Method of terrace formation in form of artesian reservoir
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to open mining developments during terrace recultivation. Method of a terrace formation in the for of an artesian reservoir involving dumping inside the terrace first a layer of water-resistant rock, then - a layer of water-permeable rock with another layer of water-resistant rock on the top; the above layers are shaped in the form of lenses with outlets to the day surface wherethrough water is charged into the water-permeable layer.
EFFECT: creation of a terrace represented by an artesian reservoir.
1. The scope of the invention.
The invention relates to an outdoor mountain development for reclamation of dumps.
2. Analogs of the invention.
After searching and analysis available to the author of the literary sources close to the invention, analogs was not found.
3. Disclosure of the invention.
The invention consists in forming on the inside of the blade (under the blade means all heaped ridge formed after full testing career) two or more water-resistant lenses with exit to the surface. Between the waterproof lens is formed of water-permeable lens, also with exit to the surface. After the formation of the blade permeable lens in a variety of ways saturate with water.
The implementation of the invention is
1. No need to carry out reclamation of the formed blade, as the blade is full narodnokhozyaistvennyi object - functioning hydraulic structure.
2. After filling permeable lenses water, it forms the blade, which is an artesian reservoir. Then you can pass the artesian well and receive the accumulated water for various purposes. Water in the waste can be periodically replenished.
4. A brief description of the drawings.
Drawing characterizes jus the th idea of the invention.
5. The implementation of the invention.
1. First we need to calculate the maximum power waterproof lenses.
2. Next, you need to calculate the wattage on each otsypannoy the section.
3. For necessary artesian water pressure and other factors need to choose the thickness of permeable lenses and to calculate the change in each otsypannoy the section.
4. Each section in accordance with the calculated parameters occiput impermeable and permeable layers of rock.
5. The surface of the blade is closed waterproof layer completely, leaving two outputs permeable lenses on the surface, or does not close, then the surface water will accumulate on the upper surface of the lens, forming a pressure-free reservoir.
6. After full testing career dump-reservoir is formed. Further in any way to the dump (via outputs permeable lenses on the surface) water is pumped up to complete filling of the reservoir.
7. Dump the water reservoir is a complete narodnokhozyaistvennyi object - hydraulic structure. After its formation, he commissioned. Then you can pass artesian wells and springs and to consume the accumulated water. In addition, the water in the waste can be periodically replenished.
Increase videoporn the x and mechanical properties of rocks.
During disassembly of the face waterproof breed will not remain monolithic, as you need them loosening explosion, and then the excavator bucket. Loosened the confining beds have a large amount of pore space and confining beds are not, therefore, need to restore their water-resistant properties. We can distinguish the following methods of increasing resistance and strength properties of rock:
1. Technological method.
1.1. The dumping of rocks from a great height - the maximum height of unloading excavator.
1.2. The pressure on the breed weighing mining equipment (excavation excavator impermeable layer).
2. Technical method.
2.1. Encapsulating breed in technical devices (metal, wood, concrete, cement, brick, canvas).
3. Injection method.
3.1. Introduction in the pores and cavities of rocks cementing materials (concrete, cement, bitumen, liquid glass, synthetic resin, clay).
4. Cryogenic method.
4.1. Cooling of the rocks.
4.2. Freezing of water in the rock.
The method of forming the blade in the form of artesian reservoir, comprising filling the inside of the blade first layer of impermeable rocks, then a layer of permeable rock, and on top of this layer of another waterproof layer, forming these layers in the form of lenses, with exits to the surface, through which the permeable layer pump in the remote control.
SUBSTANCE: surface of dumps is formed by technological or loose combs with level depressions between them, closed on both sides with technological passages, without earthing of dump surface by fertile layer of soil.
EFFECT: accelerated process of pit-run fines formation and development of optimal agrotechnical conditions by heat and moisture parametres for biological recultivation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and processing industries and may be used to recover disturbed lands in agriculture, construction and power engineering industry. Method consists in the fact that after open pit has been exhausted, its space is filled in layers first with construction waste, and then filled with overburden to the elevation of pit bottom for foundation of future structure, at the same time layer of overburden is leveled with a layer of sand having medium size with further compaction. Then future structure foundation axes are laid, as well as future solid reinforced concrete elements according to accepted design structural scheme relative to axes of foundations. Along each of laid longitudinal axes of future solid reinforced concrete elements, at the pit bottom panel forms are erected, evenly filled with concrete mix of grade not less than B 15 by quarter of panel form height, laid concrete mix is compacted by rodding, then reinforced frames are installed onto freshly laid concrete mix, and panel forms are fully filled with concrete mix. After concrete mix poured into panel forms gains strength, panel forms are removed, and space between produced longitudinal solid reinforced concrete elements is filled with crushed slag. Afterwards soil foundation is filled, which includes two layers: intermediate layer of dry mix of soil and crushed slag, and above a layer of crushed stone from solid rocks of medium size to the elevation of foundation level of constructed structure, besides soil foundation thickness equals height of cross section of longitudinal solid reinforced concrete elements, and thickness of intermediate later from mix of soil and slag stone makes one third of foundation level thickness, besides, the last level is flattened and compacted, and then foundation is erected.
