# Marine magnetic survey method

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: magnitude of magnetic field induction vector of the Earth (MFIVE) is synchronously measured using two scalar magnetometres placed on separate gondolas. The gradient of the magnitude of the magnetic field induction vector of the Earth is determined and then integrated on the traversed path. The integration results undergo low-pass filtration. The magnitude of the magnetic field induction vector of the Earth is further measured using two extra scalar magnetometres placed on separate gondolas, towed behind the vessel such that the system of four magnetometres is not in the same plane. Coordinates of the magnetometres are synchronously measured with the magnitude of the magnetic field induction vector of the Earth. During combined processing of the magnetometric data and coordinates of the magnetometres, triorthogonal components of the gradient of the magnitude of the magnetic field induction vector of the Earth are determined, as well as increase in magnitude of the magnetic field induction vector of the Earth relative the initial measurement point.

EFFECT: obtaining more accurate results.

The invention relates to the field of marine magnetic and is intended to capture the parameters of the induction of the Earth's magnetic field (EMF), in particular the module of the vector of the magnetic field of the Earth (WIMPS) and three orthogonal components of its gradient.

Modern practice magnetic survey involves measuring the movement along with the module WIMPS from one to three of the components of its gradient using several scalar magnetometers placed on the media, or towed behind it. While the magnetometers buccinoidea (placed on the media) thus, to ensure the measurement of the orthogonal component of the gradient module WIMPS [Rebeschi, Ora, Waiariki. Special magnetometry. SPb. Science, 2002, p. 166-171]. Typically, the process of magnetic imagery accompanied the mV measurements, which are the introduction of amendments for the geomagnetic variations in the measured values of the module WIMPS. When using the mV stations is impossible or fraught with considerable difficulties, as, for example, on the seas and oceans, developed a method of measuring the module WIMPS, which are not affected by geomagnetic variations [Rebeschi. The possibility of using differential magnetometers with rolling base. Geophysical instruments is, 1972, VIP, p.14-19]. The basis of this method is based on the following idea: normalized by the value of base is the difference between synchronous magnetic measurements in two points is a gradient field, free from the distorting influence of variations. The measured gradients can then be integrated to reconstruct module WIMPS, independent of geomagnetic variations.

Famous adopted for the prototype way marine magnetic survey [RU No. 2298815, publ. 10.05.2007, prior. 10.12.2002], including simultaneous measurement module WIMPS by means of two scalar magnetometers placed in separate nacelles, which luxirous for the vessel to Wake the system, obtaining baseline data on the gradient module WIMPS, determination of the error of the original data, due to the magnetic field of the vessel and its exclusion of these data to obtain the corrected gradient module WIMPS, integrating the corrected gradient module WINS on the road traveled and low-pass filtering of the results of integration. At the output of the integrator is obtained increment module WIMPS

which does not depend on geomagnetic variations. In the expression (1) R_{0}=(x_{0},y_{0},z_{0}) represents the coordinate of the initial point of measurement, a R=(x,y,z) is the current coordinate.

The assessment pogresno and magnetic gradient measurements, due to the magnetic field of the media, lies, according to [EN No. 2298815], the assumption that the trajectories of both magnetometers are the same and the measurement values of the module WIMPS are both magnetometers in the same points of space. In the practice of marine magnetic survey this assumption, as a rule, can not be realized, resulting in distortion of the desired estimates and possible additional error in the determination of the increment (1) module WIMPS. The standard method for minimizing the error of the magnetic gradient measurements, due to the magnetic field of the medium is then removed towed magnetometers, on which the evolution of the vessel do not affect the readings of the magnetometers.

The main disadvantage of this method [RU No. 2298815] is the presence of errors, due to the fact that the direction vector of the base between the magnetometers does not coincide with the ship's course, which luxirous gondola with magnetometers. To identify the physical meaning of these errors will consider the simplest model of the situation.

Let the movement of the vessel-towing is carried out along the X-axis and the vector base is deflected from the axis and oriented in the direction e=(e_{x}e_{y}e_{z})^{T}. Assuming the gradients G_{y}and G_{z}the constant values on the route and finding riadenie module WIMPS by integrating the measured components of the gradient

G_{e}=e^{T}G, we obtain:

where:

G is the gradient module WIMPS representing the vector with components

G_{i}=∂B/∂R_{i}, i=x, y, z;

e is the unit vector basis on which to measure the gradient of G_{e};

Δ_{ISM}and Δ_{East}respectively the measured and true values of the increment module WIMPS between the points with coordinates R_{0}=(x_{0},y_{0},z_{0}) and R=(x,y_{0},z_{0}). The index "T" denotes the transpose operation.

As follows from (2), the deviation vector base from the ship's course leads to errors of two types: multiplicative error

which manifests itself in the form of modulation of the real part of the measured parameter, and an additive error

manifested in the form of a trend, the value of which, as well as the value of the multiplicative component is determined by the degree of deviation of the vector base from the axis, which moves the ship.

