Panel with decorative layer

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of construction, in particular to panels for floorings. Floor panel is made of several layers, which, in particular has a layer of sound-improving material provided with decor visible in laid condition of panel. Decor is printed, painted and/or impressed onto sound-improving layer.

EFFECT: reduced labour expenses in panel manufacturing.

7 cl, 4 dwg


The technical field

The invention relates to a panel composed of layers, which has, in particular, the carrier plate coated with her decorative layer. The invention relates also to a method of manufacturing such a panel.

The level of technology

Panel of the aforementioned type are indicated in the area of floor coverings such as laminate flooring or parquet floors. Laminate flooring usually has a carrier plate, which is usually wood-fiber plate high density (HDF), medium density (MDF) or wood particle Board. On the front side of the carrier plate is the so-called decorative paper, and usually another layer, which protects the material from surface abrasion. However, the decorative paper itself can have a wear-resistant qualities. Under the bearing plate is the so-called stabilizing layer (impregnated paper).

Laminate flooring can be mounted on a floating floor or glued to the base.

Paper, in particular, saturated with aminos and, above all, urea-formaldehyde resins and/or melamine resins. If the paper is pressed with the bearing plate in the press at high temperature and under pressure, the resin softens and otverzhdajutsja.

Decorative paper is responsible for the appearance of the floor assembled from panels. Stabilizers the second layer serves to prevent distortion of the bearing plate or pad when pressing layers or paper.

Parquet panels differ from the laminate, primarily surface. The desired visual effect is achieved by using wood instead of using paper printed pattern. Parquet floor is composed of solid wood, but may also be as a carrier plate of a wood-fiber plate high density (HDF), medium density (MDF) or wood particle Board. On the upper side of the put in addition wood-veneer. On the reverse side in this case as a stabilizing layer is a layer of wood or paper.

If the panels are placed on the ground floor, when walking on the floor occurs relatively strong noise. To avoid such occurrence of noise in a modern level of technology already provides for the use of the so-called sound insulation impact noise. When it comes to placed under the frame layer with insulating and/or sound-absorbing properties. Additionally or alternatively, the layer can contribute to the offset frequency and the volume of noise so that the noise is subjectively perceived as less irritating.

Layer, providing sound insulation, denoted here generically as "swokowski layer.

Zvukosozdajushchie layers possess the following qualities: zvukosozdajushchie layers usually elastic plastic compared to videopia the main panel. This layer consists, for example, from recycled material-polyurethane, rubber, cork, foam, thermoplastic materials, fiber boards or material with low density (.ldf low density material). Volumetric weight is usually from 200 to 1000 kg/m3.

Alternatively zvukorezheser layer can be used so-called heavy film (Schwerfolie). It is characterized weighing more than 1000 g/m2.

Heavy film (Schwerfolie) is glued or laminated to a laminate - provides good contact with the subfloor, allowing leveled the surface, and when walking on this floor extinguished the sound of footsteps, and shock. Typically, the hard film is made of polyethylene with fillers.

In the patent document DE 20117646 U1 described above prior art. It is also known pressing zvukorezheser layer with other layers. Swokowski layer is applied on the bottom side.

So, on the one hand, the panel must be visually appealing, but on the other hand, the panel must be durable, simple in styling, economical flooring. When the panels are used as floor covering noise when walking should be minor. Steps and strikes shall be extinguished.

Disclosure of inventions

The objective of the invention is to wave enstvovanii development panel of the above type.

The objective of the invention is solved by creating a panel with the features of independent claim. A preferred form of embodiment of the invention set forth in the dependent claims.

In the manufacture of panels according to this invention in comparison with the state of the art provides a layer which is represented preferably by a sheet of canvas or particularly preferably as a rolled canvas. The layer may consist of zvukovushek materials in the above context, mainly from recyclable material - polyurethane, rubber, cork, foam, thermoplastic materials, fiber boards or material with low density (LDF).

As an alternative or Supplement we can talk about layers of stone or ceramics, acting as a heavy film (Schwerfolie). Can be used cloth products from fibrous materials, tiles from carpet or linoleum.

The preferred materials mentioned in the previous paragraph, in contrast to the modern level of technology with application to the upper side, namely such that they are visible in the laid state. Firstly, this results in adequate soundproofing, and, secondly, at the same time, you can get new, yet achieved so far benefits.

If the top layer consists of stone sludge is tile, the panel is firmly pressed due to the relatively high own weight when it comes to flooring. When walking on the floor resulting sound is directed into the base in the best way that promotes better sound insulation.

