Fibro-optical connector

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: fibro-optical connector comprises first and second half-couplings to receive first and second sections of optical fiber. First and second pairs of step-down optical multilayer transformers are arranged on end faces of said sections. Air gap is arranged between outer layers of said first and second pairs of said transformers. Layers of first and second pairs of aforesaid transformers are made from materials with differing indices of reflection and are counted from outer layers of aforesaid transformers in direction of the end faces of connected sections of optical fiber. Thickness of every layer makes one fourth of average signal wave λ0 transmitted over optical fiber, while the number of layers is selected subject to conditions covered by invention claim.

EFFECT: reduced power loss, expanded performances.

4 cl, 9 dwg

 

The invention relates to the technical field of fiber-optic transmission systems, in particular for fiber-optic connectors (VOS), implemented with the use of nanotechnology.

Known optical connectors (OS) contact type, in which the minimum power loss in the connectors is achieved by increasing seal the joined optical fiber (S) to each other over the entire surface of the ends S.

A device for connecting optical fibers (see U.S. patent No. 5857045, IPC G02B 6/38, publ. 20.05.1997 year).

The known device includes: a socket consisting of a first body of a predetermined length, provided with grooves cut along the length through the center of the contact surface, and the second body similar to the first extending elements for separating the first and second bodies and provides input optical fibers in the cut grooves and means bending, extending outer surface socket outlet, which securely holds the first and second body together and provides the necessary locking force.

The disadvantage of this device for the connection of optical fibers is a relatively high level of losses in the connector.

Also known connector for optical fibers with separable system (see U.S. patent No. 5067783, IPC G02B 6/36 from 16.10.1990,).

Known connector optical fiber which contains two collected sleeve, at least one of them contains the locking key. The connector is provided with a separate block containing a tubular part provided with a longitudinal keyway keyway and lock.

The disadvantage of this connector fiber optic cable is relatively high losses at the connection of optical fibers.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed optical fiber connector is a fiber optic connector reciprocating (see RF patent №2126545, IPC G02B 6/38).

Fiber optic connector-prototype contains a frame, first and second coupling halves to be embedded in them, respectively, the first and second segments of the optical fibers and the latch. The latch is made in the form of two flexible latch levers attached to the outer surface of the coupling. Disconnect the connector from the socket part is made by pulling the coupling halves, resulting in a beveled surface of the frame cooperating with the latch levers, lifting them and freeing from the reeds of the socket part.

A disadvantage of the known fiber optic connector is a relatively high level of power loss of signal due to unstable connection. In addition, the resistance change of the contact transition due to gapping ends S leads to travesty the s signal.

The aim of the invention is to develop a fiber optic connector, which provides reducing power losses at the connection point in a given range of wavelengths for a wide class of fiber-optic connectors when implemented in practice technologies to achieve the desired refractive indices. The claimed device expands the Arsenal of tools for this purpose.

This objective is achieved in that in the known fiber optic connector containing the first and second coupling halves to seal them in the first and second segments of the optical fibers and the latch that fastens the first and second coupling halves, revealing each coupling plugged, congruent with the aperture coupling. Each coupling half are keyed and hole for optical fibers. In addition, the ends of the first and second segments of the optical fibers installed cascaded first pair of raising and lowering and the second pair of raising and lowering the optical multilayer transformers. The number of layers of the step-down and step-up transformer, the first pair of the selected N11and N12and the number of layers of the step-down and step-up transformer, a second pair of the selected N21and N22. Layers of the first and second pairs of OMCT is made of materials with differing display is the prevalence of refraction n 11in12jand n21kn22twhere i=1, 2, ...N11, j=1, 2, ...N21the number of layers in panyhose and boost transformers first pair of OMCT and k=1, 2, ...N21and t=1, 2, ...N22the number of layers in panyhose and increases the transformers of the second pair of OMCT layers counting from the outer layers of step-down transformers of the first and second pairs of OMCT towards the ends of the first and second connected sections of optical fiber, a N11=N12and N21=N22. The thickness of each layer is a quarter of the average wavelength λ0the signal transmitted on the optical fiber, i.e. equal to:

The number of layers N11N12N21and N22selected conditions:

where nAVand nCC2the indices of refraction of the optical fibers of the first and second connected sections of optical fiber, Δa1and Δ2- predefined values working attenuation in the first and second pairs of OMCT. In addition to the deletions f1and f2from the outer layer of each multilayer transformers installed PLANO-convex dielectric lens, and deleting f1and f2equal to the distance from the focus lens to its peak, i.e. F1 (F2) to the top of the lens Q1 (Q2). The refractive indices of the lenses you the wounds of the following conditions:

where nmin1and nmin2- pre-defined minimum value realized refractive index of the first layers of the first and second pairs of OMCT. Moreover, in the assembled condition of the connector between the surfaces of the dielectric lens has an air gap Δ in the interval Δ=(1...2000)λ0.

The latch connector is made in the form of first and second cylinders mounted on the outer surface of the first and second coupling halves. The cylinders are equipped with a threaded connection.

The refractive indices of the i-th, j-th and k-th, t-th layers of the reduction of n11iand increasing n12jtransformers belonging to the first pair of optical multilayer transformers and step-down n21kand increasing n22ttransformers belonging to the second pair of optical multilayer transformers, calculated by the formula:

whereand- the characteristic refractive indices in the first and second pairs OMCT in the points of connection between them decreasing and increasing OMCTand- the characteristic refractive indices first is the first and the second pairs of OMCT in sections, coinciding with the planes of the first layers decreasing optical transformers and air gaps located between the first layers of decreasing optical transformers and dielectric lenses.

Thanks to this new essential features is ensured smooth coordination of the impedances of connected segments of the optical cable by sequentially increasing and decreasing transformation of the indices of refraction of the optical fibers to the value of the refractive index of air using materials of the layers with practically realizable values of refractive indices. That results in consistent non-contact optical fiber connection. And the use of a dielectric lens mounted on removals f1and f2from the outer layer of each step-down transformer of the first and second pairs of OMCT enables the more precise alignment of optical fibers and the ingress optical waves from one fiber to another with minimal dispersion when connecting two fibers. Thereby reduces the loss of signal power in connector.

Declared fiber optic connector is illustrated by drawings on which is shown:

figure 1 - General view of the connector;

figure 2 - view of the cross-section of the coupling;

figure 3 - p is sunok, explaining the principle of dielectric lenses;

figure 4 - structure of the optical multilayer transformers and dielectric lens connector;

figure 5 - profile of the refractive indices of the optical multilayer transformers and dielectric lens connector;

figure 6 - estimated frequency response of the attenuation of the fiber optic connector when the air gap is Δ=100λ0=0.1 mm;

figure 7 - calculation of the wave characteristic of the attenuation of the fiber optic connector when the air gap is Δ=100λ0=0.1 mm;

on Fig - estimated frequency response of the attenuation of the fiber optic connector when the air gap Δ=2000λ0=2 mm;

figure 9 - estimated wave characteristic of the attenuation of the fiber optic connector when the air gap Δ=2000λ0=2 mm.

Declared fiber optic connector, shown in figure 1, consists of first 1 and second 2 hollow of the coupling. In the disclose customer of the coupling 1 and 2 installed plugs 3 and 4. The plugs 3 and 4 are keyed in the form of pins 5 and corresponding holes 6 (see figure 1, figure 2). The joined segments of the optical fibers 7 and 8 are installed in the cavities of the first 1 and second 2 parts of the coupling. To avoid possible deformation of the connected segments of the optical fibers 7, 8 in the cavity of the coupling 1 and 2 can be set is Lena guides cylindrical tubes 9 and 10. The plugs 3, 4 provided with holes 11 and 12 (see figure 2), the diameter of which is equal to the diameter of the cross section of the dielectric lenses 16, 17 - DL. At the ends of the joined sections of the optical fibers 7 and 8, having a refractive index of nAVand nCC2installed the first 13 and second 14 OMCT diameter DOMCTwhich is equal to the cross-section of connected segments of optical fibers (see figure 3). The first 13 OMCT consists of N11layers of the reduction and N12layers of a step-up transformer, and the second 14 OMCT - N21layers of the reduction and N22a step-up transformer (see figure 4). All the layers of the first 13 OMCT and second 14 OMCT made of materials with differing refractive indices n11in12jand n21kn22twhere i=1, 2, ...N11, j=1, 2, ...N21the number of layers of the first 13 OMCT a k=1, 2, ...N21and t=1, 2, ...N22the number of layers of the second 14 OMCT (see figure 4, figure 5). The number of layers counted from the outer layers of step-down transformers of the first 13 OMCT and second 14 OMCT towards the ends of the first 7 and second 8 of connected segments of the optical fibers (see figure 4). The thickness of each layer is a quarter of the average wavelength λ0signal (see figure 4), transmitted over optical fiber, and the number of layers N11N12N21and N22selected from conditions (2) and (3), and N11=N12and N21 =N22.

