Coating for part out of heat-resistant alloy based on iron or nickel or cobalt

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: coating includes external ceramic layer with Gdv(ZrxHfy)Oz pyrochlore structure, produced out of a mix with hafnium and zirconium ratio of 10:90 or 20:80, or 30:70, or 40:60, or 50:50, or 60:40, or 70:30, or 80:20, or 90:10.

EFFECT: coating with good heat insulation properties, good traction to the part, and long lifetime.

18 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to the coating of parts of heat-resistant alloy based on iron, or Nickel, or cobalt, which contains the outer ceramic layer.

The coating of this kind has a substrate in the form of a metal alloy based on Nickel or cobalt. This kind of products are primarily parts of a gas turbine, in particular turbine blades of a gas turbine or heat shields. These parts are exposed to streams of hot gas or corrosive environments gaseous products of combustion. So they have to withstand large thermal loads. In addition, it is necessary that these parts are corrosion-resistant and resistant to oxidation. Requirements of mechanical strength are primarily to the movable parts, such as turbine blades of gas turbines, and in the future and to the stationary parts. The power and efficiency of a gas turbine, which uses parts exposed to the hot gases increases with increasing temperature. In order to achieve greater efficiency and high power gas turbine components, particularly exposed to high temperatures, provided with a coating of a ceramic material. The latter acts as an insulating layer between the hot gas stream and the metal is coy substrate.

From the aggressive flow of hot gas metal base is protected by coatings. In this modern items usually have several coatings that perform specific tasks. Thus, we are dealing with a multi-layered systems.

Because the power and efficiency of gas turbines with the increase in the operating temperature increases, repeatedly attempts to achieve greater power of the gas turbine due to the improvement in coverage.

EP 0944746 B1 discloses use of pyrochlore as an insulating layer. However, to use the material as an insulating layer is required not only good insulation properties, and good adhesion to the substrate.

EP 0992603 A1 discloses a system insulation coating of the oxides of gadolinium and zirconium, which should not have the pyrochlore structure.

Therefore, the objective of the invention is to provide a coating in the form of a system of layers, which has good thermal insulation properties, and good adhesion to the substrate (detail) and thus great durability.

The problem is solved by coating the part of the heat-resistant alloy based on iron, or Nickel, or cobalt, which contains the outer ceramic layer (13) with the structure piroh the ora Gd v(ZrxHfy)Ozmade from a mixture with a ratio of hafnium and zirconium constituting 10:90 or 20:80 or 30:70 or 40:60 or 50:50 or 60:40 or 70:30 or 80:20 or 90:10.

The basis of the invention is understood that the entire system is to achieve a service life must be considered and optimized as a whole, not as separate layers or individual layers, isolated among themselves and from each other.

In the dependent claims of the other preferred actions, which can arbitrarily be combined in an advantageous manner.

The coating in the form of a system of layers according to the invention consists of an outer ceramic layer containing a mixed crystal of lead zirconate gadolinium and hafnate gadolinium, which is particularly good thermal properties (coefficient of expansion corresponding to the substrate, low coefficient of thermal conductivity and very good harmony with the intermediate layer and the substrate details.

The embodiments of the invention are explained in detail below with reference to the drawings.

Figure 1 depicts the layer system according to the invention,

figure 2 - composition of heat-resistant alloys,

figure 3 - gas turbine

4 is a view of a turbine blade in ISO,

5 is a view of the combustion chamber in the ISO.

1 shows a layer system according to izobreteny is.

Floor 1 provides a metal substrate 4, which, in particular, for heat-resistant parts consists of heat-resistant alloy on a Nickel or cobalt-based (figure 2).

Directly on the substrate 4 has a preferably metallic bonding layer 7 type, MCrAlX, in particular, type NiCoCrAlX, which preferably contains

