Method for growing plants in conditions of protected ground, device for growth of plants in conditions of protected ground and collapsible multi-tier rack for growing plants in conditions of protected ground

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture and crop sector. Method includes arrangement of trays to make vertical tiers, cultivation of plants, maintenance of required light mode in greenhouse, the latter of which is supported by displacement of light source between tiers of trays. Plant seedlings are planted into vegetation trays, required climatic mode is created, at the same time source of light in the period of radiation is moved by continuous reversible motion up and down between extreme tiers, and speed of light source motion and capacity of light source are established depending on extent of natural illumination and/or air temperature. Device comprises system of plants cultivation, including vertical multi-tier rack installation for vegetation trays with plants, systems for maintenance of required climatic and light modes, the latter of which includes at least one source of light arranged with the possibility of displacement up and down between tiers of rack installation, comprises facility that provides for continuous reversible motion of light source between tiers in the period of plants radiation. Rack comprises sections of shelves that are mounted in tiers on four stands. Sections are combined into modules, every of which includes three serial stages arranged in a row, two extreme ones and one central, joined to each other by means of a hinge with the possibility of extreme sections rotation around vertical axis to center of module to form a "П"-shaped profile.

EFFECT: usage of group of inventions makes it possible to speed up development of plants due to provision of even illumination of plants, increasing density of photosynthetic flow of photons, elimination of overheating and damages of grown plants leaf canopy and reduction of light losses.

30 cl, 4 dwg

 

Claimed group of inventions linked so as to form a single creative idea.

The invention relates to agriculture and can be used in the field of crop production in buildings protected ground.

There is a method of growing plants in a greenhouse, including transplanting plants rows in pots, tying them to the trellis, cultivation and plant establishment in the greenhouse required climatic and light modes. Required light regime created with the help of sources of optical radiation, which is placed at the level of the middle part of the plants in the intervals between adjacent rows of plants in each of the growing vessel. The lower ends of all the tapestries connect the hinge relative to pots, and the upper ends of the trellis plants even and odd rows of all pots rigidly connect, respectively, with odd and even group rods and move the latter out of phase between each other in a vertical plane, perpendicular to the plane of installation of the sources of optical radiation (patent No. 2062023 for the invention "Method of growing plants in a greenhouse and device for its implementation", IPC A01G 9/26, A01G 9/14, publ. 20. 06.1996). The disadvantage of this method is the low performance of the found surface area of the greenhouse complex, shading plants with more than 2 tiers, high energy and capital costs.

There is a method of growing plants in a greenhouse on the shelves hydroponic plants, including the planting of seedlings in shelf tray with nutrient solution, cultivation of plants, the irradiation of the upper and lower surfaces of the leaves of plants during the growing season flow of optical radiation in the visible range of the spectrum, the simultaneous effect on both leaf surfaces by scanning them streams of laser radiation with wavelength in the spectral range 380-710 nm and/or range 230-380 nm (patent No. 2028760 for the invention "Method of growing plants in a greenhouse on the shelves hydroponic plants", IPC A01G 9/24, A01G 9/22, A01G 9/14, A01G 31/02, publ. 20.02.1995). The disadvantage of this method is the high energy and capital costs.

Known closest to the claimed technical solution of the essential features and selected as a prototype method of growing plants in greenhouses, including: the transplanting of plants during the growing trays, the location of the trays with the formation of vertical tiers, the cultivation of plants, creating required in the greenhouse climate and light modes. Light regime creates by moving the source is and the lighting between the tiers of the growing trays. Fixed garlands of light sources include a certain duration of exposure - photoperiod (day), after which move the lights up or down (patent No. 2084123 on the invention of "Greenhouse", IPC A01G 9/14, publ. 20.07.1997,).

The disadvantages of this method are uneven lighting plants and irrational use of light. Various remoteness individual plants from the light source in the exposure period (photoperiod day) causes a different light intensity, the value of which is known to be inversely proportional to the square of the distance. Static position of the light source in the exposure period (photoperiod day) leads to overheating and damage to the individual sections of the sheet cover plants due to thermal burns. All this reduces the yield of the known method. The use of "garlands" of light sources does not provide uniform coverage of all plants, however, significantly increases energy and capital costs. Low is the efficient use of energy due to the large distance between the light source and plants. The reduction of this distance also leads to thermal burns plants.

Tasks are addressed by the invention is the improvement in which against crops and reducing the cost of production.

The technical result that can be obtained by carrying out the claimed invention is:

- the acceleration of plant development by providing uniform coverage of plants, increasing the density of photosynthetic photon flux (PPFD), exceptions overheating and damage cover sheet cultivated plants;

- reducing sweeper.

These technical results are achieved by the fact that the method of growing plants in greenhouses include:

- the transplanting of plants during the growing trays

- the location of the trays with the formation of vertical layers

- cultivation of plants,

- create required in the greenhouse climate and light modes,

- create the required light modes by moving the light source between the tiers of the growing trays

- move the light source during exposure to continuous reverse movement up and down between the extreme tiers.

Preferably, the growing trays in each of the tiers were placed around the vertical axis of movement of the light source.

Preferably also, to move the light source in the extreme parts of the trajectory of its motion carried with a gradual slow-down and speed when changing direction.

It is preferable that the moving speed of the light source and the power of the light source is regulated depending on the degree of natural light and/or air temperature.

Preferably, the method consisted of multiple culture and/or rotation of cultivated plants.

Preferably, the cultivation of seedlings next culture and/or crop rotation was carried out in parallel with the cultivation of plants of the current turn.

