Hydraulic press

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to material forming and can be used for forming powder-like thermoplastic explosive compositions. Proposed press comprises plate, working cylinder with plunger, working cylinder pressure line, return cylinders, hydraulic unit and program control device. Hydraulic unit comprises motor connected with frequency converter, two hydraulic pumps, variable throttle in working cylinder drain line and analog pressure transducer in working cylinder pressure line. Press incorporates hydraulic lock, electrically-controller hydraulic control valves and press plate top position pickup. Second hydraulic pump pressure line is connected via electrically-controller hydraulic control valve to first inlet of hydraulic lock. Its second inlet is connected with return cylinders working chambers, and its outlet communicates with working cylinder pressure line. Program control device incorporates pressure control unit.

EFFECT: expanded operating performances.

2 dwg

 

The claimed technical solution relates to the field of materials processing pressure and can be used by pressing the powdered thermoplastic explosive compositions (sun).

Known hydraulic press for gunpowder and SU, containing the crawler with hydraulic power cylinder, in line built-in valve that regulates the pressure in the cylinder. The regulation of the hydraulic pressure builds up, and then is kept constant. The control valve is actuated by means of a Cam disk driven by a motor. The pressure in the power cylinder is monitored by a mechanism that is supplied with the switch to stop the engine, the Cam disk at the moment of maximum pressure (France, application No. 2427904, WV 15/22, 11/26, 1972).

During the extrusion of thermoplastic aircraft should be designed a number of process conditions, in particular:

- the process of pressing a thermoplastic SU must be accompanied by a step increase in pressure with time at a given pressure;

- when the maximum pressure in the hydraulic system, which is calculated from the specific compaction pressure of this type of aircraft, pressing in order to avoid possible "growth" after removing the load must be sufficiently long time loaded this pressure;

- the process of razrusheniya (reducing the pressure in the hydraulic system) should also be gradual at intervals of exposure to these steps.

The disadvantages of the above devices is that it may not provide as speed dial, and manual pressure relief and therefore cannot be used in the extrusion of thermoplastic sun.

Known hydraulic press for pressing granular explosive compositions comprising a work cylinder with a plunger, a hydraulic unit with pressure line and built-in pressure sensor, pneumohydraulic recharge with managing electropneumatically and software the controller and also the recoil cylinders and two electrically controlled safety valve indirect action with the control electromagnets. The said valve installed in the discharge side of the working cylinder parallel to each other, and their outputs are connected to the drain line through adjustable chokes, control electromagnets connected to a program control device, containing a unit job of the program, the unit of comparison, two control unit two electrically operated safety valves indirect action and the control unit pneumohydraulic recharge, to the first input unit of comparison is connected to the output of the job program to the second input - output pressure sensor, and its output connected to the inputs of the control units, the outputs of the control units electrically operated before the enforcement valves indirectly connected to the control electromagnets, and the output control unit pneumohydraulic recharge to the control electroneurography of pneumohydraulic feeding (RF patent № 2307738 C1, VW 1/32, WV 15/26, 10.10.2007,).

The specified hydraulic press can be used for extrusion of thermoplastic explosive compositions, however, has several disadvantages:

- use pressure regulator pressing as actuators electrically operated safety valves indirect action with the control electromagnet is not possible to obtain the required accuracy of his work. These relief valves maintain the pressure, the value of which is set using the adjusting screw, when turned off, the control electromagnet, and when the electromagnet is unloaded from the pressure. Thus, the permanent settings of the valve (maximum pressure off the magnet and zero when the magnet) are significantly different from the job at the stages of recruitment and pressure relief. In addition, the continuous operation of the valves in the pulse mode leads to premature wear;

- aging products at a maximum pressure and discharge pressure are carried out after turning off the unit using pneumohydraulic mode of recharge to compensate for oil leakage. If this is what the electric signal from the program control device is first converted to pneumatic, and then in the hydraulic value. Control system with dual conversion signal is quite complex and does not provide the necessary precision of the regulation;

- disconnect the hydraulic station during extrusion, continuous valve operation in a pulsed mode, enabling and disabling pneumohydraulic cause disturbances in the hydraulic system in the form of water hammer and pressure surges that affect the quality of the product to be cast, may lead to cracks, chips and other defects.

