wire nail with a length of 32 mmNo abnormalities
Test the ability to protect from x-rayAccording to JIS Z 4501 “test Method for lead equivalent protection from x-ray radiation means” receiveLead equivalent in terms of x-ray
radiationlead equivalent, measuring the amount of x-rays emitted from an x ray machine Model MG-161 with the voltage in the lamp 100 to 150 kV and a current in the lamp 15-10 mA, by measuring the exposure dose with an ionization chamber Toyo Medic “RAMTEC-1000D-type.radiation:100 kV-15 mA and 150 kV-10 mA

(iii) Practical examples of the method of manufacture of gypsum boards for protection against radioactive radiation and the results of its evaluation

Practical examples 11-12

Any of the solutions (gypsum solutions) with the composition shown in table 5, obtained using a mixer, pour between the two blades of the Steklov the fibre (glass Mat of non-woven materials) is passed through the forming machine so to form a plaster slab with thickness of 12.5 mm After drying, it is cut so that the side edges in the longitudinal direction perpendicular to the side surfaces in the width direction, resulting in the plaster plate.

In this case, the fibers of the fiberglass cover both the upper and lower surface of the gypsum core in practical example 11 and comparative example 2, and terminated at a depth of 1 mm from the upper and lower surfaces in practical example 12. Method of manufacture of gypsum plates of glass are also described in the publication of examined application in Japanese patent No. 62-4233, publication of examined application in Japanese patent No. 63-65482, publication of examined application in Japanese patent No. 1-26854 etc.

Used fiberglass having a diameter of 20 microns and a length of 3.3 mm, prior to submission to the mixer is mixed with the calcined gypsum so that the surface of the fiber was covered with burnt gypsum. Also as a dispersant dispersant use melamine type. In addition, the table below R2 represents a comparative example.

In addition to table 4, the measurement results are tested gypsum boards are also presented in the table below 5.

Table 5
A practical example No.1112R2
The composition of the gypsum coreBurned gypsum100100100
Barium sulphate120120
Fiberglass222
Disperser0,60,60,6
Characteristics of gypsum boardsShare1,411,411,2
The ability to protect against x-ray radiation (Pb)100 kV-15mA0,840,840,08
150 kV, 10mA 0,460,460,07
Power extraction screwAboutAboutAbout
The ability to protect against fireAboutAboutAbout
The ability to withstand deformationAboutAboutAbout
Bending strength outside the planeAboutAboutAbout
Surface hardnessAboutAboutAbout
Impact strength (high)AboutAboutAbout
Load at break FlexuralAboutAboutAbout
Test nails AboutAboutAbout

(iv) a Practical example of the method of dry construction sound walls, etc.

A practical example 13

Each of the gypsum Board thickness 12.5 mm, made according to the practical examples 4, 8 and 11, and comparative examples 1 and 2, attached to the surface light steel frames, which are attached to a stable support, receiving in the wall, and measure its ability to absorb sound (TL - absorbing ability: the unit of decibels (dB))coming from the sound source to determine the sound-insulating ability of a single wall.

When comparing plaster slabs of practical examples 4, 8 and 11 with plaster plates of comparative examples 1 and 2 frequency (frequency matching), in which the ability to sound insulation is reduced by the resonance varies approximately from 2500 Hz to 4000 Hz in such a way that it acquires a higher pitch, while the magnitude of the sound-insulating ability, TDL (the difference sound-absorbing ability) gypsum boards of the comparative example is improved from 20 to 24 relative to the level of the sound-insulating ability. Accordingly, it was concluded that after attaching gypsum boards with a high proportion according to the present invention to PE is gorodki or the like, sound insulation is improved due to the effect of increasing the mass of the wall.

(iv) Practical examples of how dry construction protects from x-ray structures

A practical example 14

Part of the gypsum plates obtained in practical example 11, the surface of the lateral edges of which were cut perpendicular to the front surface of the plate, is placed in direct contact with one another in such a way as to receive the connecting portion corresponding to the lead plate thickness of 0.84 mm, measuring conditions, up to 100 kV and 15 mA, and the lead plate thickness 0.46 mm, measuring conditions, the components of the 150 kV - 10 mA, to measure the passage of x-rays through the connecting part.

Comparative example 1

Part of the gypsum plates obtained in practical example 8, is covered with a protective cardboard, with the front surface of the plate is at an angle of 85° relative to the surface of its side edges, is placed in contact with one another in such a way as to receive the connecting portion corresponding to the lead plate with a thickness of 0.7 mm, measuring conditions, up to 100 kV and 15 mA, and the lead plate thickness of 0.33 mm, measuring conditions, the components of the 150 kV - 10 mA, to measure the passage of x-rays through the connecting part. Received the results show that x-ray radiation passes through the connecting portion compared to the results of example 14.

A practical example 15

A straight connecting part obtained in comparative example 1, the fill composition for compounds obtained by adding water to any of the compounds for construction material practical examples 1-3, the composition for connections subjected to setting later, and the connecting part corresponds to the lead plate thickness of 0.85 mm in the measurement conditions, up to 100 kV and 15 mA, and the lead plate thickness 0.46 mm, measuring conditions, the components of the 150 kV - 10 mA, to measure the passage of x-rays through the connecting portion even when using any type of plaster. It was found that the passage of x-rays through the connecting portion can be prevented through the use of a composition for building material according to the present invention as a filler for a fitting.