Preferably, planting seedlings next culture and/or crop rotation was carried out with a time shift relative to the planting of cultivated plants of the current turn.

Preferably, as cultivated crops used early maturing varieties of plants.

Preferably, as cultivated crops used plant varieties with high density crops and friendly ripening.

Preferably, the cultivation of the plant was carried out with maximum efficiency coefficient of volume and space structures protected ground.

Preferably, the cultivation of plants additionally included the feeding of plants with carbon dioxide.

Preferably also to the cultivation of plants additionally included drip irrigation.

Preferably, exp is shivanie strawberry carried out with a horizontal planting seedlings.

Comparative analysis of the claimed invention with the prototype showed that in all cases run it differs from the known, the closest technical solution to the fact that the light source during exposure of the move to continuous reverse movement up and down between the extreme tiers.

In some cases, perform the claimed invention differs from the known to the above, the closest to him:

- the placement of the growing trays in each of the tiers around a vertical axis of movement of the light source;

- move the light source in the extreme parts of the trajectory of its movement with a gradual slow-down and speed when changing direction,

by setting the moving speed of the light source and power of the light source depending on the degree of natural light and/or temperature of the air,

- multiple culture and/or rotation of cultivated plants,

growing seedlings next culture and/or rotation in parallel with the cultivation of plants current turnover

- the planting of seedlings next culture and/or rotation with a time shift relative to the planting of cultivated plants of the current turnover

- use as a cultivated culture of the early variety of the plants,

- use as a cultivated culture of plant varieties with high density crops and friendly ripening,

- growing plants with maximum efficiency coefficient of volume and space structures protected ground,

- additional fertilizing of plants with carbon dioxide,

additional drip irrigation.

The use of the method of growing plants in greenhouses, including the planting of seedlings of plants during the growing trays, the location of the trays with the formation of vertical tiers, the cultivation of plants, creating required in the greenhouse climate and light modes, moving the light source between the tiers of the growing trays during continuous irradiation reverse movement up and down between the extreme tiers provides:

a) the uniformity of lighting plants;

b) increasing the density of photosynthetic photon flux (PPFD) several times;

c) exception overheating and damage to the cover sheet;

d) increasing the number of plants grown per unit area, and improving the use of volumes and areas of buildings protected ground.

All this leads to the acceleration of plant development and productivity of plants protected ground.

Placement of vegetation, which is what the R bins in each of the tiers around a vertical axis of movement of the light source provides the equidistance of all plants from the light source, creating the most favorable light conditions. The specified location of the growing trays allows you to create closed length space, providing reduction of sweeper.

Regulation of the movement of the light source and power of the light source depending on the degree of natural light and/or air temperature, and moving the light source in the extreme parts of the trajectory of its movement with a gradual slow-down and speed when changing direction of movement allows you to create the optimal irradiation intensity and enhances the specified technical result. All this increases the productivity of growing plants.

Multiple culture and/or rotation of cultivated plants, the use of early maturing varieties of plants and plant varieties with high yield and friendly ripening, the implementation of growing plants with a maximum efficiency of use of volumes and areas of protected structures soil yield method.

Growing seedlings next culture and/or rotation in parallel with the cultivation of plants current turnover, planting seedlings next culture and/or rotation with a time shift relative to the planting of cultivated plants allows you to have neo is required planting material in the right amount and get several harvests per year.

Feeding plants with carbon dioxide and drip irrigation can additionally increase the yield of the method.

The claimed method relates to the cultivation of plants in buildings greenhouse - greenhouses, buildings, tunnel or frame and other structures and is as follows.

Seedlings of vegetable and/or fruit, and/or floral and other crops are planted during the growing trays, containers, mats, titplay, vessels, etc. that feature in such a way that they form multiple vertical layers. Cultivation of plants is carried out in the required climatic conditions and light modes. To create the optimum for plant lighting mode of the light source with the help of a special mechanism to move between the tiers of the growing trays. During the exposure movement of the light source continuously reversible up-down motion between the outermost layers, preferably with a gradual slow-down and speed when changing direction in the extreme parts of the trajectory of its movement. Growing trays in each of the tiers are placed around the vertical axis of movement of the light source. Depending on the degree of natural light and/or air temperature regulate the speed of movement and the power of the light source. Method pre who believes multiple culture and/or rotation of cultivated plants. Seedlings next culture and/or crop rotation grown in parallel with the cultivation of plants current turnover, carrying her landing with a shift in time relative to the planting of cultivated plants. So, planting seedlings for the next turnover carried out, for example, one month after planting in a permanent place, and in two months there is a replacement of plants, their harvest, new. Preferably use as a cultivated culture of early maturing varieties with high yield and friendly ripening. Grow plants with maximum efficiency coefficient of volume and space structures protected ground. During the cultivation of plants in addition use drip irrigation and fertilizing carbon dioxide and mineral nutrients. Growing strawberries is performed with horizontal planting seedlings. The inventive method provides a year-round growing. The method involves controlling output timing may be provided with a uniform output throughout the year or wavy, with a maximum output in 3-4 time. The method allows to obtain 3-5 harvests per year.

A device for growing plants in greenhouses, representing those who face containing an outer translucent heat-proof fencing, cultivation system, including installed parallel to each other vegetation units, consisting of a triangular frame, on the side surfaces of which the tiered fixed trays for plants. Control system light and thermal regimes in the habitat of plants contains blocks heating greenhouses and irradiation plants. The unit irradiation plants includes sources of artificial radiation, equipped with reflectors and located in rows in between the vegetation units in space, the heat-reflective screen, installed under roofing fence greenhouse and teleconnection translucent screen placed parallel to the lateral surfaces facing each other of the triangular frames adjacent vegetation units on trays for plants (patent No. 2083087 on the invention of "Greenhouse" IPC 6 A01G 31/02, A01G 9/22, A01G 9/24, publ. 10.07.1997,) is a Known greenhouse characterized by high capital costs and uneven lighting plants, which reduces the yield.