Compared to conventional floor coverings made of stone or tile installation is very simple, as possible floating Assembly and the tile or stone need not be glued to the base. This really is, first of all, when the panels are provided with coupling elements that allows glueless connection of the panels.

In comparison with the conventional laminate or parquet panels, the surface of the ceramic or stone mechanically stable and resistant to abrasion. In addition, there is swelling in joints, as in traditional laminate or parquet floor.

The top layer of stone or ceramics compared to traditional stone or ceramic tiles are relatively thin, and it is preferably thinner than 5 mm, particularly preferably less than 3 mm

Especially compared to the stone floor there are significant advantages in production costs as possible saving of expensive material - stone. The same applies to high-quality ceramic materials.

Original visual effect is achieved when the decorative surface consists of metal, namely, preferably of relatively soft metals, such as aluminum. Metals can pressoffice together with other layers so that you may only post-processing by cutting and milling. The metal, in addition, mechanically stable, and easy to clean. When using the preferred metal is very thin metal layer due to cost. Therefore, the preferred thickness is less than 1 mm, the most preferred thickness is less than 0.5 mm.

Walking on the carpet provides a comfortable and quiet movement. If panels have the surface of the textile, felt or tiles from carpet, to go on such a floor is very nice. Such panels have relatively low noise level. The Assembly of panels again, relatively simple in comparison with traditional styling carpeting. First of all, this really is when the panels are connecting element that allows glueless connection of two panels. Unlike carpeted flooring contaminated sites can be easily replaced when the panels are connected to each other without adhesive.

Possible new visual effects with other named zvukovushek materials.

To further improve the sound insulation panel according to the present invention has wykonujemy layer on the bottom side and/or inside of each panel.

To achieve the particular effect of the stone floor or floor tiles are assembled panels have advanced in the field of joints visible edging with a preferred width of at least 1 mm Edging may consist of an elastic material such as rubber or silicone, and additionally prevents the ingress at joints of dirt or moisture.

Rolled sheet or cloth is pressed mainly together with other constituent parts in the press, namely, at a temperature of not less than 100°C. it is Preferable to provide a higher temperature during pressing, namely above 120°C. Usually the temperature is above 200°C. the Preferred temperature should be 230°C-250°C, to reduce the pressing time. Short term pressing allows quick production of panels, thus, the method becomes less expensive.

Used sheet or roll the cloth should be heat-resistant. If the pressing is performed at a temperature of 200°C, it is necessary to select the materials that make up the layers, so that they withstood the selected temperature.

Paper or layers adjacent to zvukovushek layers in the manufacture of the laminate panels preferably impregnated with an aminoplast. During extrusion used aminoplast helps anchor the s zvukorezheser layer on the panel.

Thus connected zvukorezheser layer panel is particularly strong.

A method of manufacturing a budget. You can refuse the use of additional adhesives. Hence there are advantages in production costs. Moreover, the method is environmentally friendly because it does not need to use glue that is necessary to resolve. Thus avoid the use of solvents that may be contained in the adhesive.

According to this method after fabrication of large plates coated with layers cut panel sizes, for example, 1,40 m × 0.20 m, and milled inside the locking elements, such as grooves and spikes. The result is a marginal seal flush between the individual layers. However, the panel can also be larger or smaller. After cutting with cut panels can connect to other layers.

As the interface between layers is very strong, can easily carry out milling.

In a preferred form of execution of the invention is used recyclable material is polyurethane and is formed from it swokowski layer. It is an economical material. He has a very good sound-insulating properties. He is recovering from a closed loop, thus not polluting the environment. If this mother is l is used on the surface, along with comfortable locomotion by sex drive new decorative effects.

Swokowski layer should have a thickness of at least 0.5 mm to achieve a good zvukovushek properties acceptable to the consumer. The layer of recyclable material - polyurethane - on practice can have a thickness up to 5 mm

If swokowski layer is too thick, there are significant disadvantages relative to thermal conductivity. Good thermal conductivity is of interest in the installation or the use of under floor heating. Too thick laminate flooring is also undesirable, because then after laying achieved high mounting height. This has disadvantages for the consumer, as it should, for example, appropriately advanced to bring the door that is normal, especially for repairs.

As aminoplast is mainly used melamine resin and/or urea-formaldehyde resin and/or a mixture of them. Typically, this resin used for impregnation of decorative paper and a stabilizing layer. When using these resins do not need to prepare additional material components for the manufacture of the product.