The present invention is to improve the measurement accuracy by eliminating those errors. In addition, the proposed method should provide a definition of the three orthogonal components of the gradient module WIMPS using system magnetometers, arbitrarily located in question is ransta.

This is achieved by the fact that in the known method of marine magnetic exploration, which includes operations:

- simultaneous measurement module WIMPS by means of two scalar magnetometers placed in separate nacelles;

- to obtain data on the gradient module WIMPS;

integration traversed path of the received data on the gradient module WIMPS;

- low-pass filtering of results integration

additional operations:

- produce simultaneous measurement module WIMPS using two additional scalar magnetometers placed in separate nacelles and towed behind the vessel so that the system of four magnetometers were not in the same plane;

- synchronously with the measurement module WIMPS all mentioned by the magnetometers measure the coordinates of these magnetometers;

- perform joint processing magnetometric data and coordinate magnetometers, which define three orthogonal components of the gradient module WIMPS, as well as the increment module WIMPS relative to the initial point of measurement.

Undoubted advantage of the proposed method is that it is implemented in terms of an almost arbitrary spatial configuration towed gondolas, and the definition of the orthogonal component of the gradient is the trail is a journey of processing the totality of the received information, not rigid spatial configuration of the gondola.

Imagine the rationale of the proposed method.

As follows from relations (2), a cause of accumulating error of measurement is the integration of immeasurable transverse component of the gradient G_{y}and G_{z}. Therefore, the correct solution of the problem of magnetic imagery, based on the integration of the gradient of the EMF must include measurement along with the longitudinal component of the gradient G_{x}the transverse components of G_{y}and G_{z}. The basis for this decision laid the following relationship for the full differential module WIMPS dB(R):

Since the integral of the full differential of any function is equal to this function, then after integration (3) actual trajectory will receive:

Note that for potential fields, to the class which is the EMF, the result of integration depends only on the coordinates of the initial and final measuring points and is independent of the type of trajectory.

So, regardless of the geomagnetic variation sensing module WIMPS is based on the integration according to (4) component G_{i}the gradient module WIMPS. Thus obtained value & Delta; b(R) will not have errors (2A) and (2B), which are inherent in magnetic systems, the basis of it is that it is the integration of one component of the gradient.
We emphasize that the constituent ratio (4) the parameters G_{i}make sense of the orthogonal component of the gradient defined in the fixed coordinate system, which measures the coordinates of the magnetometers.

In the process of towing four gondolas cannot always maintain this spatial configuration, which provides a direct measurement of the orthogonal component of the gradient is included in equation (4). It is therefore necessary to find a transformation that will allow the transition from the measured orthogonal component of the gradient G_{k}to the orthogonal components of G_{i}(i=x, y, z), which are included in equation (4).

In vector form this transformation has the following form:

where:

G=(G_{x}, G_{y}, G_{z})^{T}- the gradient vector, converted to the orthogonal coordinate system;

G=(G_{1}, G_{2}, G_{3})^{T}the gradient vector defined in the oblique coordinate system defined by the vectors e_{k}databases that are used for gradient measurement; this vector is composed of the measured orthogonal component of G_{k}with the following form:

R=(R_{x}, R_{y}, R_{z})^{T}, R_{k}=(R_{kx}, R_{ky}, R_{kz})^{T}- the coordinates of the four magnetometers, one of the N. of which,
with the coordinate R, adopted for the "parent", base of rest magnetometers are counted from this magnetometer;

B(R)B(R_{k}) - simultaneous readings of four magnetometers,

Ξ={Ξ_{ik}} the transformation matrix having the following form:

Substituting (5) into (4), we obtain the ratio, which fully disclose the content of the present invention:

This ratio vector magnetic gradient measurements of G is determined by its components according to equation (5A), and the transformation matrix Ξ is dened by its components according to the relation (5B). These ratios are based on magnetic measurements of B(R)B(R_{k})produced by the magnetometers, and on measurements of the coordinates R, R_{k}these magnetometers. Obviously, all measurements shall be made in synchronous mode.

In order for the matrix Ξ was neoliberal matrix, i.e. had the inverse matrix Ξ^{-1}included in equation (6), it is necessary to Horta e_{k}databases that are used for gradient measurements were linearly independent. The consequence of this condition is a requirement that is imposed on the spatial configuration of the magnetometers in the process of towing: system of four magnetometers should not be in the same plane.

To the it follows from (6), the process of joint processing magnetometric data and coordinate magnetometers include:

- definition of the three component G_{k}(R) the vector magnetic gradient measurements in accordance with equation (5A);

- determination of nine component Ξ_{ik}of the transformation matrix in accordance with equation (5B);

- define a standard way of nine component Ξ_{ik}^{-1}(R) the inverse of a matrix;

- determination of the orthogonal component of the gradient vector G(R) in accordance with the equation:

- define increment Δ(R) module WIMPS relative to the initial point of measurement in accordance with the equation:

where the components of the gradient G_{i}defined by the ratio (7);

- final operation of the process is low-pass filtering result of integrating (8), designed to eliminate the growing random drift due to instrumental noise magnetometers.