A device for growing plants in trays that are installed on the base of the greenhouse and triangular frames vegetation blocks containing the first section of optical sources for placement over the trays is between adjacent vegetation units and the second section of the optical sources to be installed in the cavity between the triangular frames each vegetation unit and the base of the greenhouse. Sources of optical radiation of the second section is made with the decrease of the ratio of the flow of energy in the spectral range from 600 to 700 nm to the total energy flow in the whole spectrum of radiation of each of the sources of optical radiation from 60-80% to 30-40% when increasing the height of the location of these sources of optical radiation relative to the base of the greenhouse (patent No. 2029458 to the invention the DEVICE FOR IRRADIATION of PLANTS" IPC 6 A01G 31/02, A01G 9/14, A01G 9/22, A01G 9/24, publ. 27.02.1995). The known device is characterized by high energy and capital costs.

Known to be the closest to the claimed technical solution of the essential features and selected as a prototype device for growing plants in greenhouses containing the system of cultivation of plants, including vertical tiered rack installation with shelves for growing trays with plants and systems provide adequate climatic and light modes. The device is equipped with light sources and means for supplying carbon dioxide. The light sources are arranged parallel to each other garlands of lamps made with the possibility of moving up and down between the layers of the growing trays. Each of the lights mounted on the suspension, installed on the axis of rotation. Set the key with the growing trays are arranged one above the other to form a vertical through technical channels and interconnected at their places of contact of floors-floors, as the light sources, and means for supplying carbon dioxide are through technical channels through the layer in a checkerboard pattern on the axis of rotation located above the upper installation for containers, and the axis of rotation is connected to the actuator. Fixed garlands of light sources include a certain duration of exposure - photoperiod (day), after which move the lights up or down (patent No. 2084123 on the invention of "Greenhouse", IPC 01G 9/14, publ. 20.07.1997,).

A disadvantage of the known device is the uneven lighting of plants and irrational use of light, resulting in lower yields and high energy. Various remoteness individual plants from the light source in the exposure period (photoperiod day) causes a different intensity of illumination, and the static position of the light source in the exposure period (photoperiod day) leads to overheating and damage of sheet cover closest plants due to thermal burns. All this reduces the yield of the known method. The use of "garlands" of light sources does not provide uniform coverage of all plants, however, significantly increases energy and capital costs.

The challenge cat is Roy directed the claimed invention, is to increase the efficiency of the device.

Technical results that may be obtained by carrying out the claimed invention, are to provide uniform lighting plants, as well as in the exclusion of overheating and damage to the leaf cover of plants. In some cases, execution is achieved by the additional technical result decreased sweeper.

These technical results are achieved in that the device for growing plants in greenhouses contains: the system of cultivation of plants, including vertical tiered rack installation with shelves for growing trays with plants; systems provide adequate climatic and light modes, the latter of which includes at least one light source is arranged to move up and down between tiers of shelving unit; means which, in time of irradiation of the continuous reverse the movement of the light source between the tiers.

Preferably, rack installation has been configured to transform at least one multilevel cell, in terms of each tier representing a polyhedron whose edges are formed shelves with the growing trays, and the source of the alerts to inform the was set so the trajectory of its reverse movement takes place inside a polyhedron, preferably through its center.

It is preferable that the number of light sources correspond to the number of cells generated during the transformation rack installation.

It is preferable that the light sources in the adjacent stacked cells were mounted for movement in opposite directions.

Comparative analysis of the claimed invention with the prototype showed that in all cases run it differs from the known, the closest technical solution that contains a means which, in time of irradiation of the continuous reverse the movement of the light source between the tiers.

In some cases, perform the claimed invention differs from the known, above that is closest to him:

- perform a shelf installation with the ability to transform at least one multilevel cell, in terms of each tier representing a polyhedron whose edges are formed shelves with the growing trays, setting the light source in such a way that the trajectory of its reverse movement passes through the center of the polyhedron;

- performing a number of light sources corresponding to the number of the cells, produced by transforming rack installation;

- establishment of the light sources in the adjacent multi-level cells with the possibility of movement in opposite directions.

The presence of the vertical multi-tiered rack installation with shelves for growing trays with plants, performance of the light source can be moved up and down between tiers of shelving installation and the availability of funds, to ensure a continuous reversible movement between the tiers of the light source during exposure, provides uniform illumination of plants and eliminates overheating and damage to the cover sheet. All this leads to the acceleration of plant development and productivity of plants protected ground.

Run rack installation with the ability to transform at least one multilevel cell, in terms of each tier representing a polyhedron whose edges are formed shelves with the growing trays, as well as the implementation of a light source installed in such a way that the trajectory of its reverse movement takes place inside the cell through the center of the polyhedron, provides the equidistance of all plants from the light source, creates the most favorable light conditions and provides a reduction of sweeper.

Follow the light sources in the adjacent multi-level cells are installed with the possibility of simultaneous movement in opposite directions provides uniform illumination of plants as "front", and "rear" side, which increases the declared technical result.

The proposed device for growing plants in greenhouses is illustrated in the schematic drawings.

1 shows a device for alignment of plants in greenhouses cross section.

Figure 2 shows a device for growing plants in greenhouses, top view.