In addition to the deletions f1and f2from the outer layer of each step-down transformer of the first 13 and second 14 pairs OMCT has two dielectric lens 16 and 17 (see figure 3, figure 4), the refractive indices are selected from conditions (4) and (5), and their value is equal to the minimum realizable value is 1.35. And remove f1and f2equal to the distance from the focus lens to its peak and is selected from the condition (10):

i.e. equal to half the wavelength λ0the signal transmitted on the optical fibers. When λ0=1,087 μm f1=f2=0,54 μm. The radii of curvature of the surfaces of the dielectric lens - R1and R2whose values are calculated by the formulas (11) and (12):

And when f1=f2=0,54 μm R1=R2=0,19 mm.

Lenses made in the form of a PLANO-convex shape. The thickness of the lens dC1and dC2selected from conditions (13) and equal with λ0=1,087 µm dC1=dC2=0,54 µm:

In turn, the thickness of the lens dC1and dC2is determined by the optical path and is related to their diameter DC1and DC2the relations (14) and (15):

where θ1maxand θ2max- the angle between the axis of the lens and what UPRAVLENIE out of focus at the extreme point of the profile, and the angle 2θ1maxand 2θ2max- is the angle of aperture of each of the dielectric lens. Based on the values of the geometric dimensions of the lens diameter of both lenses is equal to DL=DC1=DC2=2,55 mm, the values of diameter of both lenses provide a more accurate alignment when the diameter of the optical fiber is 0.5 mm.

The coupling halves 1 and 2 is equipped with a latch 15, which is made in the form of two cylinders mounted on the outer surface of the coupling halves 1, 2. One of the cylinders is fixed on the outer surface of one of the coupling halves (figure 1 on the second coupling half 2)and the other is installed with the possibility of movement along the coupling (figure 1 - first 1). The coupling halves 1, 2 are clamped with commercially available cylinders threaded connections. The diameter D of the coupling halves 1 and 2 are selected from the technological conditions of their operation, for example, in the interval D=3÷4 cm (see figure 2). Segments of the optical fibers 7 and 8 are installed in the coupling halves 1 and 2 so that in the assembled condition of the connector between the surfaces of the dielectric lens installed air gap Δ in the range Δ=(100-2000)λ0(see figure 3 and figure 4). The thickness d of each layer of the first 13 and second 14 pairs OMCT selected from conditions (1), i.e. equal to a quarter wavelength λ0the signal transmitted on the optical fibers (see figure 4)

The number of layers N11and N12the first 13 OMCT and N21and 22the second 14 OMCT selected from conditions (2) and (3)on the basis of the pre-defined acceptable levels working attenuation Δa1and Δa2in the relevant OMCT 13 and 14. Refractive index of n1iand n2jthe i-th and j-th layers of the first 13 OMCT and second 14 OMCT is calculated by the formula(6)-(9).

Declared fiber optic connector works as follows. The main task of joining two lengths of optical fibers is their connection with lower power loss signal. Losses occur because of technological difficulties ensure perfect alignment of the surfaces of the ends of the joined sections of the optical fibers due to fatal fuzz face surfaces and, as a consequence, the scattering of a significant share of power. Losses increase significantly when the connection of segments of optical fibers with different refractive indices nAVand nCC2because of the abrupt change in refractive index materials optical fibers.