EFFECT: reduction of labour expenses and cost of recovery works.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to hydrotechnical construction and may be used in tier stocking of grain wastes into ash dumps, tail pits and sludge collectors. Method includes creation of reservoir of the first tier of sludge pond by erection of primary dam, inwash of wastes into reservoir of the first tier with arrangement of beach zone upstream primary dam, and a settling pond is developed at the distance, creation of reservoirs of upper tiers in sludge pond by erection of previous tier of raised dam each time on the beach from wastes developed in beach zone pit, and inwash of wastes into tier reservoir every time with arrangement of beach zone and preservation of settling pond. Development of wastes in pit is carried out by dragline excavator, which moves at a safe distance from pit on road made of filtering material under upstream prism of raised dam intended for erection, and lays wastes into body of this raised dam. On the rod dragline excavator lays wastes according to "after itself" pattern and with provision for outlet of water from wastes of raised dam body along filtering material of road into pit. After dehydration and compaction of laid wastes, raised dam is shaped accordingly.
EFFECT: reduction of costs and simplification of works.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to hydrotechnical construction, more precisely to stocking of granular waste into section of sludge pond and into body of conservation. Method includes tiered inwash of waste to a design level with development of pond and beach zone into section, capacity of each tier of which is created with levees. In upper part of section, on tier of beach, drainage is arranged, which is installed at the distance from levee of tier and along it and is equipped with facility for water removal from it. Drainage in plan is arranged under foot of open pit selected for development in process of tier guarding element arrangement, intended for creation over section of conservation body filled with wastes. Then inwash of the first tier of conservation body is carried out, and external side surface of tier guarding element is matched with external surface of this tier within its limits, which is coated with a layer of recultivation.
EFFECT: reduced costs and improved reliability.
6 cl, 2 ex, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining and processing industry and may be used to restore disturbed lands in construction and power industries. Method consists in the fact that after pit exhaustion, space of barrow pit is partially filled in layers: first with debris, and then filled with overburdens till elevation of foundation pit bottom for foundation of future structure. Squeezing plant is mounted onto even and compacted layer of overburdens, which is used to reinforce boards along perimetre of pit intended for construction, at the depth of at least 1.8 metre by means of horizontal squeezing of reinforcement elements with formation of end sections beyond the borders of pit walls. Then along perimetre of pit bottom, under each of protruding end sections of reinforcement elements, drilled piles are arranged with reinforcing frame and high foundation grill intended for installation of column that connects drilled pile with end sections of reinforcement elements, besides reinforcement elements are laid on calculated distance from each other, afterwards mass of soil is extracted in pit walls between reinforcing elements and initially installed drilled piles, after extraction of calculated amount of soil and reinforcement of walls in produced space, further drilled piles are installed with columns and fixed, and further amount of soil is extracted, cycle is repeated until calculated volume of premise is available in pit walls, after final equipping of underground premise, foundation is erected on manmade base, and ground structure is constructed.
EFFECT: reduction of labour expenses and cost of restoration works.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining, mostly to open mining works, and may find application in reclamation of shallow borrow cuts after performance of open mining works. Method includes separate excavation, movement and stacking of soil layer and overburdens into separate band dumps, excavation of mine pit, filling of excavated space with construction wastes, composition of which is close to natural materials, layerwise, with compaction of each layer of construction wastes by compactor machines and mechanisms. At the same time soil layer and overburdens are transported into temporary band dumps located near mine pit borders on its inoperable sides. After mine pit excavation, construction wastes are laid at its bottom, starting from its centre. Then overburdens are dumped onto the last compacted layer of construction wastes, with preservation of hill surface of dump. After complete filling of excavated space of mine pit field, upper part of overburden dump combs are cut, and soil layer is placed into depressions between them, besides surfaces of cut combs are treated with binding material, and tree saplings are manually planted.
EFFECT: reduced distance of soil layer and overburdens transportation, synchronisation of processes on performance of getting and reclamation works, reduced area of lands alienation for development.