Device for growing plants in greenhouses it contains a system of cultivation of plants, the system create the desired climate regime and create the desired light mode.

The system create the desired climate regime (not shown) is designed for heating plants and maintain the required temperature and humidity, and concentration of carbon dioxide in the air in greenhouses. This can be, for example, water heating system with pipes of the above-ground heating. Can be used in heating plants using solar energy.

The system of cultivation of plants is a vertical multi-tier shelving unit 1, containing shelves with 2 shelves for 3 growing trays. Racks 2 has a pair of rows of r1...iwith technological passages p1...iwew and each pair. Shelves for 3 growing trays installed with the possibility of transformation of shelves 2, at least one multilevel cell, in terms of each tier representing a polyhedron S whose edges are formed shelves 3. For example, the shelves 3 are combined in section 3 pieces, with extreme shelf clip hinge, with the possibility of rotation around the vertical axis, inside technological pass R1...i.

The system create the desired light mode includes at least one light source 4 and the mechanism 5, for example, hydraulic actuator, providing continuous reverse the movement of the light source up and down between the tiers of shelves 2 in the period of irradiation plants (photoperiod "day"). The hydraulic actuator causes the rotation of the shaft 6, through the blocks 7 on the ropes 8 is suspended from the light sources 4. As light sources 4 can be used lamp electropositive.

Preferably, the light source 4 was set so that the trajectory of its movement took place inside the polyhedron S, through the center.

Preferably, the number of light sources 4 corresponded to the number of stacked cells S that is formed by transforming rack installation. Preferably located in adjacent rows ri, ri1 light sources 4 (i) and 4 (i+1) is suspended on the shaft 6 through the blocks 7 (i), 7 (i+1) for cables 8 (i) and 8 (i+1) so that one of the cables, for example, 8 (i) wound on the drum shaft 6 in a clockwise direction, and the other 8 (i+1) counterclockwise. It provides simultaneous movement of the tubes in opposite directions, when the lamp 4 (i) moves down, the lamp 4 (i+1) moves upward, and Vice versa. Control device (not shown) regulates the speed of movement of the lamps, while approaching the light source 4 to the extreme points of the movement (upper or lower) a gradual slow-down and speed when changing direction of movement of the light source on the opposite. The control device provides control of the power sources depending on, for example, from natural light.

In the aisles between the shelves have the conduits 9 drip irrigation and cables with junction boxes (not shown).

The operation of the device is as follows.

In buildings protected ground have rows of racks. So, in greenhouses with the standard span of 6.4 m, you can have 8 rows of racks with a height of 2.5 m, consisting of shelves 3 length of 60 cm and a width of 20-40 cm or 6 rows of racks when the length of the shelves 100 cm (depending on the settings of greenhouses, crops and substrate) for the growing trays. The number I had whiskers depends on the culture and is, for example, when growing cucumbers 3 tiers, pepper, eggplant 3-4 tier, tomato, gerbera - 4-5 layers, potted flowers - 6 tiers, strawberry - 6 tiers. The increase in width of the span greenhouses to 8.0 m can increase the length of shelves 3 to 1.0 m, and the number of tiers, for example, when growing tomato to 8. By rotating shelves with 3 swivel mount inside technological pass riracks transform into a multi-level cell, inside which performs the reverse movement of the light source 4. At the height of shelves 2, 5 m amplitude motion lamps is 1, 7 M. For works on plant care is stop and turn off the lamps, preferably, in the extreme points of their movement, movable shelves 3 shelves 2 leads to its original position, having them generally parallel to the pipe 9 above-ground heating. Because the light sources 4 are located in the center of the hexagon and on all sides surrounded by plants, loss of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) is sharply reduced, and the continuous movement helps to avoid burns from overheating and to increase the density of photosynthetic photon flux (PPFD) without increasing power consumption.

Known rack for growing plants in greenhouses, including a triangular frame set is run on trays of plants (patent No. 2054246 on the invention of "Greenhouse", IPC A01G 31/02, A01G 9/24, A01G 9/26, publ. 20.02.1996 year). The lack of a rack is the inaccessibility of the upper levels during technological operations on plant care and harvesting.

Known rack for growing plants in greenhouses containing vertical rectangular frames and placed tiers of trays for growing plants (patent No. 2080053 on the invention of "GREENHOUSE", IPC A01G 31/02, A01G 9/24, A01G 9/26, A01G 9/14, publ. 27.05.1997,). The design of the rack is a cumbersome stationary structure not adapted for transformation.

Known collapsible multi-tiered rack for growing plants closest to the claimed combination of essential features and selected as a prototype. Known rack contains sections of shelves, tiered mounted on four posts. The rack is made detachable in height and are connected by bridges and ties established with the ability to move along the racks and dock anywhere. For each pair of couplers of the same level set of the regiment or at least two rods with the possibility of withdrawal. The upper ends of the uprights are connected to each other with the ability to pin and unpin (patent No. 18610 for utility model "COLLAPSIBLE MULTI-tier SHELVING, IPC 01G 31/02, A01G 9/02, publ. 10.07.2001,).

Precast-RA is boric design extends the functionality of the rack, however, it does not provide uniform coverage and reduce sweeper when artificial lighting of plants, for example, by optical radiation.

The task, which is aimed by the invention, is to increase the efficiency of the device.