Known hydraulic press for pressing explosive compositions comprising a work cylinder with a plunger, hydraulic, pneumohydraulic recharge, discharge line of the working cylinder and control system, and the cylinders of the return, floating clutch, AC choke, reverse the motor and installed on the discharge side of the working cylinder device remote control compaction pressure containing valve indirect action with adjusting screw, shut-off valve, an analog pressure sensor and software control device, and the adjusting screw safety valve floating through the clutch connected to the shaft of reversible motor, and the output of the said valve is connected to the input from echnolo point on one of the outputs is set to the variable orifice whose output and the second output shutoff valve combined with a drain line, the program control unit includes a unit job of the program, the block comparison and controls the valve indirect action, shut-off valve, pneumohydraulic feeding (RF patent № 2279980 C1, VW 1/32, WV 15/26, 20.7.2006, prototype).

The specified hydraulic press can be used for extrusion of thermoplastic explosive compositions, but also has drawbacks:

- the use of an electric motor connected through a floating coupling with the adjusting screw relief valve, the drive of the adjusting screw in the presence of backlash engine, clearances and idling in the mechanical transmission adversely affects the speed, accuracy, maintain and control the pressure;

- use pneumohydraulic double-conversion signal in the mode of recharge to compensate for oil leakage complicates the system pressure control and does not provide the necessary precision of the regulation;

- disconnect the hydraulic station during extrusion causes a perturbation in the hydraulic system in the form of water hammer and surge pressure, which negatively affects the quality spun from the of men.

The task, which is aimed by the invention is the development of a hydraulic press for pressing CENTURIES, which allows you to expand its technological capabilities.

The claimed hydraulic press was charged with the following technical requirements to ensure the reliability and quality management process pressure, which requires:

- to ensure the implementation manual of the law of force loading with a characteristic alternation of stages of increasing pressure and subsequent exposure of the product under constant pressure, the transition from one pressure level to another at a given speed, the smooth nature of the loading, eliminating disturbances in the hydraulic system (pressure surges and water hammer);

to improve reliability, performance, accuracy, maintain and control the pressure, eliminating the device with the characteristic of the mechanical transmission errors, is used as a drive controller, and the mechanism of double-conversion signal that is used to compensate for leakage, while maintaining low energy consumption.

To achieve the outlined technical requirements of the proposed hydraulic press, which, as the closest known in patent No. 2279980, contains a plate that is installed with the capability of raising and lowering, RA is OCI cylinder with a plunger, pressure pipeline of the working cylinder, the cylinders of the return, the unit comprising the electric motor and hydraulic pump, a variable orifice installed in the drain line of the working cylinder, an analog pressure sensor, integrated in discharge line of the working cylinder, and a software control unit comprising a unit job of the program and the unit of comparison, to the first input of which is connected the output of block assignments of the program, and to the second input - output analog pressure sensor. In addition, hydraulic press equipped with a lock, the electrically-controlled valve, sensor upper position of the press plate and a frequency Converter connected to the electric motor of the hydraulic unit, which is supplied to the second hydraulic pump. When this pressure line of the second hydraulic pump is connected through an electrically-controlled valve to the first input of the pilot-operated check valve, a second input connected to the working cylinder cavities return, and the output is connected to the discharge side of the working cylinder. Software control device is provided with a control unit of pressure, the output of which is connected with the control input of the frequency Converter, the first input with the output of the sensor upper position of the press plate, and the second input with the output of the Comparer.

The inventive hydraulic press has the following the advantages:

connection of the motor unit with frequency Converter, the inclusion of the software control unit control unit pressure, the output of which is connected with the control input of the frequency Converter and the first input with the output of the sensor upper position of the press plate and the second input - output unit comparison allows the implementation manual of the law of force loading with a characteristic alternation of stages of increasing pressure and subsequent exposure of the product under constant pressure, the transition from one pressure level to another at a given speed, the smooth nature of the loading, eliminating disturbances in the hydraulic system (pressure surges and water hammer). This excludes devices with inherent mechanical transmission errors and double-conversion signal, which improves the reliability, performance, accuracy, maintain and control the pressure. By regulating the speed of rotation of the motor (below nominal) in the process of pressing is achieved with low power consumption;

equipment hydraulic press lock and the electrically-controlled valve, sensor top plate of the press allows the accelerated idling when lifting and lowering plate and its the belt to move at a slow (working) rise, avoiding mechanical shock in the early pressing.