11-13, in particular, 12 wt.% cobalt,

20-22, in particular, 21% wt. chrome

10,5-11,5, in particular, 11 wt.% aluminum

0.3 to 0.5, in particular, 0.4 wt.% yttrium (=X),

1.5 to 2.5, in particular, 2.0 wt% rhenium,

the rest is Nickel

or preferably

24-26, in particular 25 wt.% cobalt,

16-18, in particular, 17 wt.% chrome

9,5-10,5, in particular 10 wt.% aluminum

0.3 to 0.5, in particular, 0.4 wt.% yttrium (=X),

1-2,0, in particular, 1.5 wt.% rhenium,

the rest is Nickel

or preferably

29-31, in particular, 30% wt. Nickel

27-29, in particular, 28 wt.% chrome

7-9, in particular, 8 wt.% aluminum

0.5 to 0.7, in particular, 0.6 wt.% yttrium (=X),

0.6 to 0.8, in particular, 0.7 wt.% silicon

the rest is cobalt,

or preferably

27-29, in particular, 28 wt.% Nickel

23-25, in particular, 24 wt.% chrome

9-11, in particular 10 wt.% aluminum

0.3 to 0.7, in particular, 0.6 wt.% yttrium (=X),

the rest is cobalt.

In particular, the bonding layer NiCoCrAlY has one of these compounds.

This metallic binder layer EXE before applying the subsequent ceramic layers appeared oxide layer of aluminum, this oxide layer of the aluminum occurs during operation (TGO). On the metal binding layer 7 or on the oxide layer of aluminum (not shown) preferably has an inner ceramic layer is preferably fully or partially stabilized oxide layer of zirconium. Preferably used stable oxide layer of zirconium with preferably 6-8 wt.% yttrium. To stabilize the zirconium oxide can also be used of calcium oxide, cerium or hafnium. The zirconium oxide is preferably applied as a layer by plasma spraying, however, it is also preferably may be applied as a columnar structure by electron-beam deposition (EBPVD).

On TGO, on the bonding layer 7 or the inner layer 10 deposited outer ceramic layer 13, which according to the invention contains a mixed crystal of gadolinium, hafnium and zirconium with the pyrochlore structure. The structure of the pyrochlore has a total formula And2In2O7or in the General case, AvBxOzand v=2, x=2 and z=7. Deviations from this stoichiometric composition for v, x and z can be the result of defects or small, intentional or unintentional doping.

For outer ceramic layer 13 according to the invention as used gadolinium (Gd), the image quality is as In-hafnium and zirconium (Hf, Zr), i.e., the mixed structure is Gdv(HfxZry)Oz.

In this case, there may be deviations from this stoichiometry.

Preferably the outer ceramic layer contains a layer 13 Gdv(HfxZry)Ozwhen x+y=2.

Preferably the outer ceramic layer also includes a layer 13 Gdy(HfxZry)O7.

Preferably the outer ceramic layer contains a layer 13 Gd2(HfxZry)Oz.

Preferably the outer ceramic layer 13 consists of a Gdv(HfxZry)Ozin particular, when v=2, x+y=2 and z=7.

This can be any ratio of components of a mixture of zirconium and hafnium in:H. Preferably the predominant share of zirconium. The same are preferred ratio of components of a mixture of hafnium and zirconium 10:90, 20:80, 30:70 or 40:60. In addition, it is preferable to apply the ratio of components of a mixture of hafnium and zirconium 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 or 90:10. Thus, for x to be preferred given the ratios of hafnium to zirconium (Hf:Zr=80:20 meets:x=1,6:0,4).

The layer can be made from a powder containing the proportion of the above-mentioned composition. Similarly mixed crystals can be obtained in the coating process or as a result of thermal about what abode at the end of the coating process.

The thickness of the inner layer 10 is preferably 10-50% of the total thickness D of the inner layer 10 and outer layer 13. Preferably the thickness of the inner layer 10 is 10-40 or 10-30% of the entire thickness of the layer. Also preferably, the thickness of the inner layer 10 constituted 10-20% of the thickness of the entire layer. Also preferably, the thickness of the inner layer 10 was 20-50 20-40% of the thickness of the entire layer. If a portion of the inner layer 10 from the entire thickness of the layer is between 20 and 30%, those results are also preferred. Preferably the thickness of the inner layer 10 is 30-50% of the entire thickness of the layer.

Also preferably, the thickness of the inner layer 10 was 30-40% of the thickness of the entire layer. Also preferably, the thickness of the inner layer 10 constituted 40-50% of the thickness of the entire layer. Although the pyrochlore phase is compared with a layer of ZrO2the best insulating properties, a layer of ZrO2the thickness can be made the same as the pyrochlore phase.

The inner ceramic layer 10 preferably has a thickness of 40-60 μm, in particular 50 μm. The total thickness of the inner layer 10 and outer layer 13 is preferably 300 or 400 μm. Maximum total layer thickness is preferably 800 μm or preferably a maximum of 600 microns.