The technical result that can be obtained by carrying out the claimed invention, is to create designs that reduce sweeper and increase the uniformity of lighting for growing plants in greenhouses, as well as the increase of the efficiency of use of the area and volume of buildings protected ground.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that collapsible multi-tiered rack for growing plants in greenhouses contains sections of shelves, tiered mounted on four posts. Sections are combined into modules, each of which includes three spaced sequentially in a number of sections, two outer and one Central. Sections are interconnected swivel can be rotated at sections around the vertical axis to the center of the module with the formation of the U-shaped profile. Preferably, at least one of the racks in each of the end sections has been provided with a supporting roller. Preferably so is e, to rack contained at least two mirror with a passage located module, a Central section in which the upper parts were interconnected by diagonal braces.

Comparative analysis of the prototype showed that in all cases the execution of the claimed invention differs from the known closest technical solution that:

section combined into modules, each of which includes three spaced sequentially in a number of sections, two outer and one Central, interconnected swivel can be rotated at sections around the vertical axis to the center of the module with the formation of the U-shaped profile.

In some cases, the execution of the claimed invention differs from the known:

- perform at least one of the racks in each of the end sections, equipped with anchor roller;

- the presence of two mirror with the passage of the linked modules, the Central section of which in the upper part interconnected by diagonal braces.

The execution of a collapsible multi-tiered rack for growing plants in greenhouses containing modules, each of which includes three installed sequentially in a number of sections of shelves, tiered mounted on four posts, the connection of adjacent section is th between the swivel can be rotated at sections around a vertical axis in the direction of the Central section with the formation of the U-shaped profile, allows implementation of the method of growing plants that reduce the loss of light radiation and providing uniform illumination of plants, and increase the efficiency of use of the area and volume of buildings protected ground. The optimal result is achieved when the mirror, with the passage of the location of the modules, allowing to transform the shelves in tiered closed cells inside which will make the reverse movement of the light source.

We offer collapsible multi-tiered rack for growing plants in greenhouses is illustrated by the schematic drawings presented on figure 3, 4.

Figure 3 presents a schematic drawing of the module collapsible multi-tiered rack for growing plants, General view.

Figure 4 presents the multi-tier closed cell formed by two modules collapsible multi-tier display rack, top view.

Collapsible multi-tiered rack for growing plants in greenhouses consists of sections 10, each of which contains 3 shelves, tiered mounted on four posts 11 by means of known means of detachable fasteners - bolts, screws and other Shelves can be set using additional devices, such as clips, bonding pairs is x rack (not shown). The number of tiers with shelves and height between tiers can be changed depending on the crop. Sections are combined into modules, each of which includes three spaced sequentially in a number of sections 10(a), 10(b)10(C), two of which 10(a) and 10(b) are extreme, and one 10(b) - Central. Adjacent sections are interconnected in a hinged connection 12 can be rotated at 10(a) and 10(b) sections around the vertical axis to the center of the module with the formation of the U-shaped profile. As the swivel 12 can be used in known types of compounds, for example, door (furniture) loop. At least one of the racks 11 in each of the end sections 10(a) and 10(b), for example, the most remote from the hinge attachment 12, provided with a support roller 13. This facilitates rotation of the extreme sections. It is preferable to arrange the modules in pairs in parallel, mirror each other with the passage. For greater stability the Central section parallel modules 10(b) in the upper part are connected by diagonal braces 14.

Collapsible multi-tiered shelf works as follows.

Shelf modules have paired rows with technological passages within each pair. During the lighting of the extreme section of a pair of modules 10(A1), 10(A2), 10(B1), 10(B2) snap to the center of the passage, about the course of the hexagon. In the center of the hexagon is constantly moving up and down the lamp electropositive. The use of the claimed design reduces the loss of light radiation and to provide uniform coverage of plants. To care for plants at section 10(a), 10(b) return to the original position. Thus, working passes for the care of plants inside each pair of racks combined with a working passage for the movement of the lamps, which improves the efficiency of use of area and volume.

1. The method of growing plants in greenhouses, including the location of the trays with the formation of vertical tiers, the cultivation of plants, creating a greenhouse the desired length mode, the latter of which is carried out by moving the light source between the tiers of trays, wherein the seedling plants are planted in the growing trays, create the desired climate regime, while the light source during exposure of the move to continuous reverse movement up and down between the outermost layers and the moving speed of the light source and the power source of the lighting set depending on the degree of natural light and/or air temperature.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the growing trays in each of the tiers of razmisha the t around the vertical axis of movement of the light source.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the displacement of the light source in the extreme parts of the trajectory of its movement exercise with a gradual slow-down and speed when changing direction.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it includes multiple culture and/or rotation of cultivated plants.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the cultivation of seedlings next culture and/or rotation carried out in parallel with the cultivation of plants of the current turn.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the planting seedlings next culture and/or rotation exercise with a time shift relative to the planting of cultivated plants of the current turn.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as cultivated crops are using early maturing varieties of plants.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as cultivated crops using plant varieties with high density crops and friendly ripening.

9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that cultivation of the plants operate with a maximum efficiency of use of volumes and areas of buildings protected ground.

10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the cultivation of plants in addition includes feeding plants with carbon dioxide.

11. The method according to claim 1, featuring the the action scene, the cultivation of plants additionally includes drip irrigation.

12. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that cultivation of the plants operate with a maximum efficiency of use of volumes and areas of buildings protected ground.

13. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 12, characterized in that in the case of strawberry cultivation planting seedlings carry out horizontally.

14. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the displacement of the light source in the extreme parts of the trajectory of its movement exercise with a gradual slow-down and speed when changing direction.

15. The method according to any of claim 2 and 3, characterized in that it includes multiple culture and/or rotation of cultivated plants.

16. The method according to any of claim 2 to 4, characterized in that the cultivation of seedlings next culture and/or rotation carried out in parallel with the cultivation of plants of the current turn.

