Adapter to produce holes or to treat by laser beam

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in aircraft engineering. Adapter for working head of the device intended for making holes by laser beam comprises beam focusing appliance, mirror and device to feed auxiliary medium for laser beam. Said adapter has first laser beam inlet hole and second pulse laser beam outlet hole. Beam focusing appliance is arranged ahead of second pulse laser beam outlet hole. Mirror is arranged on laser beam optical path behind said focusing appliance so that outlet beam forms with inlet beam the angle smaller than 180. Device to feed auxiliary medium for laser beam allows said medium to pass through said second hole along laser beam direction.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of holes produced by laser beam.

9 cl, 4 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the drilling of metallic or non-metallic parts by means of a laser beam.

In particular, it relates to a handpiece for laser beam of the working head of the apparatus of the laser-beam processing, used for drilling holes in metal or non-metallic wall, inaccessible or difficult to tools for drilling with a laser beam, known from the prior art.

In the aviation industry usually use the technology of pulsed laser beams type YAG-Nd (ettielovelady garnet-neodymium) for drilling small-diameter holes in the walls of some parts of the engine that contains the turbine or the compressor. We are talking about, for example, the parts exposed to high temperatures, such as turbine blades or vanes of the guide vane, part of the high pressure machine, or the elements of the wall of the combustion chamber of the engine. These openings are provided for the flow of air flows from the inside details, which thus provide cooling and thermal protection.

According to this technology, drilling, pulsed laser beam with a corresponding energy is directed to the wall, focusing on the area of the holes. The material thus heated to a high temperature, causing it locally melting and h is ichno its evaporation. The molten material is removed auxiliary medium, which is injected in the direction of the axis of the beam; it leaves a hole in the wall. Usually, thus, serving mainly cylindrical holes with a diameter of from 0.2 mm to 1.5 mm depth from 0.8 to 20 mm, as well as holes of other shapes: diamond, hole complex shape, etc. of the Materials related to the field of gas turbine engines are basically alloys based on Nickel or cobalt optionally with a coating forming a thermal barrier. Meanwhile, all the materials affected. Pulsed light laser type YAG-Nd used in this application, produces, according to the example, the energy equal to 4 j, at a frequency of 30 Hz with a pulse duration of 1.2 MS and a peak power equal to 3.3 kW with an average power of 120 watts.

Device laser-beam processing, currently in use, contain a working cylinder, a tubular form or in the form of a truncated cone containing the optical system containing at least one of the focusing beam lens through which the beam is emitted and collected in the more dense the beam at a distance determined by the focus of the optical system. The head ends in a straight handpiece, crossed by the beam, forming the tip of the injector for an assistive environment, for example, gaseous. D is I drilling beam is located at a certain angle relative to the surface of the treated area. Thus, due to the design of the working head and geometry, in the direction of the axis running in the wall of the bore must be available sufficient space to be able to position the tool. This space in modern technology, at least equal to the space between the point of focus (the area of the holes) and the focusing lens, that is fairly close, severely limiting access to a running holes.

However, with the development of technologies for the production of some parts currently face difficulties when using the laser beam processing due to more complex forms. Some areas become inaccessible to the laser beam. The laser beam working heads with their tips, known from the prior art, the applicant, all contain one straight optical path. Thus, when the part contains a part of the surface, another part of the hidden items, this area cannot be reached by the beam generated at the output of the handpiece. The working head which includes a tip, the mobile does not solve the problem of availability.

Currently, with the development of casting technology problem, in particular, is in the manufacturing sectors of guide vanes.

Technology made the I of such units is in accordance with previous prior art consisted in casting elements of the guiding apparatus with only one blade, drilling wall of blades - available with straight lugs, known from the previous level of technology, then soldering the two elements along the platform to get dowloading block. Direct the working head is suitable for individual drilling on the blades. However, this fabrication method is very lengthy, costly, and causes of quality problems due to the risks associated with the connection by means of soldering blades, dimensions in cross section, etc. in Addition, it makes a fragile item in place of a connecting seam.

Now you can make casting dwuhlopastny parts or moreover with their internal circuits. Drilling of cooling holes such element or monoblock sector of the guiding apparatus containing at least two blades between the lower platform and the upper platform, in many places using the straight tip is impossible. Some parts are not available.

Thus, the present invention is the implementation of the tip, providing access to hard-to-reach areas.