FIELD: soil cultivation.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in creating excessive damping of surface of milled field. Also complete near-bottom peat layer is preliminary removed; further there are successively performed topographic surveying, mapping of elevations, geographic mapping followed with geological mapping and hydro-geological boring; after that part of layer of mineral sediments is cut off; its thickness is calculated by mathematic formula.
EFFECT: renewal of peat bog generation process on worked out fields of peat production for a shorter period of time.
1 tbl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining industry, to open developments of coal deposits, particularly to re-cultivation of anthropogenic territories, mainly in arid step zones of Middle Siberia. The procedure consists in total or selective piling of overburden, in assembling screening layers, in rough and finish reclamation leveling of dump surface, in flattening or terracing of side slopes, in covering anthropogenic surface with fertile soil, in pre-sowing treatment, and in performing anti-erosive arrangements on the territory. Also forming dump to total height is performed by simultaneous piling at the southern part of the coal pit starting from the west and finishing at the east part making 20-100 metres terraces with gulley from the side of the pit as its continuation, but 3-6 times narrower and with incline to the body of dump from the opposite side of dump. Further, a zero terrace is arranged on the day surface of the border of the pit, whereon humus layer of soil cut from the planned territory is stacked; piled soil is simultaneously watered with solutions of clayish and pyrogenic conglomerates and other overburden rock in drainage and waste water of concentration plants; also a root-inhabited layer of dumps and terraces is formed with water solution of cut soil, with biologically active overburden, bio-dynamic preparations and other components.
EFFECT: cost reduced by 5-7 times and time for re-cultivation of anthropogenic territories reduced at 10-15 years.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and can be implemented at underground development of potassium deposits for eliminating salt dumps piled on the ground surface. The procedure consists in boring pressure boreholes near salt dumps to the roof of salt thickness, further in performing trial pumping out via the boreholes, in trial filling and in trial pressurising salt containing water. Hydraulic-dynamic parametres and capacity potential of brine horizon is determined. Further an immersed pump is installed into a pit constructed in the most immersed peripheral part of salt dump bed filled with salt containing water; this water is pumped out via pipes connected with pressure boreholes.
EFFECT: reduced pollution of environment.
SUBSTANCE: proposed invention can be used for recovery of disturbed lands in agriculture and in construction and power engineering. The proposed method comprises filling the barrow pit space with, first, construction waste, layer by layer, then dumping overburden rocks to future foundation ditch bottom mark lever. Note here that an average-grain size sand is laid on the overburden rocks layer to make a leveling layer to be compacted. Then reinforced-concrete elements are laid on the compacted leveling layer so that their end faces make a butt joint their ends fall beyond geometrical sizes of the future foundation and overlap completely the foundation perimeter. Note also that the said reinforced-concrete elements are laid in parallel to each other and ad a certain distance from each other. Now an intermediate layer of average-size broken hard rock is laid onto aforesaid reinforced-concrete elements to the mark of the base of future foundation, the intermediate layer thickness making at least half the diametre of reinforced-concrete element or half its height. Finally the intermediate layer is leveled and compacted for the foundation to be made.
EFFECT: reduced labor input of recovery works.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: floating facility for drilling wells from support units containing a "П"-shaped pontoon with a telescopic console platform whereon a derrick and equipment for well drilling are arranged, a power unit, a residential unit, load-lifting cranes, technological unit modules with warehousing premises for drilling, a helicopter landing platform and integrated columns for installation on sea bottom, lifting mechanisms providing for lifting the pontoon to the operating position above the sea level, equipped with means for mounting the pontoon onto the support unit arranged in a "П"-shaped aperture while the lifting mechanisms are designed in the shape of hydraulic cylinders serving for the pontoon relocation relative to the columns and along them so that to provide for their dismantling for the well drilling period. Additionally in the floating facility the pontoon is equipped with hydraulic lifters on frame posts intended for submerge of the support unit to the sea bottom. The technical solution enables improved efficiency of the facility operation due to provision for possibility of extending the facility operation period to be all years round in regions of minor depths, in Arctic regions and in regions where structures are subject to ice impact.
EFFECT: creation of a floating facility design ensuring its all year round operation round in regions of minor depths, in Arctic regions and in regions where structures are subject to ice impact as well as serving for drilling wells from support units and for the support units installation on the sea bottom which for the period of drilling wells at a sea oil and gas deposit is mounted onto a conductor unit or a support unit and is not subject to ice impact.