17. The method according to any of claim 2 to 5, characterized in that the planting seedlings next culture and/or rotation exercise with a time shift relative to the planting of cultivated plants of the current turn.

18. The method according to any of claim 2 to 6, characterized in that as cultivated crops are using early maturing varieties of plants.

19. The method according to any of claim 2 to 7, characterized in that it is the most cultivated crops using plant varieties with high density crops and friendly ripening.

20. The method according to any of claim 2 to 8, characterized in that cultivation of the plants operate with a maximum efficiency of use of volumes and areas of buildings protected ground.

21. The method according to any of claim 2 to 9, characterized in that the cultivation of plants in addition includes feeding plants with carbon dioxide.

22. The method according to any of claim 2 to 10, characterized in that the cultivation of plants additionally includes drip irrigation.

23. The method according to any of claim 2 to 11, characterized in that cultivation of the plants operate with a maximum efficiency of use of volumes and areas of buildings protected ground.

24. Device for growing plants in greenhouses containing the system of cultivation of plants, comprising a vertical multi-tier shelving unit for the growing trays with plants, systems provide adequate climatic and light modes, the latter of which includes at least one light source is arranged to move up and down between tiers of shelving installation, characterized in that it contains means of ensuring continuous reverse the movement of the light source between the layers during exposure of plants.

25. The device according to paragraph 24, wherein the rack installation issue is Lana with the possibility of transformation, at least one multilevel cell, in terms of each tier representing a polyhedron whose edges are formed shelves with the growing trays, and a light source positioned so that the trajectory of its reverse movement passes through the center of the polyhedron.

26. The device according to p. 25, wherein the number of light sources corresponds to the number of cells generated during the transformation rack installation.

27. Device according to any one of p and 26, characterized in that the light sources in the adjacent multi-level cells mounted for movement in opposite directions.

28. Collapsible multi-tiered rack for growing plants in greenhouses containing sections of shelves, tiered mounted on four posts, characterized in that the sections are combined into modules, each of which includes three spaced sequentially in a number of sections, two outer and one Central, interconnected swivel can be rotated at sections around the vertical axis to the center of the module with the formation of the U-shaped profile.

29. Collapsible multi-tiered rack for p, characterized in that at least one of the racks in each of the end sections is provided with a support roller.

30. Precast-otbornye tiered rack according to any one of p and 29, characterized in that it contains at least two mirror with a passage located module, a Central section in which the upper part is pulled between the diagonal ties.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to rural and municipal services and is designed for control of heating hot houses, living spaces and premises. The essence of the invention is as follows: an output signal of a compensator is obtained by means of summing signals from outputs of two circuits of additive compensation by illumination and ratio of temperature in open air, inside the premise and of fence (glass cover), also by utilising compensation of heating graph by wind speed and degree of ventilating window opening; notably slope of the heating graph is multiplied by product of values of wind speed and ventilating windows position.

EFFECT: facilitating upgraded accuracy of control over heating in premise and improved compensation and stability.

1 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering. The proposed device allows heat exchange between fluid medium and gas and comprises the casing, at least, one flat screen carcass made up of several heat-conducting-material capillaries arranged in parallel and equidistant relative to each other, and several heat-conducting-material wires connected to aforesaid capillaries to transfer heat via metal contacting, and pass at equal distance and crosswire relative to capillaries. The distance between wires approximates to that of their diametre. Gas flows along the wires to transfer heat to fluid medium that flows in capillaries, through capillary walls and via wires. The heat exchanger design allows the gas flowing along each screen carcass, lengthwise relative to the wires, and prevents flowing of a notable amount of gas through screen carcasses. The hothouse comprises soil surface with plants arranged thereon or in bearing pots, cultivation chute and, at least one heat exchanger. Note here that one gas inlet or outlet holes is located above leaf surface, while the other one is located below the said level, or both holes are located within the limits of the said surface. At least one heat exchanger purifies air. Several heat exchangers make the central heating system. Thermal pump system incorporates the heat exchanger.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and simplified servicing.

28 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device enabling regulation of microclimatic conditions inside a green-house consists of two heat radiators (the upper one and the lower one) interconnected via side pipes; the upper radiator is mounted inside the green-house above the ground level with the lower one being buried in the soil. In the central part of the device overground section there is an additional horizontally positioned radiator installed contained in a tank filled with cold water and connected to the side pipes. At the points of the additional heat radiator connection to the side pipes there are solenoid-operated regulator valves installed. The device is equipped with an electrical heater unit.

EFFECT: improvement of the green-house microclimatic conditions due to the thermal regime stabilisation.

1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agriculture, industry, power engineering and can be applied for room heating and cooling. Environmental heat based on developed method and device for heating and cooling of industrial and agricultural facilities, accommodation spaces with environmental heat by means of natural self-organisation effect, i.e. ensuring maximum efficiency of heat energy conversion to electric energy, and possibility of operation without primary energy supply owing to use of environmental heat. Method of heating and cooling with environmental heat based on self-organisation effect by start of accumulator, switch box, capacitive heat converter to electrical energy and heat pump, used for energy heat closure by means of capacitive converter, and by capacitive converter in heating mode moved outside the heated room. At that automatic control of heat pump is matched with control of capacitive converter moving away from the heated room, as well as by the fact that to provide maximum efficiency of heat energy conversion to electric energy, operating mode of capacitive converter is performed at golden ratio of charge-discharge stroke Sc/Sd=0.618. Electric power of capacitive converter is set up not lower 25% of pump heating capacity. Besides, device for heating and cooling with environmental heat is described.

