Fluid medium energy using device

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hydropower engineering and can be used for supply of process water to production plants. Fluid medium energy using device includes housing 1, hydraulic turbine and volumetric pump 5. Device is equipped with flow boosters 7 and 8 located in vertical plane parallel to the device axis symmetrically on external part of housing 1 and made in the form of tubes with cross section enlarging towards edges, wings 19 located on external part of housing 1 and installed on the shaft located in horizontal plane perpendicular to the device axis, as well as with differential pressure gauge installed in housing 1, opposite cavities of pressure gauge by means of piezometric pipes are connected to internal cavities of flow boosters 7 and 8. Diaphragm of pressure gauge is connected by means of the rod having the possibility of back-and-forth movement to the disc rigidly installed on the shaft.

EFFECT: increasing device efficiency and providing its operation in conditions of winter period.

 

The invention relates to the field of hydropower and can be used for the supply of production plants process water.

Known power unit, which is driven by the fluid flow containing a frame mounted on floats, coaxially mounted on the frame generators, shafts which are located across the flow impellers with blades cylindrical shape, while the impellers are placed on both sides of each of the generators with the formation of the series along and across the stream, the shafts of the wheels are parallel to the shafts of the generators and transverse rows of tightly interconnected and longitudinally with the shaft of the generator in its range by belt transmission with pulleys, the transverse rows of the pulley wheel located relatively generator further in the thread, made smaller diameter than the pulley wheel located closer to the stream (see A.S. No. 1661469, IPC F03B 13/12, publ. 07.07.91).

In this device, the efficiency may not be high due to the large number of impellers, each of which rotates on separate supports, and their shafts are connected with the shaft of the generator by a belt transmission, lose their effectiveness at high slip, which in this case is a consequence of humidity and direct liquid contact with the transmission elements.

It is known that the same device for the energy of the fluid medium, containing a turbine, a generator and a series of radially arranged at different levels in tanks mounted for rotation on a horizontal shaft and consistently communicated among themselves by means of diametrically spaced channels, the capacity on the one hand have the intake, and on the other, discharge nozzles, the volume is made variable, decreasing from the inlet to the pressure tube, a turbine mounted for rotation in the direction opposite to the rotation of the containers connected to the generator rotor and the stator of the latter is connected with a horizontal shaft. The device has a hollow body, covering a shaft mounted for rotation therein and is divided by vertical partitions into a sealed section, a shaft provided with a shoulder crowns located in each section, the channels made in the form of tubes, each of which consists of two parts interconnected (see A.S. No. 1581851, IPC F03B 13/12, publ. 30.07.90).

This device, due to its structural characteristics and working principle, not able to create a high efficiency, because raising the fluid to a certain height leads to the loss of kinetic energy, which it had prior to entering the intake pipes. Using this device is only one transformation f is my energy to another, that significantly reduces its efficiency.

The prototype of the invention is the wave power installation comprising a float and its associated vertically positioned tubular casing is submerged beneath the water level and having a tapering inside the site hosting the capsule and the turbine is kinematically connected with the generator placed inside the capsule and having a rotor and a stator with windings. The impeller turbines, with each end provided with guide vanes, the rotor of the generator is fixed on the inner part of the impeller and provided with permanent magnets, and the stator is made of two parts, placed with a gap above and below the rotor (see A.S. No. 1583649, IPC F03B 13/12, publ. 07.08.90).

This construction, in accordance with the kinematics of the drive, not able to provide sufficiently high speed of rotation of the rotor, which is necessary for appearing in the windings used for practical purposes, electromotive force, and it inevitably leads to the use of multi-pole low-speed generator, which will have a high cost, as well as the dimensions in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the generator. The latter circumstance leads to an increase in drag, reducing the efficiency of the device.

Given analogues have also shared nedostate is - the inability to produce the work in the winter when the pond is covered with ice shell, and this greatly reduces the effectiveness of their use in the Northern latitudes.

The technical result of the invention is to increase efficiency and ensure the device is not working in the winter time.

The result is achieved that the device for the energy of a fluid medium, comprising a housing, turbine and positive displacement pump, characterized in that it is equipped with a flow accelerators located in a vertical plane, parallel to the axis of the device is symmetrical with the outer part of the body and is made in the form of tubes with an increasing towards the ends of the cross-section, wings, arranged outside of the housing and mounted on a shaft located in a horizontal plane perpendicular to the axis of the device, and a differential pressure gauge mounted in the housing, opposite the cavity pressure gauge through piezometric tubes are connected with the internal cavities of the flow accelerators, and a membrane manometer through thrust, with the possibility of reciprocation, is associated with a disk rigidly mounted on the shaft.

The device is also the fact that the average specific weight of the device is equal to the specific weight of the fluid.

Due to the fact that ysrednenno the density of the whole structure equal to the density of the fluid, the device is in a state of indifferent equilibrium and maintains the level at which it was originally installed. This creates the possibility of reorientation of the device under the action of small efforts, if necessary.

The mechanism vertical orientation, consisting of two flow accelerators, placed in them piezometric tubes, which are connected with opposite cavities differential pressure acting on the diaphragm, is connected through a thrust disk and wings, mounted on a horizontal axis, oriented perpendicular to the flow direction, allows the device to occupy a position where the flow velocity is maximum, and thus increase its efficiency.

The presence of the rod associated with the device through the roller mechanism and mounted stationary on the basis of a channel allows you to move the device in a vertical direction and thereby to determine the position corresponding to the maximum flow rate.