In accordance with the present invention this problem is solved by using the tip of a laser beam of a working head for a drilling machine, emitting a pulsed laser beam; a working head includes a tool, the lighting is Noah for installation of the handpiece; the tip contains the first inlet of the laser beam and the second outlet of the pulsed laser beam; a means of focusing the beam is located before the second hole.

This tip is characterized by the fact that the optical path of the laser beam after the aforementioned means focusing of the beam is a mirror in such a way that the exiting beam forms with the incoming beam angle less than 180; tip supplying device supporting environment for the laser beam is set so that the above-mentioned environment espousals through the second hole in the direction of the laser beam.

In accordance with the invention can be performed with the tip, which can be strongly tilted relative to the surface of the workpiece, depending on the available space above the surface and in the direction of the axis running holes.

At the same time, the tip according to the invention provides the implementation of the holes in previously inaccessible areas, opens up the possibility of a significant increase in cooling efficiency.

This tip also allows you to optimize the methods of manufacture and to open new opportunities for the design of some parts in the conditions when these details are not bound by the need to provide accessibility for when estva drilling.

Supporting the environment is mainly a gas whose function is not only involved in the disposal of waste generated by the beam, but also the cooling of the mirror, which is exposed to a focused laser beam, and aid in melting and removal of particles if necessary.

Already known laser beam welding head with the tip that contains the mirror to rotate the beam by 90. For example, the applicant is the holder of the patent EP 1273382 issued in a miniature laser-beam welding machine. The object of this patent relates to a welding head, a front opening which can be brought very close to the welded surface without optical components would be contaminated by fumes and splashes of molten metal, so that the molten metal would be deformed by the flow of gas coming out the front vents. However, this type of tool is designed to go in the continuation of the optical fiber, and contains an appropriate optical system with lens collimation and lens focusing. Even if he's called tiny, cramped space remains large compared with the use of the device according to the claimed invention. On the other hand, lasers are used for welding, are equipment, continuously slave is melting on gas type CO 2unlike working lasers, which are functioning in a pulse mode with a certain peak power. Thus, the tool disclosed in the mentioned patent is not adapted for use in the processing of metal parts.

In accordance with the invention, primarily, the mirror is held by a removable fixing means, which allows you to quickly replace a mirror after a series of outbreaks, without changing the tip.

In accordance with another characteristic, the second hole handpiece equipped with means of protection against splashing of waste parts for processing. This remedy, which is, for example plate, eliminates contamination of the reflecting mirror waste.

Also according to the invention, this tip is used for drilling of cooling holes in the blade element wheel guide vanes of gas turbine engines, particularly aircraft, comprising at least two blades. Especially in the case of a full wheel, such as a monobloc vaned disk.

The diameter in this case gives the opportunity to provide between the vanes sector guide vane high pressure turbine of a gas turbine engine.

The possibility of drilling blades dowloading block guide vane is a significant advantage since t is his vision of their production. Throughput cross-section between the guide vanes is an important parameter for the operation of the engine. It defines the gas stream exiting the combustion chamber, and drives the rotor of a high pressure. Usually single blade, produced by molding, are connected by soldering. Tolerances on soldering and handling must be consistent with a very small tolerance on the carrying section is dictated by the operation of the engine. Thus, in addition to increasing productivity, the ability to directly execute dwuhlopastny blocks guide vanes may also be of interest to improve the performance of the engine and makes the item more durable through a connection exception.

In accordance with another characteristic, the focal point of the beam is separated from the mirror at a distance of less than 15 mm In the case of distributors, this distance allows sufficient miniaturization of the tip relative to available between the shoulder blades block the place for optimal access to all points of the inner and outer surfaces of the blades. This distance is very small, it provides ample opportunities for access for all other types of parts, such as rings combustion chamber or another destination that requires holes are not available through technology straight handpieces, known from the previous level of technology.

Other characteristics and advantages will become apparent from the description which will follow, variant of implementation of the accompanying drawings, in which:

1 schematically depicts a laser-beam device for drilling.

Figure 2 shows a longitudinal section of the working head and the tip according to the invention.

Figure 3 is an enlarged view of the end of the tip with figure 2 in section 3-3.

Figure 4 shows the end of the tip with the different components of its elements to form the spatially separated parts.

Figure 1 shows an example implementation of a laser-beam device for drilling according to the invention. Played only the basic elements. They are in position for drilling the guide vanes.