This method can be implemented in the device containing:

four scalar magnetometer, such as quantum, which are housed in separate nacelles, towed behind the vessel-towing;

- coordinate measuring machine, which determines the coordinates of all gondolas in each moment of time;

with the system of collecting and processing information.

The coordinate measuring machine gondolas can be based, for example, based on sonar, two receivers which are located at the stern of the ship and exploded in front perpendicular to the ship's course. Each gondola is supplied by the emitter of acoustic signals which are accepted by the mentioned receivers. Thus, it is possible to determine the position that is occupied by the gondola relative to the vessel in the horizontal plane. The coordinates of the ship can be determined with the aid of marine navigation systems, including, for example, a satellite navigation system.

Moving nacelles vertical can be controlled, for example, using depth sensors, which are placed in each gondola.

The system of collecting and processing information collects information from all gauges:

four scalar magnetometers;

two receivers of acoustic signals emitted by four emitters, which are mounted on the gondola;

four depth sensors, which are mounted on the gondola;

- ship's navigation system.

The received information is processed according to the algorithms defined by the formula (5A), (5B), (7), (8).

Thus, the proposed method provides a measurement module WIMPS, which does not depend on geomagnetic variations, and also has no accumulated errors inherent in the istemem, based on the integration of one component of the gradient module WIMPS. In addition, the proposed method provides a measurement of the three orthogonal components of the gradient module WIMPS using system magnetometers, on the spatial configuration which is not imposed almost no restrictions.

Way marine magnetic survey, including simultaneous measurement module of the vector of the magnetic field of the Earth (WIMPS) by means of two scalar magnetometers placed in separate nacelles, the definition of the gradient module WIMPS and integrating over the path travelled, and low-pass filtering of the results of integration, characterized in that it further measure module WIMPS using two additional scalar magnetometers placed in separate nacelles and towed behind the vessel so that the system of four magnetometers were not in the same plane synchronously with the measurement module WIMPS mentioned magnetometers measure the coordinates of these magnetometers in the process of joint processing magnetometric data and coordinate magnetometers define three orthogonal components of the gradient module WIMPS, as well as the increment module WIMPS relative to the initial point of measurement.

**Same patents:**

FIELD: physics; mining.

SUBSTANCE: proportionality coefficient is evaluated by ratio of radial component and extraneous magnetic field angular component gradient variations in varying magnetisation of packed-hole assembly. Magnetic field components are measured twice in one well point at various magnetisation of packed-hole assembly, e.g. before and after adding. Radial component is measured with axial magnet-sensitive sensor (MS). Angular component gradient is measured with additional MS connected in gradiometer circuit and arranged within the plane perpendicular to the inclinometer axis. Corrections to axial MS reading are determined by multiplying angular component gradient by correcting factor.

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FIELD: magnetometry, possible use for studying structure of earth core on basis of magnetic field.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to the invention, values of induction of magnetic field of Earth are measured in three points in space by means of magnetic measuring devices, distributed along vertical line within limits of several kilometers. Simultaneously, navigational measurements of spatial coordinates of position of magnetic measuring devices are performed. Values of normal magnetic field of Earth are determined in points of magnetic measurements on basis of data of their precisely determined position. Additionally, effective length of measuring base is determined. Abnormal magnetic field of Earth is detected by subtracting values of normal magnetic field of Earth from measured values corresponding to them with following computation of vertical gradient of abnormal magnetic field of Earth. Resulting value of vertical gradient is positioned with location of middle magnetometer.

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FIELD: Earth physics, in particular, paleomagnetism.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to the invention, by means of a radiolocation plant with closely positioned emitting and receiving devices, containing horizontal magnetic dipoles in their composition, impulse generator of magnetic momentums in emitting device and Squid-magnetometer based on Josephson effect in receiving device, rotation angle of φ signal polarization plane is measured on its route to reflective boundary in the shoe of level being studied or in it and back in substance with magnetic induction B_{z}, coinciding with signal expansion direction. After spacing the emitting and receiving devices for a sufficient distance, which preserves possibility of registration of signals reflected from needed separation boundary, magnetization in constant magnetic field in horizontal direction in average for ΔB_{H} by means of horizontal magnetic dipole of the area of level being studied receiving device is moved along circle with preservation of mutual orientation of emitting and receiving magnetic dipoles and simultaneously rotation angle of polarization plane is measured. Such a position of the latter is found, at which signal polarization plane rotation angle is maximal. That means coincidence of radius, on which the receiving device is situated, with direction to the pole of the time of the epoch being studied, if in case of a different value of ΔB_{H} the increment of rotation angle of signal polarization plane is proportional to increment of magnetizing field.

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FIELD: the invention refers to the physics of the Earth.

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EFFECT: it is possible to determine direction remotely.

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FIELD: physics.

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7 cl, 6 dwg