Practical examples in the practical construction

Comparative example 2

Obtaining plaster plates, 4 side surfaces of which are perpendicular to the front surface of the plate.

Plaster plate of the practical example 12 is cut into pieces the size 910 x 1820 mm so thatit four side surfaces are perpendicular to the front surface. It is used for construction of internal walls protecting from exposure to x-ray equipment in the room.

A practical example 16

Four of the front surface of the inner wall area of approximately 8.3 m2in which you installed x-ray machine to obtain images of the breast (mammography), attached single gypsum plate of comparative example 2.

After attaching, the phantom (pseudoalhagi subjected to x-ray irradiation) is subjected to a continuous x-ray betrothal at 28 kV and 50 mA, and using the radiation detector with ionization chamber to measure the amount of penetrated beyond the space of x-rays. The device shows "no radiation" in all measurement points of the Central part and the connecting part of the plate.

In addition, together with Iken Engineering Co., Ltd. measurements were taken of structures, constructions and ability to protect from x-ray radiation in this practical example and the following practical example 17.

A practical example 17

Four of the front surface of the inner wall area of approximately 5.8 m2in which you installed x-ray machine for General images, attach double gypsum plate of comparative example 2.

Oversimplication, phantom is subjected to a continuous x-ray irradiation at 80 kV and 32 mA, and by a radiation detector with an ionization chamber to measure the amount of penetrated beyond the space of x-rays. X-ray irradiation is carried out in two positions: in the direction of the front side wall and toward the front side of the floor. The device shows "no radiation" in all measurement points of the Central part and the connecting part of the plate.

1. Gypsum for protection against radioactive radiation, characterized in that it is a facing material thickness of 5-40 mm and having a specific gravity of 0.8 to 2.0, and the gypsum core formed by the solution obtained by adding 100 parts by weight of calcium sulphate, which represents the hydraulic gypsum, 80-200 parts by weight of at least one kind or two or more kinds of inorganic fillers selected from the group comprising barium chloride, titanium oxide, barium oxide, strontium carbonate, barium carbonate and barium sulfate, and water, covered with one or two leaves for cover.

2. Gypsum according to claim 1, characterized in that the sheet for the cover is a painting of fiberglass.

3. Gypsum according to claim 1, characterized in that the sheet for the cover is a ka the tone for covering gypsum boards.

4. Gypsum according to claim 1, characterized in that the gypsum core further comprises 1-5 weight parts of inorganic fiber or organic fiber.

5. Gypsum according to claim 4, wherein the inorganic fiber is a glass fiber or carbon fiber.

6. Gypsum according to claim 4, wherein the organic fiber is an aramid pulp, including pulp, acrylic, including polyacrylonitrile, complex polyester including polyethylene terephthalate, polyolefin, including polyethylene or polypropylene, or polyvinyl alcohol.

7. Gypsum according to claim 1 or 4, characterized in that at least its two side front side are arranged essentially perpendicular to the essentially parallel front and rear face sides of the cladding material.

8. The dry construction method for protection against radioactive radiation, characterized in that a wall, partition, ceiling or floor formed with the use of gypsum boards according to claim 1.

9. The dry construction method for protection against radioactive radiation, characterized in that a wall, partition, ceiling or floor is formed by laying one on another and use several gypsum boards according to claim 1.

10. The dry construction method for protection against radioactive radiation of claim 8 or 9, distinguish the different topics what a composition for building material, which comprises 100 parts by weight of at least one kind or two or more kinds of base materials selected from the group comprising calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide, as well as emulsions of organic synthetic resin and 50-3000 weight parts of at least one kind or two or more kinds of inorganic fillers, the true specific gravity of which is 3,5-6,0 selected from the group comprising barium chloride, titanium oxide, barium oxide, strontium carbonate, barium carbonate and barium sulfate, place and subject to seizure in the gap on the front-end part or the connecting part between the lateral sides of the gypsum boards, front side which are adjacent to each other or the side face gypsum boards and the ceiling, floor or rack, adding water as needed.

11. The dry construction method for protection against radioactive radiation, characterized in that a wall, partition, ceiling or floor formed with the use and placement of gypsum boards according to claim 7 in such a way that on the end portion between the side face gypsum boards adjacent to each other, the gap, essentially, is not formed.

12. The dry construction method for protection against radioactive radiation, characterized in that the wall, PE is agorodko, ceiling or floor is formed by laying one on another, the use and placement of several gypsum Board according to claim 7, in such a way that on the end portion between the side face gypsum boards adjacent to each other, the gap, essentially, is not formed.

13. Technical construction for protection against radioactive radiation, characterized in that the gypsum according to claim 1 attached to a wall, partition, ceiling or floor.

14. Technical construction for protection against radioactive radiation, characterized in that the gypsum according to claim 1 attached to a wall, partition, ceiling or floor, and solid composition for building material comprising 100 parts by weight of at least one kind or two or more kinds of base materials selected from the group comprising calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide, and the organic emulsion of synthetic resin and 50-3000 weight parts of at least one kind or two or more kinds of inorganic fillers, the true specific gravity of which is 3.5 to 6.0, selected from the group including barium chloride, titanium oxide, barium oxide, strontium carbonate, barium carbonate and barium sulfate, placed in the gap on the end portion or the connecting portion between the side face attached gypsum plates adjacent one on the natives or side face gypsum boards and the ceiling, floor or counter.



 

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