In the claimed connector the influence of these causes of power losses are largely eliminated. This is explained in the following. Segments of the optical fibers 7 and 8 are secured in the first and second coupling halves. At the ends of the segments of the optical fibers 7 and 8 establish the first 13 and second 14 OMCT (see figure 1 and figure 3). The stage is niteline on removals f 1and f2from the outer layer of the first 13 and second 14 OMCT has two dielectric lens 16 and 17, the refractive indices are selected from conditions (4) and (5), and their value is equal to the minimum realizable value is 1.35 (see figure 1 and figure 3).

The functional purpose of the first pair OMCT (see figure 5) is in the preliminary increase of the refractive index of air with N11layers (i=1, 2, ...N11) step-down transformer from the n0=1,0003 to values characteristic of the refractive index of G1(see figure 5), with the value of the refractive index of the first (i=1) layer is the lowest valid n11,1=nmin1≥1,35, and consequent decrease in the characteristic of the refractive index with N12layers (j=1, 2, ...N12) step-up transformer from the G1to the value of refractive index of nAVthe first optical fiber 7 (see figure 4 and figure 5). The second pair OMCT solves a similar problem: increases the refractive index of air in the gap Δ with N21layers (k=1, 2, ...N21)step-down transformer from the n0=1,0003 to values characteristic of the refractive index, and the value of the refractive index of the first (k=1) layer is the lowest valid n21,1=nmin2≥1,35, with subsequent lowering of characteristics the ski refractive index with N 22layers (t=1, 2, ...N22) step-up transformer from the G2to the value of refractive index of nCC2the second optical fiber 8 (see figure 4 and figure 5). Full approval of the first 7 and second 8 optical fibers is provided at the air gap Δ in the interval Δ=(100...2000)λ0installed between the adjacent surfaces of the dielectric lens (see figure 3 and figure 4).

In turn additionally installed dielectric lens 16 and 17 (see figure 1, figure 3, figure 4) reduce power loss signal connector that explains the basic rules of optics [V.A. Volodin "encyclopedia". Volume 16. Physics. Part 2. "Electricity and magnetism. Thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. Physics of nucleus and elementary particles. M: AVANTA+, 2000] (see figure 3):

- the rays passing through the focus towards a collecting lens after refraction on the main plane become parallel to its main axis;

- rays, to a collecting lens parallel to its main optical axis, after refraction necessarily pass through the principal focus.

Thus hit the main stream of the power of the optical waves passing through the focus F1 of the first lens to the second lens and then to the focus F2, testing with a minimum loss of optical power (see figure 3). Thus, in the proposed connector reduces Oteri signal power when connecting two optical fibers. And the use of a dielectric lens with a diameter larger than the diameter of the optical fiber (0.5 mm), i.e. equal to the value of DL=DC1=DC2=2,55 mm, facilitates a more precise alignment of optical fibers with their connection and, therefore, further reduce power dissipation in the optical waves.

This simplifies the design of the connector and its use in the field.

The procedure for manufacturing the fiber optic connector can be shown by the example of its calculation with a given attenuation characteristic.

Suppose you want to receive a fiber optic connector with frequency response attenuation, shown in Fig.6, with the following initial data:

the refractive indices of the materials of the first and second optical fibers nAV=nCC2=1,47;

the refractive indices of the layers OST (OST) must be in the range 1.35 to 2.5 on the edges of the range of frequencies in the range from 176 THz up to 376 THz, which corresponds to wavelengths in the range from 1705 nm to 800 nm at an average wavelength λ0=1087 nm;

- the maximum allowable attenuation Δ fiber optic connector - no more than 0.5 dB;

geometrical dimensions of the lenses selected from previously conducted calculations and equal to DL=DC1=DC2=2,55 mm, R1=R2=0,19 μm, dC1=dC2=0,54 μm, f1=f2 =0,54 μm, the refractive index of a substance is made of lenses equal to the minimum realizable value, i.e. nC1=nmin1=nC2=nmin2=1,35.

Given a set of task conditions values of nAVnCC2That Δa1and Δa2determined by the formulas (2) and (3) determine the number of layers OMST and OMST: N11=N12=N21=N22=2. Then by the formulas (6)-(9) determine the values of the refractive indices of each layer OMST and OMST: n11,1=n21,1=1,35; n11,2=n21,2=2,14; n12,1=n22,1=2,19; n12,2=n22,2=1,76.