Figure 3 as an example, the gas turbine 100, the image is in partial longitudinal section. The gas turbine 100 is inside the rotor 103 with the shaft 101 mounted for rotation around the axis 102 of rotation and also referred to as the turbine rotor. Along the rotor 103 to each other followed by a suction box 104, a compressor 105, the camera 110 of combustion, such as toroidal, in particular circular, with a number of coaxially arranged burners 107, a turbine 108 and the housing 109 for exhaust gases.

The annular combustion chamber 110 reported, for example, with the annular channel 111 for hot gas. There is, for example, four cascaded stages of turbine 112 to form the turbine 108. Each turbine 112 is formed, for example, two rings of blades. If you look in the direction of flow of the working medium 113, the channel 111 for hot gas over the next 115 vanes 120 of 125 formed by the rotor blades 120.

This guide vanes 130 fixed to the inner housing 138 of a stator 143, whereas the rotor blades 120 of a row 125 are fixed, for example, by using a turbine disk 133, on the rotor 103. The rotor 103 is connected to the generator or a working machine (not shown).

During operation of the gas turbine 100 135 air with a compressor 105 is sucked through the suction box 104 and compressed. Compressed air from the end of the compressor 105 of the turbine is fed to the burners 107 and there mixed with combustible material. ZAT is m the mixture is burned in the chamber 110 of the combustion with the formation of a working medium 113. From there, the working medium 113 is directed along the channel 111 for hot gas past the guide vanes 130 and rotor blades 120. On the rotor blades 120, the working medium 113 expands, forming pulse so that the rotor blades 120 result in rotation of the rotor 103, and he attached a working machine.

Items affected by the hot working medium 113, during operation of the gas turbine 100 are subjected to thermal loads. Guides turbine 130 and workers turbine 120 of the first stage turbine 112 in the direction of flow of the working medium 113, along with the heat facing elements of the annular combustion chamber 110 are subjected to the highest thermal loads.

To withstand prevailing there temperature, they can be cooled with the cooling medium. In addition, the substrate components may have a directional structure, i.e. they are monocrystalline (if any patterns SX) or have the grain oriented only in the longitudinal direction (in the presence of structure DS).

As a material for parts, in particular for the turbine blades 120, 130 and components of the combustion chamber 110, are used, for example, heat-resistant alloys based on iron, Nickel or cobalt.

Such heat-resistant alloys are known, for example, from EP 1204776 B1, EP 1306454, EP 1319729 A1, WO 99/67435 or WO 00/44949; these publications in relation to the attachment of the chemical composition of the alloys partially reveal the essence of the invention.

Guide vane 130 has a base facing the inner housing 138 of the turbine 108 (not shown here) and a vertex opposite the base of the guide vanes 130. The top of the guide vanes 130 facing the rotor 103 and is installed on the locking ring 140 of the stator 143.

Figure 4 shows blade 120 or guide vane 130 of the turbomachine, which is located in the direction of the longitudinal axis 121.

The turbomachine may be a gas turbine aircraft or power plant for electricity generation, steam turbine or a compressor.

The blade 120, 130 is in the direction of the longitudinal axis 121 consistently located region 400 mounting adjacent to this platform 403 vanes, as well as working side 406 and the top of 415. As a guide blades 130 it may have on its top 415 another platform (not shown). In the area of 400 fastening made the base 183 of the scapula, which serves for fastening blades 120 and the guide vanes 130 on a shaft or disk (not shown). The base 183 is made, for example, in the form of a rectangular head. Possible other forms of execution in the form of a Christmas tree or dovetail. The blade 120, 130 is for a medium flowing past the working side 406 of the blade inlet edge 409 and the output edge 412.

Conventional blades 120, 130 on all parts 400, 403, 406 of the blades 120, 130 applies the are, for example, a solid metal material, in particular heat-resistant alloys. Such heat-resistant alloys are known, for example, from EP 1204776 B1, EP 1306454, EP 1319729 A1, WO 99/67435 or WO 00/44949; these publications in relation to the chemical composition of the alloys partially reveal the essence of the invention. This blade 120, 130 may be manufactured by a casting method, and also by means of directional solidification, by means of milling, forging or using combinations thereof.

Details with single-crystal structure or structures are used as parts of machines, which during operation is exposed to mechanical, thermal and/or chemical loads.