Therefore, distinguishing the essential features of the claimed invention causal-investigatory associated with achievable technical result.

The present invention is illustrated in the drawings, which depict:

1 is a diagram of a hydraulic press,

figure 2 - timing diagram of the operation of the press machinery.

Hydraulic press is placed in an isolated branchline (not shown) and contains (1) the working cylinder 1 piston type cylinders return 2, unit 6 with an electric motor ED and pumps H1, H2, locking valve cut 12, the electrically-controlled valve 13, the sensor 11 to the upper position of the press plates.

The press is equipped with a system for remote control pressure (in the working cylinder 1). This system contains a frequency Converter 7, which regulates the rotation speed of the electric motor ED unit 6, the analog pressure sensor 3, AC choke 4 installed in the drain line of the working cylinder, and a software control unit, including the unit 10 job programs, block 9 comparison unit 8 of the pressure control.

The output of the pressure sensor 3 is connected to the first input unit 9 comparison to the second input of which is connected the output of block 10 job programs, and the output connected to the input of the m block 8 of the pressure control. The output unit 8 is connected to the control input of the frequency Converter 7.

Software control device stores the set time program changes compaction pressure, compares it with the readings of the pressure sensor and outputs depending on the error control signal to the frequency Converter through which the motor unit is connected to a power outlet.

Pump H1 of the unit 6 is connected to the discharge side of the working cylinder through the three-position valve 5. Pressure line of the hydraulic pump H2 is connected through an electrically-controlled valve 13 to the first input of the pilot-operated check valve 12, the second input is combined with the working cylinder cavities return 2, and the output is connected to the discharge side of the working cylinder 1.

The operation of the hydraulic press is as follows.

In the initial position, the pressure line of the working cylinder is disconnected the valve 5 from the hydraulic pump H1 high pressure hydraulic unit 6 and the pressure line of the hydraulic pump H2 high performance (low pressure) off the electrically-controlled valve 13 from the pilot-operated check valve 12, the press plate occupies a lower position.

Assembly press tool with briquette thermoplastic sun is placed on the press plate and the command to turn on por the SSA.

The valve 5 is moved to the left, connecting through a non-return valve pressure pipeline of the working cylinder with the pressure line of the hydraulic pump H1 of the unit 6 and the cylinders of the return 2 - with the sink. Electrically-controlled valve 13 moves to the left and connects the pressure line of the hydraulic pump H2 to the first input of the pilot-operated check valve 12, through which the flow of working fluid enters the cavity of the working cylinder. When this motor ED unit 6 provides a nominal rotation speed of the hydraulic pumps H1 and H2. Thus accelerated the rise of the press plates.

Plate of the press, rising before pressing, permits operation of the sensor 11. This turns off the electrically-controlled valve 13 and the working fluid from the hydraulic pump H2 ceases to flow in the pressure line of the working cylinder 1. Simultaneously, the unit pressure control 8 outputs a signal to the frequency Converter 7, which in turn moves the motor ED mode of operation at lower speeds, reducing the capacity of the hydraulic pump H1. Plate press starts a slow rise, providing the power circuit of the press tool, and the initial pressure will be determined by the performance of the hydraulic pump H1 and fluid flow through the variable orifice . The last setting is made in such a way as to provide a prescribed initial pressure at minimum operating speed of the electric motor ED (and the water pump H1) and the maximum pressure at rated speed motor ED.

Given the nature of changes in pressure in the pressing process (speed dial and pressure relief, the presence of steps of pressing, the number, level and duration, the maximum pressure value) is determined by the block 10 job programs software control device. Unit 9 comparison generates the error signal between the specified pressure value (block 10 jobs) and the current pressure (from the pressure sensor 3):(Rset-Rpress), which is fed to the input of block 8 of the pressure control. The control unit pressure generates in dependence on the error signal to control the frequency Converter 7, for example, by law, PI - or PID control:

U=f(Rset-Rpress),

where: U is the control signal of the frequency Converter 7,

F - transfer function of the controller.

The rotation speed of the electric motor ED unit 6 (and the water pump H1) is determined by the signal from unit 8 of the control pressure supplied to the control input of the frequency Converter 7. The output Q of the guide is onalisa H1 is proportional to the rotation speed of the electric motor ED:

Q=K1*n,

where: K1- the transfer rate of the hydraulic pump H1

n is the rotational speed of the electric motor EM.