Figure 6 shows the calculated frequency response of the attenuation of the fiber optic connector, 7 - calculation of the wave characteristic of the attenuation of a fiber optic connector comprising: OST - (air gap, equal to the focal distance of the lens 16 - f1=0,54 μm) dielectric lens - (air gap with Δ=100λ0=0.1 mm) - (air gap, equal to the focal distance of the lens 17 - f2=0,54 μm) - OST. The maximum attenuation of the fiber optic connector within a specified range of wavelengths will be of 0.48 dB, which meets the specified requirement isanda=0.5 dB.

On Fig shows the calculated frequency response of the attenuation of the fiber optic connector figure 9 - calculated wave characteristic decays is of a fiber optic connector comprising: OST - (air gap, equal to the focal distance of the lens 16 - f1=0,54 μm) dielectric lens - (air gap with Δ=2000λ0=2 mm) - (air gap, equal to the focal distance of the lens 17 - f2=0,54 μm) - OST. The maximum attenuation of the fiber optic connector within a specified range of wavelengths will be of 0.48 dB, which meets the specified requirement isandand=0.5 dB.

The results of the calculations show a small dependence of the attenuation declared fiber optic connector from the value of Δ of the air gap, which ensures a reliable connection S in extreme conditions of construction and operation of fiber optic communication cables.

Obtained in the calculated examples of maximally-flat shape of the attenuation characteristics of the fiber optic connector shows that varying requirements for the attenuation at the edges of the given range of wavelengths, using formulas (2, 3, 6-9) can be designed connectors with small, close to zero, the transition value.

The example demonstrates the ability to build fiber-optic connectors with small specified requirements to the amount of power losses due to reflections and wave (frequency) characteristics of the attenuation in a given wavelength range. The advantage proposed the th technical solution is a significant reduction in the attenuation of up to 0.5 dB at the edges of the working wavelength range in comparison with existing analogues. In addition, the use of dielectric lenses helps reduce power loss of the signal by reducing scattering in the optical fiber connection. And the use of lenses with a diameter larger than the diameter of the optical fiber (0.5 mm), i.e. equal to the value of DL=DC1=DC2=2,55 mm, facilitates a more precise alignment of optical fibers at their connection. Thus simplifies the operation of the connectors in the field and reduced the time to improve reliability of the connector compared with existing connectors, which use additional means of monitoring, measuring, fastening and welding optical fibers. Reported advantages indicate that the use of declared fiber optic connector may achieving a technical result.

1. Fiber optic connector containing the first and second coupling halves to seal them in the first and second segments of the optical fibers and the latch that fastens the first and second coupling halves, characterized in that in the opening of each half-coupling mounted bracket, congruent with the aperture coupling, which are keyed and hole for optical fiber, additionally, on the ends of the first and second segments of the optical fibers installed cascading United p is pout pair of raising and lowering and the second pair of raising and lowering the optical multilayer transformers, the number of layers of the step-down and step-up transformer, the first pair of the selected N11and N12and the number of layers of the step-down and step-up transformer, a second pair of the selected N21and N22layers of the first and second pairs of optical multilayer transformers are made of materials with differing refractive indices n11in12jand n21kn22twhere i=1, 2, ..., N11, j=1, 2, ..., N21- number of layers in panyhose and boost transformers first pair of optical multilayer transformers, a k=1, 2, ..., N21and t=1, 2, ..., N22- number of layers in panyhose and increases the transformers of the second pair of optical multilayer transformers, layers counting from the outer layers of step-down transformers of the first and second pairs of optical multi-layer transformer in the direction of the ends of the first and second connected sections of optical fiber, a N11=N12and N21=N22moreover , the thickness of each layer is a quarter of the average wavelength λ0the signal transmitted on the optical fiber, and the number of layers N11N12N21and N22selected terms and conditions


where nAVand nCC2the indices of refraction of the optical fibers of the first and second connected sections of the optical fiber is, Δa1and Δ2- predefined values working attenuation in the first and second pairs of optical multilayer transformers, in addition to the deletions f1and f2from the outer layer of each of the optical multilayer transformers installed PLANO-convex dielectric lens, and deleting f1and f2equal to the distance from the focus lens to its peak, and the refractive indices of the lenses selected from conditions
;
,
where nmin1and nmin2- pre-defined minimum value realized refractive index of the first layers of the first and second pairs of optical multilayer transformers,
moreover, in the assembled condition of the connector between the surfaces of the dielectric lens has an air gap size Δ.