The production of monocrystalline parts of this kind is, for example, directional solidification of the solution. When it comes to casting method in which the molten metal alloy is solidified with the formation of a monocrystalline structure, i.e. a single crystal items, or with the formation of directional patterns. While dendritic crystals oriented along the heat flow and form or a granular structure with columnar crystals (columnar grain is a grain that runs the whole length of the details, but here, in ordinary language, referred to as directionally solidified)or a monocrystalline structure, i.e. all the item status is it from one single crystal. This method should be avoided globular (polycrystalline) solidification, as in the undirected growth inevitably formed of longitudinal and transverse grain boundaries, which negates the positive properties of single-crystal parts, hardened directed.

If we are talking about a directionally solidified structures in General, the same meaning as single crystals, which have no grain boundaries or at least having grain boundaries at small angles, and the columnar crystalline structure with grain boundaries, passing in the longitudinal direction, but with no transverse grain boundaries. In the case of the second crystal structures we are talking about a directionally solidified structures (directionally solidified structures). Such methods are known from US-PS 6024792 and EP 0892090 A1; these publications in relation to the method of solidification are part of the invention.

Similarly, the blades 120, 130 may have coatings against corrosion or oxidation, for example (MCrAlX; M is at least an element of the iron group (Fe), cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), X is an active element, replacing yttrium (Y) and/or silicon (Si), and/or at least a rare earth element, that is, the hafnium (Hf)). Such alloys are known from EP 0486489 B1, EP 0786017 B1, EP 0412397 B1 or EP 1306454 A1, which should be part of this essential substance of the tee of the invention in regard to the chemical composition of the alloy. The density is preferably 95% theoretical density. On the MCrAlX layer (as an intermediate or outer layer) forms a protective aluminum layer (TGO=thermal grown oxide layer).

On the MCrAlX layer may be an insulating layer, which is preferably the outer and consists of 1 layer according to the invention. The insulating layer covers the McrAlX layer completely. Using appropriate methods of coating, such as electron beam deposition (EB-PVD), in the insulating layer are formed of columnar grains.

Other methods of coating, such as plasma spraying at atmospheric pressure (APS, LPPS, VPS, CVD). The insulating layer may be porous, microporous grains or grains with micro - and Microterminal for the best stability against thermal shock. Thus, the insulating layer is preferably more porous than the McrAlX layer.

The blade 120, 130 may be made hollow or solid. If the blade 120, 130 has cooled, it is hollow and optionally has additional holes for cooling film 418 (shown dotted).

Figure 5 shows the camera 110 of the combustion gas turbine 100. The combustion chamber 110 is made, for example, in the form of a so-called annular combustion chamber, in which a total space 154 of the combustion chamber 110 is uhodit many forming flame burners 156 107, located on a circle around the axis 102 of the rotation. To do this, the camera 110 combustion collectively made in the form of ring-shaped structure placed around the axis 102 of the rotation.

To achieve a relatively high efficiency of the camera 110 of combustion are designed for relatively high temperature of the working medium M of the order of 1000-1600°C. So that even at these operating parameters which are unfavorable for the materials, to achieve a relatively long service life, wall 153 of the combustion chamber 110 with its inner side facing the working medium M, have an inner lining formed by the elements 155 thermal protection.

Moreover, because of the high temperatures inside the combustion chamber 110 can be provided for items 155 thermal protection or for the supporting elements of the cooling system. In this case, the elements 155 thermal protection are, for example, hollow and optionally have additional holes for cooling (not shown)extending into the space 154 of the combustion chamber 110.

Each element 155 thermal protection of the alloy from the working environment equipped with a particularly heat-resistant protective layer (McrAlX layer and/or ceramic coating) or made of heat-resistant material (solid ceramic stones).

These protective layers may be similar to the turbine was the major blades, i.e. McrAlX means, for example, the following: M is at least an element of the iron group (Fe), cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), X is an active element, replacing yttrium (Y) and/or silicon (Si), and/or at least a rare earth element, that is, the hafnium (Hf). Such alloys are known from EP 0486489 B1, EP 0786017 B1, EP 0412397 B1 or EP 1306454 A1, which should be part of the essence of the invention in regard to the chemical composition of the alloy.