EFFECT: availability of widely used energy source.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the sphere of agriculture and deals with growing agricultural plants in greenhouses. The suggested aeration system intended for heating and moistening the air, and heating, moistening and aerating the soil inside a solar greenhouse consists of a glazed frame, a soil medium and a subsurface aeration system equipped with perforated air and water pipe ducts. The hydraulic motor is connected via a spindle to the water pump. The liquid-gas ejector is connected to the solar greenhouse air exhaust line. The valves and the separator are connected to the input of one of the valves via air pipe duct. The valve output is connected to the greenhouse. The water pump output is connected to the input water nozzle of the liquid-gas ejector whose output is connected to the separator. The air pump duct is connected to the generator of negative-charged ions, with the gravel layer inside the greenhouse - via the second valve whose drive is connected to the control unit. The third valve output is connected to the input of the perforated air pipe duct via a washer plate. The third valve drive is connected to the soil moisture monitoring and control unit connected to a pressure gauge.

EFFECT: improving the quality of heating and moistening the air and heating, moistening and aerating the soil inside a solar greenhouse.

1 dwg

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for providing demanded temperature and illumination levels during plant growing in greenhouses.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has casing consisting of baffle screens attached to carcass of apparatus. Bimetallic plates are fixed in two opposite diagonally positioned pivotal joints of carcass. Heating members are made in the form of grid and fixed to inner side of carcass, along the entire perimeter thereof.

EFFECT: improved uniformity and increased efficiency in distribution of thermal and light energy.

2 dwg

FIELD: equipment for growing of plants in growing substrate within heated rooms.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has growing volume defined by wall spaced from base and made from rigid material. Wall is equipped with space regulating device made in the form of metal strips fixed on wall and connected to cover. Growth chambers are mounted on monolith base formed from cement mixture having thermal conductance of 0.87-0.9 W/(m· C). Base has internal shielded double-core heating cable having power level of 165-170 W. Cable is laid in zigzag manner with 60-90 mm pitch.

EFFECT: optimal microclimate parameters for growing of plants provided by regulating air admission into growth chamber volume and maintaining predetermined temperature of growing substrate.

2 dwg

Greenhouse // 2304876

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, design of agricultural cultivation constructions with protected ground, such as greenhouses.

SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has light transparent covering and above-ground heating system made in the form of closed underground zone communicated with atmosphere and space under light transparent covering. Greenhouse is equipped with exhaust shaft positioned in upper part of light transparent covering, at side of end opposite to end adjacent to which feeding branch pipe is disposed. Underground zone is made in the form of air duct-heat-exchanger formed as hollow rod having continuous wall, said hollow rod being buried into ground. Air intake device is positioned near one side of greenhouse and feeding branch pipe is located near opposite end of greenhouse.

EFFECT: improved parameters of microclimate within greenhouse, simplified construction and enhanced reliability in operation of greenhouse.

1 dwg

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, apparatus for growing of plants by exposing the latter to various temperature modes and various radiation levels.

SUBSTANCE: vegetation apparatus has two sections with movable partition. Emitters are positioned for movement by means of two gears, one of said gears being movable in horizontal plane and connected to adjustment handle of autotype transformer. There is air duct with air heating device. Temperature sensors are established within sections. Pipeline provided above baths is made perforated.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in operation.

3 dwg

Vegetation chamber // 2298911

FIELD: regulation and stabilization of wetting-heating modes in growing of plants under artificial conditions.

SUBSTANCE: vegetation chamber has section including emitting devices, said section being aligned with air preparation section. End of section including emitting devices terminates in movable valve which is capable of closing both sections. Illumination intensity sensor positioned within working section is electrically connected to movable valve controlling mechanism. Air preparing section is equipped with hopper for receiving of regenerated heat of emitting devices.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in regulation of wet-and-heat mode characteristics, reduced consumption of power for heating owing to utilization of regenerated heat from emitting devices within vegetation chamber.

1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions is related to stand for keeping, watering and transportation of the plant, and also to watering device. The stand is supplied with two fasteners on every two narrow parallel sides for hanging of the sides on construction stands. Every fastener has insertable end part which is placed along the corresponded narrow side and has the unused end part along the first long side.

EFFECT: design improvement.

20 cl, 18 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of crop science and may be used to create plant compositions. The method implies the following: two seeds at least are fastened by soaking with liquid glass that gradually hardens. The fertiliser or mixture of fertilisers is admixed to liquid glass (1-50% of its total amount).

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify the creation of different plant compositions that are used to design interior of apartment and public buildings, flowerbeds, interior gardens.

2 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to agriculture and may be used to obtain ultrahigh harvests in industrial scale, and also in farming enterprises. Device is proposed, comprising three components (cultivation pipe, perforated capsule for root portion of plant and non-perforated through capsule for local section of stem), which significantly improves resources for intense hydroponic growth of plants. Cultivation pipe (column) is arranged as preferably octagonal with the possibility to accommodate perforated capsules for root part of plant in its walls. Capsules strongly and tightly fix plants in pipe wall and improve resources for more intense adoption of nutrient solution by plant. Method peculiarities consist in the fact that perforated capsule on root and near-root sections of plant assists in development of strong root system, which provides for sufficient level of plant nutrition in process of intense fruitification.

EFFECT: additional (non-perforated and through) capsule, which is imposed over plant stem, even more assists in sufficient nutrition of plants in period of intense consumption of nutrient substances for development of fruit.