The laser source 1 is, for example, the pulse source type-Nd : YAG with a wavelength of 1064 mm; the laser beam 2 is transmitted by means until the working head 3. This head contains the entrance 31 of the auxiliary sub-node and the tubular section 32 along the optical path of the beam. Inside the head is the optical system 33 for focusing the beam. We are talking about the lens, focal length which defines a focal point of the beam, which is on this lens.

Tip 4, for example, of metal, fixed removable manner on nor is it the end of the head 3 in the continuation of the optical path of the laser beam. The tip contains the first hole 41 of the input laser beam emerging from the tubular section of the head 3, and the second hole 42 of the output beam. In accordance with the embodiment of the invention, the outlet 42 is side. Reflecting mirror 5 is located across the optical path With an angle of 45, and thus deflects the beam in the direction at 90. Narrowing the laser beam is concentrated at a point at a distance from the reflecting mirror, called the focus. This handpiece 4 according to the invention mounted on the head 3 instead of direct tip, known from the previous prior art. Thus, in this embodiment of the invention, the cylinder 3 and the hardware unit does not need modification. What is new is only the tip 4.

Reflecting mirror intercepts the beam after focusing, the density of energy is very important. Factors relating to the mirror, which should be taken into consideration are in particular the tensile strength and the duration of his life. The first is determined by the energy density of the laser, and the second peak power. Mirrors with a high resistance to the flow consist of a base and trim in accordance with the used wavelength. Two examples of the materials for building the core is fused silica and borosilicate glass (UK). They have the t flow resistance 73 j/cm 2for VC and 75 j/cm2for fused silica. Finishing formed from layers of dielectrics, which determine the wavelength and the reflection angle of the mirror.

Due to reflection of the beam sideways, you can do the holes in the inaccessible areas of the part. As seen in figure 1, item 71, and 72, is the blade unit 8 of the guide vane of a gas turbine engine, comprising two blades 71 and 72.

Thanks to the device according to the invention, there is no need to separate the two blades. Tip 4 at the end of the head 3 can penetrate into the space between the two blades of the unit and keep the holes equally well as along the outer surface of the blade 71, and along the inner surface of the adjacent vanes 72. The diameter of the tip is equal to, for example, 10 mm near its end. It can be placed in such a small space, as 20 mm.

Figure 2 shows a second variant implementation of the handpiece according to the invention. The head 13 includes a plate 131 with the focusing lens 132, protected by plate 133. Site closed ring 134, continued support 135 to the tip 14. The tip 14 is mounted on the support plate 135 via the external connecting part 140. The housing of the handpiece consists of a cylindrical portions 141 with decreasing towards the end diameters.

Figure 3 shows the end of the tip in more detail, and f is g various parts, it contains, with a spatial separation of the parts. The tip made a hole through the tubular part, and it contains a slot 142 for mirror 145. The mirror is held in its socket by means of brackets 146, consisting of a ring and two branches with hooks, which are placed in grooves made in the pipe. The ring allows part of the beam transmitted and not reflected by the mirror, not to be absorbed by the tip. The mirror is located in the socket in such a way as to form a predetermined angle with the optical path of the laser beam. In the direction formed by the optical path, after reflection on the mirror 145, the tip comprises a tubular section 143, which ends with a transverse slot 144 for protective plate 147, which is located across the optical path; plate 147 is held by a part forming the injector 148 and containing a threaded surface.

Invisible in the drawings, the channel connects the inner tube 141 with injector 148.

The laser beam is focused by lens 132 and reflected by mirror 145; density maximum beam in focus, located after the injector 148. Auxiliary medium is injected under pressure into the tip, coaxially with the beam, and is blown in the direction of the beam coming through the injector 148. This environment contributes to the cooling of the mirror pulling its surface. The cover plate prevents the contamination of the mirror waste emitted from the treatment area.

The angle that forms a beam that goes through the second hole of the ferrule, the incident beam is defined by the geometry of the workpiece. Here the angle is 45, it can be different. Mostly it is less than 85, for example between 30 and 80.

Varying the distance between the mirror 145 and the focusing lens 132, you can set the distance from the focus F to the mirror 145 to the optimal value, given the resistance of the mirror to energy, which it must absorb. Indeed, shifting the mirror, bring focus to the mirror, but the energy density of the beam on the mirror increases up to a limit, after which the mirror is quickly destroyed. To eliminate this inconvenience, you can increase the focal length, using appropriate focusing lens.