On the MCrAlX layer may also be applied, for example, a ceramic insulating layer, which consists of 1 layer according to the invention. Using appropriate methods of coating, such as electron beam deposition (EB-PVD), in the insulating layer are formed of columnar grains. Other methods of coating, such as plasma spraying at atmospheric pressure (APS, LPPS, VPS, CVD). The insulating layer may be porous, microporous grains or grains with micro - and Microterminal for the best stability against thermal shock.

Regeneration (Refurbishment) means that the turbine blades 120, 130, elements 155 thermal protection after use, if necessary, shall be cleaned of protective layers (for example, using sandblasting). After this removes corrosion and/or oxide layers, i.e. the products of corrosion and/or oxidation. If necessary, remonter who may also crack in a turbine blade 120, 130 or 155 thermal protection. After the subsequent re-coating of turbine blades 120, 130, elements 155 thermal protection and reuse of turbine blades 120, 130 or elements 155 thermal protection.

1. Coverage for parts of heat-resistant alloy based on iron, or Nickel, or cobalt, which contains the outer ceramic layer (13) with the structure of pyrochlore Gdv(ZrxHfy)Ozmade from a mixture with a ratio of hafnium and zirconium constituting 10:90 or 20:80 or 30:70 or 40:60 or 50:50 or 60:40 or 70:30 or 80:20 or 90:10.

2. The coating of claim 1, wherein the outer ceramic layer (13) has the structure of a Gdv(ZrxHfy)Ozwhen x+y=2.

3. The coating according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the outer ceramic layer (13) has the structure of a Gdv(ZrxHfy)Oz.

4. The coating according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the outer ceramic layer (13) has the structure of a Gdv(ZrxHfy)O7.

5. The coating according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the outer ceramic layer (13) consists of patterns Gdv(ZrxHfy)Oz.

6. The coating according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the outer ceramic layer (13) consists of patterns Gdv(ZrxHfy)Ozwhen x+y=2, in particular from Gd2(ZrxHfy)O7.

7. The coating according to claim 1, in which the outer ceramic layer (13) has a domestic the third ceramic layer (10), in particular stable layer of zirconium oxide, in particular a layer of zirconium oxide stabilized with yttrium.

8. The coating according to claim 7, in which the inner ceramic layer (10) consists of a layer of zirconium oxide stabilized 6-8 wt.% yttrium.

9. The coating according to claim 7 or 8, in which the inner ceramic layer (10) has a thickness of 10-50% of the total thickness (D) of the internal ceramic layer (10) and the outer ceramic layer (13).

10. The coating according to claim 7 or 8, in which the total thickness of the inner ceramic layer (10) and the outer ceramic layer (13) is 300 μm.

11. The coating according to claim 7 or 8, in which the total thickness of the inner ceramic layer (10) and the outer ceramic layer (13) is 400 μm.

12. The coating according to claim 1 or 7, in which parts (4) and the inner ceramic layer (10) or under the outer ceramic layer (13), a metal bonding layer (7), in particular, of alloy NiCoCrAlX.

13. The coating 12, in which the metal bonding layer (7) contains, wt%:
11-13, in particular, 12% cobalt,
20-22, in particular, 21% chromium,
10,5-11,5, in particular, 11% aluminum,
0.3 to 0.5, in particular 0.4% yttrium,
1.5 to 2.5, in particular, of 2.0% rhenium,
the rest is Nickel.

14. The coating 12, in which the metal bonding layer (7) contains, wt%:
24-26, in particular, 25% cobalt,
16-18, in particular, 17% chromium,
9,5-10,5, h is particularly 10% aluminum,
0.3 to 0.5, in particular 0.4% yttrium,
1-2,0, in particular, 1.5% rhenium,
the rest is Nickel.

15. The coating 12, in which the metal bonding layer (7) contains, wt%:
29-31, in particular, 30% Nickel,
27-29, in particular, 28% chromium,
7-9, in particular, 8% aluminum,
0.5 to 0.7, in particular, 0.6% yttrium,
0.6 to 0.8, in particular, to 0.7% silicon,
the rest is cobalt.

16. The coating 12, in which the metal bonding layer (7) contains, wt%:
27-29, in particular, 28% Nickel,
23-25, in particular, 24% chromium,
9-11, in particular, 10% aluminum,
0.3 to 0.7, in particular, 0.6% yttrium,
the rest is cobalt.