Figure 1 shows a General view of the device in operating position; figure 2 is a graph showing the distribution of flow velocities in the presence of ice cover; figure 3 is a longitudinal section of the device of figure 4 - section a-a figure 3.

Device for the energy of the fluid medium consists of a cylindrical Polo what about the casing 1, the fore part of which is made a streamlined shape. In the rear part of the housing for rotation about an axis coinciding with the longitudinal axis of the housing, fixed impeller 2. To the hub 3 of the impeller coaxially him and the housing is rigidly attached to the shank 4 a streamlined shape. In the housing cavity has a volumetric pump 5, a rotor 6 which has a rigid connection with the hub of the impeller. To the device at the top and bottom parts of the two are attached flow accelerator 7 and 8, each of which is a cylindrical tube, passing through the ends in conical nozzles with increasing cross section from the middle of the tube. In the middle of the cylindrical part of each of the flow accelerators posted by piezometric tubes 9 and 10. The other ends of the piezometric tubes connected to the cavities a and b of the differential pressure gauge 11, which are separated by a flexible membrane 12. The membrane is rigidly connected with one end of rod 13, with the possibility of progressive movement in the guides 14. While the other end is thrust through the finger 15 and the radial groove 16 of the disk 17 forms a kinematic pair with the shaft 18, on which the disk is rigidly fixed. The shaft 18 has a horizontal position, perpendicular to the axis of the housing 1 and has the capability of rotational motion. On the shaft from the outside of the housing symmetrically placed two kryla, having a flat shape.

The device has a movable connection with the vertical rod 20, by means of a bracket 21, which on the one hand fixed to the housing, and on the other, forms a rotational pair of roller 22, with the possibility of translational movement along the rod. When this contact patch is on the side of the rod facing upstream. The rod 20 by means of a screw 23 screwed into the bottom of the channel and fixed.

The device operates as follows. In winter, the flow velocity in the river is reduced due to the additional resistance from the inner surface of the ice, with a certain roughness. When using the device in this case must be vertical orientation so that the flow through the cross-section of the impeller, had a maximum power, which is determined from the dependencies

where V is the flow velocity;

m0- the weight of the flow passing through the cross section of the impeller.

The velocity distribution in vertical longitudinal section is affected by the roughness of the bottom of the channel and the inner surface of the ice cover. The x coordinate of the location vector of the maximum speed can be determined from the equation

p> where h is the water depth in the liquid phase;

m - factor depending on the roughness of the bottom of the channel;

m1- coefficient depending on the roughness of the inner surface of the ice surface.

During the winter period, the depth h is steadily decreasing due to the increase in ice thickness, which leads to redistribution of flow velocities. In order to increase the efficiency of the device in this situation, you need to make the shift in the vertical direction.

Of course hydraulics it is known that by increasing the speed of flow increases the dynamic component of the total pressure, which is determined by the formula

,

where ρ is the density of the fluid.

This shows that the dynamic component of the total pressure is proportional to the square of the flow velocity, mean velocity monitoring can be done by using a pressure gauge. The proposed device is equipped with two flow accelerators 7 and 8, which has a piezometric tubes 9 and 10, perceiving hydromechanical component pressure environment. Flow accelerators are necessary in order to increase the dynamic and, consequently, to lower hydro-mechanical component of the pressure, thereby increasing the sensitivity of the mechanism to the vertical orientation.

In the situation when the vector of the maximum flow velocity is along the longitudinal axis of the device and thereby the flow has a maximum capacity flow accelerators, at equal distances from the axis of the device, passed through streams of equal velocity, and hence have the same hydromechanical components pressure. Because the tubes are connected with the cavities a and b of the differential pressure gauge 11, separated by a membrane 12, the pressure in this case are same, and the diaphragm is in the neutral position. Rod 13 connecting the membrane with wings 19 through the disk 17 and the axis 18, orients the wings so that they were parallel to the flow. In this case, the device is oriented along the stream at a certain depth corresponding to the maximum speed.

If the ice buildup or because of a change in roughness over time vector of the maximum speed will be moving down the stream velocity in the flow accelerator 8 will increase, and the accelerator 7 is reduced. When this will change and hydro-mechanical components of the pressure of the two jets. The pressure in the cavity And differential pressure gauge will increase, and in the cavity To be reduced. The membrane will move to the left, pushing the rod 13 and by turning it the disk 17 counterclockwise together with wings. Between the plane of the wings and the flow direction will appear sharp angle that will cause shear forces and, accordingly, the movement in which trojstva down. When entering the device in the optimal zone, where the power flow maximum pressure particle accelerators is flattened, membrane differential pressure gauge takes the initial position and the plane of the wings occupy a position parallel to the axis of the device. Shear force pressure flow on the wings disappear, and the device takes a new position on the vertical coordinate.

1. Device for the energy of a fluid medium, comprising a housing, turbine and positive displacement pump, wherein the device is provided with a flow accelerators located in a vertical plane parallel to the axis of the device is symmetrical with the outer part of the body and is made in the form of tubes with an increasing towards the ends of the cross-section, wings, arranged outside of the housing and mounted on a shaft located in a horizontal plane perpendicular to the axis of the device, and a differential pressure gauge mounted in the housing, opposite the cavity pressure gauge through piezometric tubes are connected with the internal cavities of the flow accelerators, and a membrane manometer by means of thrust, with the possibility of a reciprocating the translational movement is associated with a disk rigidly mounted on the shaft.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the average specific weight of the device R. the veins of the specific weight of the fluid.



 

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