It should be noted that due to the miniaturization of the tip, tool, enabling accurate centering of the provisions of this tip can mainly be provided.

According to another non-represented variant implementation, the mirror 145 is concave.

According to another variant embodiment of the invention after the mirror 145 place additional focusing lens.

Tests were carried out concerning the verlene block, consisting of two blades connected the two platforms for a single crystal or equiaxial cooled guide vane high pressure gas turbine apparatus. Tip, and in particular, its end carrying the mirror was enough miniaturization to have access to most of the pairs of opposite inner and outer surfaces. Thus, the used set of tips with different angles of reflection in accordance with the processed area and parts of zones straight handpiece. Used laser source was pulsed, type YAG-Nd having the characteristics of the laser source, as described above.

1. The tip for the working head of the device make the holes with a laser beam having means adapted for installation tip containing a means of focusing the beam, a mirror and a drawer supporting environment for the laser beam, with the tip made the first entrance aperture of the laser beam and the second outlet of the pulsed laser beam, and a means of focusing the beam is placed before the second outlet of the pulse laser beam, a mirror located on the optical path of the laser beam after the focusing tool in such a way that the exiting beam forms with the incoming beam angle less than 180, and the device feeds the auxiliary medium for the laser beam is performed with the possibility of the issuance of the above-mentioned environment through the second hole in the direction of the laser beam.

2. The handpiece according to claim 1, characterized in that it has a removable fixation device to hold the mirror.

3. The handpiece according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the second outlet is equipped with means of protection against splashing of waste workpiece.

4. The handpiece according to claim 1, characterized in that the exiting beam forms with the incoming beam angle is less than 85.

5. The handpiece according to claim 1, characterized in that the specified tip focus beam is separated from the mirror at a distance of less than 15 mm

6. The handpiece according to claim 1, characterized in that the tip is used to perform the cooling holes on the blades of the sector wheel guide vane of a gas turbine engine comprising at least two blades.

7. The handpiece according to claim 6, characterized in that it is made with a diameter of, for placement of the tip between the vanes sector guide vane high pressure turbine of a gas turbine engine.

8. The handpiece according to claim 1, characterized in that the tip is used to make holes in the repair of engine components, particularly gas turbine engine.

9. The handpiece according to claim 1, characterized in that the tip is used to make holes in is not available when using the straightforward tips zones.



 

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1 ex, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device includes bearing structures interconnected with gear-driven means for processing element relocation and program control system. Bearing structures are made as a support and means for processing element relocation is made as a rotary lever system including at least two levers being interconnected by one end with each other by means of hinge joint. The second end of the first lever is connected by means of hinge joint with support and the second end of the second lever has processing element mounted thereon. Another version includes bearing structures interconnected with gear-driven means for processing element relocation and program control system. To achieve the same technical result bearing structures are made as a support capable to move along guide ways, means for processing element relocation is made as a rotary lever system including at least two levers being interconnected by one end with each other by means of hinge joint. The second end of the first lever is fixed rigidly to the support and the second end of the second lever has processing element mounted thereon.

EFFECT: extension of manufacturing capability and increase of positioning accuracy.

10 cl, 4 dwg

Gas-laser cutter // 2368479

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises focusing lens (1), casing (2), branch pipe (3) for laser beam to pass there through at preset aperture angle and nozzle (5) arranged around aforesaid branch pipe and inclined to the lens optical axis to form gas supersonic jets. Branch pipe (3) has annular grooves (4) to make chamber for gas to be distributed between the nozzles. Axes of nozzles (5) intersect the lens axis at the point which makes that of intersection between processed surface and focusing lens axis to exploit entire kinetic power of supersonic jets onto processed surface.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of processing due to increased efficiency of gas mix effects.

1 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method and device for automatic control of laser cutting or hole drilling process. Method includes measurement of radiation reflected from zone of processing. Minimum value of reflected radiation amplitude is defined, compared to specified amplitude, and control of laser radiation capacity and/or cutting speed are controlled. Device comprises laser with power supply unit, rotary mirror, focusing lens, 2-coordinate table for fixation of processed part, unit of 2-coordinate table control, photodetector of secondary radiation and transformer of secondary radiation signal from photodetector, connected to unit of laser power supply and unit of 2-coordinate table control.

EFFECT: improved quality and capacity of through laser processing of materials.

2 cl, 1 dwg

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