The pressure in the cavity of the working cylinder 1 is determined by the capacity of the hydraulic pump H1 proportional to the rotation speed of the electric motor ED (with consideration of fluid flow through the variable orifice 4) and the properties of the compression of the product, in particular its density ρ: Rpress=φ(Q,ρ).

The algorithm of the control mechanisms of the press and the qualitative nature of the pressure regulating illustrated in chart 2.

At the stage of set pressure up to a maximum value defined by the technical regulations, unit assignments 10 generates a signal corresponding increased by the given law the pressure. The speed of rotation of the hydraulic pump H1 (and performance) will vary depending on the magnitude of the error (Pset-Rpressin accordance with the control implemented by the block 8, gradually increasing to ensure a smooth character of pressure rise. When the intermediate pressure stage of pressing, the speed of rotation of the hydraulic pump H1 stabilizes at some level and will fluctuate around it depending on the sign of the difference between values (Pset-Rpressin the Techa is their all-time intermediate holding under constant pressure. Then again is a smooth increase of the rotational speed of the hydraulic pump H1 to reach maximum pressure. At the stage of exposure at a maximum pressure speed of rotation of the hydraulic pump H1 is stabilized at the appropriate new level, changing in the right direction, if the difference (Pset-Rpress) is not equal to zero. Thus, when there is a mismatch between the desired and actual pressure due to correction of elektrosignal supplied to the control input of the frequency Converter, is compensated by the deviation from the setpoint pressure in the hydraulic press (if there are leaks or overshoot), i.e. the error in the system is minimized.

The stage of pressure reduction is similar. The speed of rotation of the hydraulic pump H1 gradually decreases, and when the shutter speed under a constant pressure at the intermediate level is stabilized, varying only to the extent (Pset-Rpress). When it reaches the minimum pressure (at the minimum rotation speed of the hydraulic pump H1) the process of pressing ends and lowering the press plates. The valve 5 is moved to the right. When this flow of working fluid from the hydraulic pump H! flows into the pressure line of the cylinders of the return 2. Hidros the IOC 12 is opened by pressure cylinders return 2, connecting the cavity of the working cylinder 1 with the sink through the electrically-controlled valve 13. Motor ED is switched to the rated speed. Plate press is rapidly lowered, and when the plate is in the lower position, the valve 5 is moved to the middle position, and motor ED off.

So there is a process of pressing the required rate of set and reset pressure (determined by the rate of change in rotation speed of the electric motor ED), the correct number and duration of stages of loading. The motor on a separate stages with reduced speed (implemented according to the law of change of pressure) can reduce power consumption of a hydraulic press.

Thus, the use of the proposed hydraulic press with its control system allows you to provide speed with the set speed, the set and reset the pressure in the pressing process with the smooth nature of loading without perturbations in the hydraulic system (pressure surges and water hammer)that provides quality compression products with economical power consumption. This excludes devices with inherent mechanical transmission errors and double-conversion signal, which improves the reliability and speed of the action, accuracy maintain and control the pressure.

Thereby expanding the technological capabilities of hydraulic presses for extrusion of thermoplastic sun.

Hydraulic press for compacting powdered thermoplastic explosive compositions comprising a plate that is installed with the capability of raising and lowering a work cylinder with a plunger, pressure pipeline of the working cylinder, the cylinders of the return, the unit comprising the electric motor and hydraulic pump, a variable orifice installed in the drain line of the working cylinder, an analog pressure sensor, integrated in discharge line of the working cylinder, and a software control unit comprising a unit job of the program and the unit of comparison, to the first input of which is connected the output of block assignments of the program, and to the second input - output analog pressure sensor, characterized in that it is equipped with lock, the electrically-controlled valve, sensor upper position of the press plate and a frequency Converter connected to the electric motor of the hydraulic unit, which is supplied to the second hydraulic pump, while the pressure line of the second hydraulic pump is connected through an electrically-controlled valve to the first input of the pilot-operated check valve, a second input connected to the working cylinder cavities return, and the output is connected to pornoi backbone of the working cylinder, and software control device is provided with a control unit of pressure, the output of which is connected with the control input of the frequency Converter, the first input with the output of the sensor upper position of the press plate, and the second input - output unit of comparison.



 

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