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to rural and municipal services and is designed for control of heating hot houses, living spaces and premises. The essence of the invention is as follows: an output signal of a compensator is obtained by means of summing signals from outputs of two circuits of additive compensation by illumination and ratio of temperature in open air, inside the premise and of fence (glass cover), also by utilising compensation of heating graph by wind speed and degree of ventilating window opening; notably slope of the heating graph is multiplied by product of values of wind speed and ventilating windows position.

EFFECT: facilitating upgraded accuracy of control over heating in premise and improved compensation and stability.

1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to plant growing and can be used for growing seedlings of various plants in hot or green houses and for planting in open ground by intensive technologies. Mixture for seedling pot fabrication includes: tobacco dust at the following ratio of ingredients of the target product, wt %: tobacco dust - 70-80; sawdust - 10-18, cattle manure - 5-10, river sand- 2-5, water at condition, that humidity of mixture does not exceed 60-70 %, mineral fertilisers - 1.0-8.0 kg per 1 t of dry mixture depending on kind of seedlings. Manufacture of pots for seedlings out of tobacco dust facilitates utilising tobacco wastes replacing expensive raw material - peat, and reducing cost of pots. Pots out of tobacco dust have sufficient, optimal for seedling rooting period of decay in humid soil; also upon decay in soil tobacco dust increases its microbiological activity.

EFFECT: pots facilitate preserving root system of plants at re-plantation, additional nutrition of seedlings and protection from pests.

2 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: suggested invention is related to heat and power engineering and agriculture and may be used to reduce contaminations and greenhouse effect of environment and increased crop capacity when growing vegetables in closed areas. Device comprises zone of treatment connected to transit gas duct 1 via discharge gas duct 2. Zone of treatment includes vertical tubular heat exchanger - absorber 3, which is made of the following components arranged serially by gas in tube space top down air heater 4 and condenser, which is connected by condensate with anionite filter 6, and by gas - with ejector 7, gas duct of working mixture 8 and greenhouse 9, in roof of which there is a deflector 10 arranged. Tube space of air heater 4 is connected to blowing air 11. Tube space of condenser 5 is connected to air duct of ambient air 12 and fan 13.

EFFECT: increased ecological and economical efficiency of purification and recycling of smoke fumes.

1 dwg

Film greenhouse // 2374825

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: film greenhouse comprises frame created by elastic tubular element in the form of helical spiral. Frame is made with the possibility to supply coolant from it. Frame is partially submerged into soil, and remaining part retains film cover.

EFFECT: design will make it possible to simplify installation of greenhouse, and also to provide for the possibility to obtain additional heat.

5 cl, 2 dwg

Device for storing // 2374512

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: device for storing contains rectangular base member. Base member contains flat bottom and four connectors which are located perpendicularly to it with internal hollow cross section each of which is implemented with ability of free introduction of support bar in the form of hollow profile. External cross section of support bar corresponds to internal cross section of connectors for keeping of platforms for storing. In platforms for storing in area of bottom end it is installed the first centering device for centering at interaction with top end of connector by following base member. Bottom end of connector is implemented with ability of interaction to top end of support bar of following device for storing by means of the second centering device.

EFFECT: providing of compactness at storing or transportation of more amount of devices for storing.

20 cl, 12 dwg

Suburban greenhouse // 2373692

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has a framework manufactured from profile metal elements connected with one another with screw anchoring elements. The greenhouse has posts, horizontal longitudinal beams attached to the posts, oblique and horizontal flooring joists connected with one another as well as with the posts as transverse triangular bents secured on the posts. The upper part of the bents carries roofing panels with transparent films. The greenhouse is equipped with roofing film coating with adjustable area. The coating is made as rolls carrying transparent film. The rolls are mounted with an ability to roll and unroll the film on the ceiling of the greenhose by means of a mechanism equipped with flexible tractional straps. The staps are connected with the elements of the roll structure, reeved through the block mounted inside and outside of the greenhouse and carry counterbalances on the free ends of the handle. The rolls are made as a cylindrical body coupled with pivot bolts on the ends and mounted with a capacity to rotate relative to the pivot bolts with a controlled value of slowdown, to set up tension of the film while unrolling the roll. The film is made with flexible bands attached to it with a sticker to prevent sliding of the roll along the ceiling while reeling the film.

EFFECT: reduced materials consumption of the structure at the same time preserving its reliability, as well as natural ventilation of the greenhouse is ensured and as well as use of rainfall without any hand work of the gardener when watering plants.

3 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the device for plant watering and transportation. The said device contains rectangular bottom with its four angular sides equipped with a steady bush at right angle to the bottom. The upright of frame shall be vertically inserted in each steady bush and has a long slot and several mounting slots. The uprights of frame can be inserted in the steady bush in position for transportation or storage being different from each other with angular rotation. In transportation position several storage supports shall be put on the bottom. Each storage support is equipped with one fastening element in each of four angular sides. These fastening elements shall enter the mounting slot in storage and shall enter the long slot in transit. The upper selvedge of each bushing is located above the bottom in such a way that there is some vertical distance between it and insertable ends of the bottom storage support so that the fastening elements do not bear on the steady bushes being under load.

EFFECT: capability of installing storage support in transport position making a short cut and close to each other without damage risk herewith maintaining functional capabilities.

21 cl, 18 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: block is composed of transparent cylindrical cups produced by cutting off of throats from used plastic bottles. Columns of cups are positioned tightly one aside the other into frame equipped with device for attachment to other similar frame. Frame has plates arranged in lower and upper part of frame and provided with beads. Restricting plates are arranged at both sides of frame. One of plates is made movable and connected by side couplers to immovable plate.

EFFECT: simplified building of hothouses and greenhouses of different shape and sizes.

2 cl, 1 dwg

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