5 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: device for removal of oil and oil products from surface of water includes a cylinder-conic vacuum hydrocyclon with a blank truncated cone, with light liquid phase nipple(s) positioned coaxially at a spacing in the apparatus inner flow path as well as a discharge nipple for the liquid heavy phase positioned in the outer flow path. The discharge nipple is mounted so that to enable alternate/reciprocal motion within the zone of the flow generated by the nozzle; in the truncated cone blank part a replaceable flange is mounted with nozzles arranged on the central axis thereof, the height failing to reach the inner flow path cone.
EFFECT: intensification of operation and improved efficiency of the device operation and performance.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for protection of water reservoir against contamination includes arrangement of draining elements in body of water reservoir slope massif in one or several tiers that consist of working or downstream parts. When draining elements are arranged in several tiers, at first next to each output hole of downstream parts of draining elements of each tier, technical platforms are arranged with solid surface, starting from the upper one, and then road is arranged for passage of motor transport, which connects all technical sites, besides access section of this road is connected to existing motor road. From each technical site in massif of slope, below downstream parts of draining elements at the depth, in which their bottom is arranged at least by 0.5-1 m below water level in water reservoir, collection reservoirs are arranged to capture filtering ground water flow contaminated with hazardous substances, besides lower output holes of downstream parts of draining elements, having slope to the side of water reservoir, are joined directly to collection reservoirs, and collection reservoirs themselves are equipped with opening covers, through which it becomes possible to pump contaminated water with hazardous substances coming from working and downstream parts of draining elements. Pumping of contaminated filtered ground flow is done avoiding increase in liquid level in these collection reservoirs higher than water level with the help of pump equipment installed in motor transport with reservoir for transportation of liquid wastes, and transported to treatment facilities station.
EFFECT: increased protection of water reservoir against ingress of contaminating substances to it from contaminated ground waters.
SUBSTANCE: dry dock consists of lengthy pit open under water, bottom of which with side vertical walls is concreted under water and is dried with the help of drain tubes, and vertical walls are arranged with back fill from sand-gravel filter laid under concreted bottom and pumps. Bottom of pit in cross section is arranged along concave arc of radius circumference and with angle of elastic half-contact of cylindrical bottom of dock with ground base identified by given dependencies, with pressure of base structural strength at stretching and critical pressure under centre of bottom cylindrical surface in underlying base both identified by given dependencies. Angle of dock cylindrical bottom elastic half-contact with peaty base with account of specific adhesion c and angle of inner friction of underlying base φ. At the same time given dependence is used to calculate depth of pit under centre of dock cylindrical bottom, as well as elastic shrinkage of dock cylindrical bottom, with Poisson coefficient µ0 and module of general deformation E0 of base under bottom cylinder.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to melioration, particularly to operation of drainage-irrigation systems. Method of struggle with spring flood includes opening cavity in snow cover of meliorative channel along its axis by means of snow compaction and movement, drainage of spring flood along channel. Cavity in snow cover is opened from surface, compacting snow by means of its simultaneous movement in directions towards bottom and channel slopes. Cavity that geometrically comply with channel cross section is formed. Temporary protective coating is formed in process of snow compaction at the bottom and slopes of channel.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve reliability of the system due to preservation of throughput section formed in snow fill of meliorative channel, and to protect channel bottom and walls against excessive washing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of construction of marine hydrotechnical structures, namely construction of oil and gas production offshore stationary platforms, installation of buoys and piles, laying and fixation of underwater cables, pipelines of various types, sensors for monitoring of sea parametres. Fixtures are exposed to magnetic pulse field under water.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to reduce labour costs, at the same time its has high efficiency.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection and can be used in accident or disaster management. The method of cleaning surfaces from oil and liquid oil products involves treatment of the contaminated surface with a sorbent, collection of the sorbent saturated with oil and liquid oil products and subsequent transportation. The sorbent used is a slag-alkaline binder mixture containing blast-furnace slag with sieve No.008 residual of 5-7%, containing the following in wt %: CaO - 39; SiO2 - 37; Al2O3 - 10; MgO - 9; MnO - 0.5; Fe2O3 - 2.7; S - 0.6; TiO2 - 1.2, sand, liquid glass with density of 1.46 g/cm3 with the following ratio of components, in wt %: said slag 55-59, sand 21-25, liquid glass with density of 1.46 g/cm3 - the rest. After transportation the sorbent saturated with oil is recycled.