2. The connector according to claim 1, characterized in that the retainer is made in the form of first and second cylinders mounted on the outer surface of the first and second coupling halves and provided with a threaded connection.

3. The connector according to claim 1, characterized in that the gap Δ is chosen in the interval Δ=(1...2000)λ0.

4. The connector according to claim 1, characterized in that the refractive index of the i-th, j-th and k-th, t-th layers of the reduction of n11iand increasing n12jtransformers belonging to the first pair of optical is their multi-layer transformers, and decreasing n21kand increasing n22ttransformers belonging to the second pair of optical multilayer transformers, calculated by the formula
;
;
;
,
n11,1=nmin1n21,1=nmin2,
whereand- the characteristic refractive indices in the first and second pairs of optical multilayer transformer connection points of their lowering and raising of the optical multilayer transformersand- the characteristic refractive indices of the first and second pairs of optical multilayer transformers in section coinciding with the planes of the first layers decreasing optical transformers and air gaps located between the first layers of decreasing optical transformers and dielectric lenses.



 

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FIELD: optical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device can be used for getting image from space, including surface of Earth, from space and from different sorts of air carriers. Device has at least one information channel which channel has objective, filter and multi-element receiver. Filter is made of two lenses, which lenses form flat-parallel plate. Lenses are made of the same material with equal radiuses of curvature of their spherical surfaces. Interference coatings are applied onto spherical surfaces, which coatings form, together with material of lenses, spectral range of device. Filter can be installed between objective and radiation receiver. In this case the first lens is made flat convex, the second one is flat concave. Center of radius of curvature of spherical surface of flat-convex lens is brought into coincidence with center of exit pupil of objective. Filter can be installed in front of objective.

EFFECT: constancy of borders of spectral sensitivity and of level of transmission within total area of angle of view; improved precision of measurement.

7 cl, 3 dwg

Reflecting surface // 2256942

FIELD: optical instrument engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for wide-band light reflecting. Reflecting surface has dielectric layers A, B and C. A layer is made of material having low refractivity, B layer is made of material with average refractivity and C layer is made of material having high reflectivity. Optical thickness of layers equals to λr/4, where λr is wavelength of middle part of interval having high refractivity. Sequence of layer alternation looks like (CDCABA)KCBC, where K>=and has to be integer. Spectrum range with high reflectivity is widened due to shift in adjacent bandwidths at opposite sides along wavelength scale.

EFFECT: widened spectrum range with higher refractivity.

5 dwg

FIELD: optical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: at least two dielectric layers are produced with preset thickness. Layers are disposed one onto the other to form pack of layers. Thickness of layer packs is subject to reduction and thicknesses of separate layers are similarly reduced by means of deforming layer packs to keep relation of thicknesses or relation of thicknesses of layers. Layer pack is disposed between two carrying layers before subjecting the layers to deformation. At least one carrying layer is formed from several separate layers, which are supposed to be disposed subsequently at the end of process of partial deformation at any previous layer of carrying layer. Separate layers of carrying layer can be overlayed onto previous separate layers of carrying layer.

EFFECT: simplified process of manufacture; improved reflection factor.

22 cl

The invention relates to thermal insulation coating applied in the protection from thermal radiation residential, office or industrial buildings

FIELD: optical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: at least two dielectric layers are produced with preset thickness. Layers are disposed one onto the other to form pack of layers. Thickness of layer packs is subject to reduction and thicknesses of separate layers are similarly reduced by means of deforming layer packs to keep relation of thicknesses or relation of thicknesses of layers. Layer pack is disposed between two carrying layers before subjecting the layers to deformation. At least one carrying layer is formed from several separate layers, which are supposed to be disposed subsequently at the end of process of partial deformation at any previous layer of carrying layer. Separate layers of carrying layer can be overlayed onto previous separate layers of carrying layer.

EFFECT: simplified process of manufacture; improved reflection factor.

22 cl

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