The pressure generally is from 5 to 70 kPa. Using this method swokowski layer consisting of flexibly what about the material, in General, compacted. In the final product seal remains only partially. When using polyurethane (PUR) layer is compressed, typically, for example, 1.2 mm to 0.5 mm, due to mass conservation zvukosozdajushchie properties vary only slightly.

As source material for zvukorezheser layer can be used, for example, recyclable material/polyurethane with a density of 110 kg per cubic meter up to 750 kg per cubic meter.

In a further embodiment of the invention as zvukorezheser layer alternative, or in addition to recyclable material/polyurethane uses material from which is made heavy film. It is preferable to use polyethylene fillers.

Experiments have shown that these materials: recyclable material/polyurethane, and polyethylene fillers, particularly suitable for achieving zvukovushek properties. In addition, these materials can be easily processed and mounted on the laminate panel.

It is preferable to use in the manufacture of rolled canvas for continuous pressing in a two-step press. Otherwise, it would be necessary to use a press with a short cycle that rose the price of the production. This concerns, first of all, manufacturing is alsogo volume of a batch.

Selected materials: recyclable material/polyurethane, and polyethylene fillers, heat-resistant, allowing the pressing under high temperature. They are particularly well suited also for this reason.

Panel thickness is usually from 5 to 20 mm, But it can also be less.

Preferably, the decorative layer was thinner than the panel, and, above all, is thinner than the supporting plate. The preferred thickness of the carrier plate at least 5 mm to ensure prescribed stabilizing properties panel.

In one embodiment of the invention, the decoration is printed, drawn and/or applied by stamping on swokowski layer. In the latter case swokowski layer has a three-dimensional structure to recreate thus, for example, the geometry of roughly dressed stone or wood pores. The print can then imitate wood, stone or fantasy figure. On top of printing, you can apply another transparent wear-resistant layer.

Thus, swokowski layer assumes a dual function. On the one hand, it is the basis for decor, but on the other hand, improves sound acoustics.

Swokowski layer consists primarily of elastic or thermoplastic material, if swokowski layer is n the upper side of the panel. While the shock when walking immediately extinguished and the sound waves already in abbreviated form are passed to the underlying layers.

In an embodiment of the invention the carrier plate, for example, separately glued together with a decorative layer, namely, when, for technological reasons, problematic pressing with the other layers. This relates primarily to the surfaces of stone or ceramics.

The main objective of the materials according to the present invention is always in special decorative properties. As a rule, it is not only decorative effect, but in addition you can also get advantage with respect to the sensations of heat and sound absorption, thermal conductivity, etc. Polymeric materials usually are suitable to combine with each other all of the above properties.

If Underfloor heating is particularly preferred to use metals.

If you want to achieve thermal insulation, selected materials with low heat conductivity. These include plastic or cork. In this case, the preferred thick layers. The preferred thickness is in this case not less than 2 mm, particularly preferred thickness is not less than 4 mm.

As the substrate material may be wood, wood material or other materials, such as plastic material, honeycomb paper, etc.

The implementation of the invention

The invention is more explained by means of examples of execution indicated on the drawings.

Figure 1 shows a laminate panel section, which is made of a carrier plate 1, paper 2 optionally, a stabilizing layer 3 in the form of options, as well as the decorative layer 4. The carrier plate 1 consists of MDF/HDF (wood-fiber plate high or medium density) (possible also other materials, such as plywood, plastic, glued or laminated layers of paper). In this material we are talking about wood fibers that are first glued together and then pressed in the press with the plate. On the carrier plate 1 is first applied layer of paper 2. Under the carrying plate 1 is stabilizing layer 3.

The decorative layer 4 is composed mainly of the above materials, such as stone, ceramics, textiles, tiles from carpet, linoleum, aluminum or tube.

Layers of paper is first impregnated with a mixture of melamine resin and/or urea-formaldehyde resin. Under the influence of heat and pressure resin softens. The subsequent curing is obtained a strong connection between the different layers.

According to the present invention during manufacture swokowski extra layer 5 preferably pressed together with the rest of the above layers is. Swokowski layer in this case consists of polyurethane. The thickness of the layer was originally 1,2 mm When pressing different layer thickness decreased to 0.5 mm Swokowski layer 5 is connected with a stabilizing layer 3 by using the resins used.

After the communication layers were milling of the groove 6, the cleat 7 with the end of the panel and (if necessary) of the groove 8 on the lower side of the panel. Additionally, you can perform milling other unspecified locking elements, which serve to connect through the connection in the "lock" is parallel to the surface of the flooring, as well as vertically shared the seams.