EFFECT: more efficient method of cleaning surfaces from oil and liquid oil products.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydrotechnical and land reclamation construction and is intended to provide for stability of soils in general planning embankments of developed lands. Method includes development of general planning embankment on site of developed territory and performance of protective measures in two stage, the first of which - in initial period of construction to provide for embankment fitness for performance of construction works in normal mode, and the second one - in final period of construction to provide for stability of embankment soils in process of its whole service life. At the first stage embankment is filled in several stages. At the first stage pioneer bed of embankment is formed, which is filled in layers in winter period of time during the first year of construction onto surface of formed layer of seasonal frost penetration cleaned from snow by layers having thickness that provides for the possibility of their additional compaction. If general planning embankment is erected from water-saturated soils, filling of embankment on the site of developed territory is carried out in separate sections of rectangular shape in plan. Separate sections of embankment are erected without their mutual merging, thus creating channels between separate sections of embankment for waters drain in warm period of the year. Neighbouring separate sections of embankment are joined by embankment passages arranged across mentioned channels to provide for free change-over of construction equipment from one section of embankment to another one. Culverts are arranged in embankment passages. At the second stage - in subsequent summer period of time in the second year of construction, after pioneer bed of embankment has melted down to the depth that equals 70-80% of its thickness, its additional compaction is started, besides additional compaction of embankment pioneer bed is completed to the moment of melting for the whole thickness and prior to beginning of melting in soils of natural origin that are arranged under pioneer bed. Another layer of embankment, second in height, is filled with layer compaction and filling of channels for water drain. Thickness of embankment layer second in height is arranged as not exceeding difference between value of rated depth of filled soils melting in this climatic region and value of thickness of embankment pioneer bed. If value of overall height of general planning embankment exceeds value of rated depth of seasonal melting for filling soils used for its erection, at another stage - another bed of embankment, next in height, with thickness of not more than rated depth of melting for filling soils is filled in winter period of time onto surface of embankment, preceding in height, cleaned from snow, after its complete frost penetration. Filled bed of embankment is also additionally compacted in summer period of time after its melting to the depth equal to 70-80% of its thickness. Further subsequent stages are repeated until general planning embankment is not brought till design height. At the second stage for protection of general planning embankment for the whole of its service life against water saturation with thawed and rain waters, and also with waters that arrive from adjacent territory, at the last stages of general planning embankment filling, measures are taken for organisation of long-term water-removal system and anti-filtration devices.
EFFECT: invention provides for stable condition of soils in general planning embankment at all stages of its existence.
9 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for erection of hydrotechnical structures in mining and construction industry, where return water is applied. Method for erection of hydrotechnical structure includes preparation of soil by means of its mixing with return water and further supply of produced pulp for its sorting into fine and large fractions, discharge of fine fractions into sections of settling tank, relief of water from one section of settling tank into another one. Large fraction after sorting is sent to hopper, afterwards water is supplied in it to transport large fraction into sections of settling tank, at the same time large fraction is sent to sections of settling tank from the side that is opposite to the point of fine fraction discharge.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of hydrotechnical structure action due to increased extent of return water treatment.
SUBSTANCE: mouth of drain header includes open channel and mouth pipe connected to header with device for water discharge in the form of additional pipe with water-impermeable walls. Additional pipe is installed in single vertical plane with mouth pipe. Its one end is connected to mouth pipe in its lower part at the border with pipe of closed header, and the other one is installed at the channel bottom. Diametre of additional pipe is less than diametre of mouth pipe, length of which is at least two metres. End of additional pipe arranged at the channel bottom is equipped with mesh.
EFFECT: simplified design, reduced capital and operational expenses.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly to consolidate slopes or inclinations to be eroded by ground waters.
SUBSTANCE: method for slope protection against landslide by diverting ground water with the use of drainage mine tunnel, through filters and upward dewatering wells involves excavating mine tunnel beginning from lower point of original ground under water-bearing horizons with tunnel elevation for water gravity flow, wherein mine tunnel extends parallel to direction of water flow from water-bearing horizons; excavating mine tunnel in different directions perpendicular to above flow direction; performing drilling vertical venting wells at tunnel ends beginning from original ground; drilling upward dewatering wells in water-bearing horizons; drilling vertical wells from original ground used as through filters crossing all water-bearing horizons; connecting thereof with cross-headings excavated from mine tunnel; installing valves at through filter ends; providing filtering members at place of intersection between upward dewatering wells and vertical wells with water-bearing horizons; forming water removal channel in mine tunnel and connecting thereof with original ground; drilling hydraulic observing wells beginning from original ground along line of through filters to control water level in water-bearing horizons.
EFFECT: increased reliability; possibility of diverting 85-90% of water contained in water-bearing horizons.