17. The coating according to claim 1 or 2, in which>X.

18. The coating according to claim 1 or 2, wherein y<X.



 

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20 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal material with treated surface free from chrome. Metal material has the surface to which there applied and dried is water-based matter so that composite coating is obtained. Water-based matter includes silica-containing organic compound (W) obtained by mixing silaned binding substance (A) containing one amine group in molecule/and silaned binding substance (B) containing one glycidyl group in molecule, at weight ratio of solid matters [(A)/(B)] 0.5- 1.7, and the molecule of which has at least two functional groups (a) of the formula -SiR1 R2 R3, in which R1, R2 and R3 represent alkoxyl group or hydroxyl group; at least one represents alkoxyl group and one or more at least of the same type of hydrophilic functional groups (b) chosen from hydroxyl group which is different from the group, which can be included in functional group (a)and amine groups with molecular-weight average of 1000-10000, at least one fluor compound (X) chosen from fluorotitanium acid or fluorozirconium acid, phosphoric acid (Y), and vanadium compound (Z). Weight ratio of solid matters [(X)/(W)] of the coating is 0.02 - 0.07, [(Y)/(W)] is 0.03- 0.12, [(Z)/(W)] is 0.05- 0.17, and [(Z)/(X)] is 1.3- 6.0.

EFFECT: material meets the requirements for corrosion resistance, heat resistance, resistance to fingerprints, conductivity, capability of coating application, and has resistance to blackening during operation.

4 cl, 17 tbl, 68 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: said film consists of a metal layer (aluminium, zinc, silver, gold) deposited using a vacuum metallisation method, a first plastic layer made from a propylene-butene copolymer or a mixture of this copolymer with propylene polymers on the first surface of which there is a metal layer; a second plastic layer made from isotactic propylene or from a mixture of isotactic propylene and polypropylene polymers. The first and second layers are coextruded and are biodirected. The surface of the first plastic layer is subjected to pre-activating treatment (flame treatment, corona discharge treatment) with subsequent pre-metallisation via plasma treatment on a vacuum metallisation installation with three chambers under partial vacuum conditions, after which a metal layer is deposited.

EFFECT: obtained multilayer metallised film has high barrier effect with respect to oxygen and water vapour and high level of adhesion of the metallised layer to plastic.

74 cl, 4 ex, 4 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of receiving of metallic coating at particular areas of substratum with receiving of film for transferring on counterbody and can be used for formation of protective elements on data medium, structural or decorative elements, packaging materials, structural components in electrical or electronic industry. At particular areas of substratum (1) is located soluble coloured first layer (2) and it is applied on whole its surface at side, distant from substratum (1), metallic level (4). To material of the first layer (2) it is added hardener, to material of the second layer (3), located between the first layer (2) and metallic layer (4) - additive, suitable for de-activation of hardener of the first layer (2). Material of insoluble layer (7), located between the first layer (2) the second layer (3), is impenetrable for additive, with the result that provides de-activation of hardener of the first layer (2) by additive of the second layer (3) in areas of the first layer (2), located in direct contact with the second layer (3) before hardening of the first layer takes place. Then the second layer (3) and areas of the first layer (2), in which it is de-activated hardener, it is dissolved and removed by means of liquid, and metallic layer (4) is removed in ranges, directly located on the second layer (3).

EFFECT: it is provided receiving of accurate adjusted metal coat on substratum.

25 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to erosion-resistant protective coat for gas turbine parts. Proposed protective coat consists of one or several repeatedly applied multi-layer systems. Every aforesaid system consists of at least four different layers. First layer, nearby protected surface, is made from metal material compatible with that of protected surface. Second layer applied on first one is made from metal alloy compatible with protective part surface material. Third layer applied onto second one is made from cermet functionally-gradient material providing for smooth transition between second and fourth layers. Fourth layer applied onto third layer is made from nano-structured ceramic material.

EFFECT: wear- and erosion-resistant protective coat.

15 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: security facilities.

SUBSTANCE: fire- and heat protection material is comprised of, at least, two layers. One layer is made from metal foil, for example aluminium foil or steel foil, stainless steel foil or tungsten foil. The layer's thickness is 0.007-1.5 mm. At least, one second layer is represented with a structured mineral or ceramic fibers having density 30-1000 kg/m3 and thickness 5.0-100.0 mm. The fiber diametre is 1-30 mcm and length - no less than 20 mm. The second layer is made from needle-punched or needle-stitched, thermo bonded mineral or ceramic fibers. According to the other version of invention, the second layer may be manufactured from basalt or mulito- siliceous fiber with density 30-1000 kg/m3 and thickness 5.0-100.0 mm. The fiber diametre is 1-30 mcm and fiber length is no less than 20 mm.