A consequence of the method of manufacture is that the transition from zvukorezheser layer 5 to the panel is on the same level. This applies both to the lateral borders of the panel, and to the transitions that occur inside of the groove 8.

In the groove 8 of one panel and into the corresponding groove 8 of the next panel during installation you can put metal clamps/brackets that lock the two panels 1 with each other in a horizontal position. Each groove and each plug-in spike agreed with a groove 8 on the bottom side. 1 is shown for illustration purposes only one groove 8. If the panel was fully represented, the next groove 8, consistent with the thorn 7, would see in the mirror about what the imagination.

In particular, the joints between two panels can be partially filled preferably elastic damage the top material when laying to avoid, on the one hand, moisture and dirt and, on the other hand, make possible additional decorative effects are known, for example from the patent document WO 03/087497 A1. The contents of this document are included in the scope of the disclosure of this application on the basis of the description of create decorative edges of the individual panels, and glueless connection.

In not represented in figure 1 shape of the panel may have two slabs of wood material. Between the two plates or layers of wood material is a layer of zvukorezheser material in the above context. This form of execution is a further improvement of the acoustic properties of the panel.

Figure 2 shows the panel having along with the groove 6 and the thorn 7 other fixing elements 9 and 10, which allows glueless connection of two panels. Glueless connection can increase a groove and a thorn in the following manner by means of the other of the clamping elements 11 and 12 on the respective opposite side. Preferably the location of the locking elements 9 and 10 under the thorn or on the bottom edge of the groove. Thus it is guaranteed that on the surface of paneline is formed of compression.

The connection of the two panels is in figure 2 by moving in the plane, therefore, a method familiar to the user glued panels. Because of the simple styling should be preferred in the form of execution, which allows the connection by moving in the plane, at least on the narrow sides of the panels.

Figure 3 shows the manner in which the bearing plate panel with two sides has swokowski layer 5. Top each zvukorezheser layer is a decorative layer 4, which may consist of paper with a pattern coated with a transparent wear-resistant layer. The decor can be printed directly on swokowski layer, therefore, the outer layer 5.

Figure 3 also shows another way for glueless connection of the panels. The lower lateral side of the groove 13 is opposite the upper side of the groove 14. Thereby produce more space for the fixing elements 9 and 10, which enable glueless connection. In General, this way you can achieve a lasting connection parallel to the floor surface. Depending on the definition of the parameters of the connection and the locking elements are other ways to connect. In the form of execution shown in figure 3, it is necessary to connect together two panels by turning, and the name is about, first of all, when the lateral part of the groove 13 cannot be sufficiently elastically rejected down. Because of the simple styling of this connection is provided mainly only on the long sides of the panel.

Figure 4 also shows a form of execution with the lower forward side of the groove 13. As there is a plug-in thorn 7 is issued for a relatively short distance, this form of execution makes possible the connection by lowering along the arrow.

1. Panel laminate floor covering, consisting of several layers and containing layer zvukorezheser material provided with decoration, visible in the laid condition of the panel, and the decor is printed, painted and/or executed by stamping on zvukorezheser layer (5).

2. The panel according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains a carrier plate made of fiberboard, high density fiberboard (HDF), medium density (MDF or chipboard, and socolofsky layer consists of polyurethane recyclable material, rubber, foams, thermoplastics, or a material with a low density (LDF).

3. The panel according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the side provided such connecting elements, such as a groove (6) and a stud (7).

4. The panel according to claim 3, characterized in that the connecting elements can be connected glueless connected to the eat, namely, by moving in the plane.

5. The panel according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that one layer is made of slabs of wood material.

6. The panel according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that one or more layers consist of paper.

7. The panel according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that it contains decorative trim visually distinguishable after laying the floor covering of the coating material, such as silicone or rubber.


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14 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly floor, ceiling and wall covering.

SUBSTANCE: support includes square lower bearing plate made of flexible metal sheet material and having central orifice for threaded rod securing and holes for connecting thereof to a base. The orifice diameter is less than that of rod. Support also has upper bearing plate rigidly connected with tubular member. Threaded rod end provided with nut is inserted into tubular member. Lower plate surface facing the base has crosswise ribs dispersing from central orifice and radial V-shaped grooves extending from corners thereof.

EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity in the case of vertical eccentric load application, possibility to connect floor members to the support without upper plate replacement, simplified manufacture.

8 cl, 5 dwg