EFFECT: long-term fire protection under any fire class.

4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: production processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to obtaining of wear-resisting ultra-hard coatings, namely, to forming of diamond-type coatings and can be used in metalworking, engineering industry, nanotechnologies, medicine and electronics. Preliminary there performed is product surface plasma stripping by accelerated ions in vacuum chamber at pressure of 10-3 - 10 Pa. Then adhesion layer is applied by plasma method. The thickness is 1-500 nm. The layer is made from metal that belongs to the group of aluminium, chrome, zirconium, titanium, germanium or silicone or their alloys. At the same time the product receives direct or pulse negative voltage of 1-1500 V. Then there applied is intermediate layer with thickness of 1-500 nm. It consists of carbon and metal mixture. Metal belongs to the group of aluminium, chrome, zirconium, titanium, germanium or silicone or their alloys. Intermediate layer is applied at ascending changing of carbon concentration in this mixture from 5 to 95 at.%. At the same time the product receives direct or pulse negative voltage of 1-1500 V. Then there applied is at least one layer of carbon diamond-type film by graphite cathode or laser spraying or by plasma destruction of carbon-bearing gases or carbon-bearing liquid vapours.

EFFECT: increase of adhesion, wear resistance and temperature stability of diamond-type coating.

11 cl, 1 dwg, 5 ex

FIELD: production processes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed invention covers the method of producing sandwich material for aircraft fuselage panels. The sandwich panel consists of a pack of alternating layers of the material and binder courses of plastic material. The first row of layers is laid into the mold, one above the other. Then, at least, one the second row of layers is laid on the first one to make a pack of layers. Note here that, at least, one row of layers is displaced, in a reverse-step manner, relative to the first row layers on edge of the pack. Nearby the aforesaid displaced layer, an auxiliary tool is arranged to make a gap between the former and auxiliary tool side facing it. Now, the temperature and pressure onto the pack are increased to allow binder mold flow in the plastic binder courses and accumulation of a certain amount of binder from the aforesaid reverse-step layer in the gap. The invention covers also the aircraft fuselage sandwich panel produced by above described method.

EFFECT: smooth joint of sandwich panels.

5 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: it is implemented aluminium reactionary evaporation and reactionary gas is fed into coating spraying machine on belt padding with receiving of coating from aluminium oxide. Before plating made of aluminium oxide on padding by magnetron sputtering it is applied short close layer of metal or metal oxide.

EFFECT: there are received transparent barrier coatings without high technological expenditures.

18 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: sheet material for production of article from it contains metal wafer and system of polymer coating fixed to it. Internal layer of coating contains PET and modified PET as layer for adhesion of this system with wafer. As barrier layer coating contains layer that includes PET and PBT. External layer contains PET with non-sticking properties, for prevention of this material sticking to blanking tools at normal working temperatures of industrial blanking. Metal wafer is made of steel, or aluminium, or aluminium alloy. System of coating may be produced by extrusion of single layer or joint extrusion of at least two layers. Coating system may be produced by preliminary production of film and its fastening with wafer.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve quality of drink cans production and to increase their shelf life and preservation of taste properties.

18 cl, 2 dwg, 7 tbl

FIELD: protection coatings.

SUBSTANCE: invention aims at protecting bank notes and security papers against counterfeiting. Optically changing pigment contains interferential multilayer structure including light-transmitting dielectric layer having at least one luminescent material. Dielectric layer is selected from of rare-earth metal, bismuth, and principal group III element trifluorides; of principal group II element difluorides; mixtures thereof; organic or organometallic compounds. Luminescent material should be selected from organic or organometallic compounds containing transition or rare-earth metal ions. Above-defined structure may contain one or more semitransparent, partly reflecting layers, one or more nontransparent, fully reflecting layers, and one or more conducting layers. Pigment is prepared by a method including physical or chemical precipitation of the dielectric layer.

EFFECT: preserved proper properties of color shift, increased reliability of protection, and ensured identification simplicity at relatively low cost.

30 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex

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